Muscular System Study Guide

Muscular System Study Guide
1. Label the diagram to the right
with: fascile, tendon, muscle fiber,
endomysium, epimysium,
2. Place the following words in
order from largest to smallest:
fascicle, myofilament, myofibril,
myofiber (muscle cell), sarcomere
3. List the 5 functions of the
muscular system
'xon of ,o-or neuron
4. Label the following: sarcomere,, myosin, and actin on the figure to the right.
5. Thick filament fibers in myofibrils are _________ while thin filaments are
called ________.
6. For each step in the diagram describe the state of contraction for the
a) Sarcomere is ___________________________
b) Sarcomere is beginning to __________________________
• ___________________ slides toward the center, as it is pulled
by the ______________________ crossbridges
c) Sarcomere is ____________________________
7. __________________________ is the neurotransmitter that is released to stimulate the muscle.
8. What two ions are exchanged when the neurotransmitter opens the gates on the membrane of
the muscle fiber? ________ & _________
9. What ion is stored by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and starts muscle contraction? ___________
10. Place the following steps in order of how a muscle contracts
a) neuron releases a neurotransmitter to stimulate the muscle
b) myosin heads attach to the actin filaments
c) ATP is converted to ADP when the myosin head change shape pulling the actin filament
d) Myosin heads pull the actin filament together
e) Sarcoplasmic reticulum release calcium ions
11. Describe the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.
12. Match the following terms using the word bank:
a. connective tissues that joins muscle to bone
b. another name for muscle cell
c. type of protein filament (2 answers)
d. movement of muscles in a circular motion
e. movement of muscles towards the midline
f. movement of muscles away from the midline
g. cell membrane of the muscle
h. muscle responsible for primary movement
muscle fiber
____________ , ______________
prime mover
13. Identify if this would be anaerobic (fermentation), aerobic respiration, creatine phosphate
1. Sprint 60 meters in 5‐10 sec
2. Walking 45 minutes
3. Creates only 2 ATP
4. Creates 36 ATP
5. Lactic acid is created
14. (Aerobic/ Anaerobic) exercise would create the most amount of energy for muscle contraction.
15. The depletion of ____________ causes muscles to fatigue.
16. Muscles produce different amounts of force because of different numbers of muscle fibers
contracting. (True or False)
17. An inherited disease that causes muscles to degenerate and atrophy is called
18. A strain involves the overextension of a _______________ while a sprain injures the _________________.
19. What is the best way to maintain our muscle mass and strength as one ages? _____________________
20. The end of the muscle that is attached to the moving bone is called the ______________________,
while the muscle that is attached to the non‐moving bone is called the ____________________.
21. Identify if these muscle pairs are antagonist or synergistic
a. flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum
b. gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior
c. biceps brachii and triceps brachii
d. rectus abdominius and external oblique
22. Extensor muscles cause bones to (straighten/bend) at the joint while flexors
23. Muscle work in _________________________ pairs. Ex: biceps flexes and triceps extends when elbow
is flexed.
24. List the ways muscles are named. (at least 3)
Muscular System Study Guide
25. Match each description with the correct muscle:
____________________ 1. bending of the knee would flex the _______
____________________ 2. muscle group that adducts leg
____________________ 3. bending of elbow flexes the _______
____________________ 4. bending the elbow extends the ________
____________________ 5. turns the head
____________________ 6. raises the eyebrow
____________________ 7. closes jaw and allows for chewing
____________________ 8. muscles of 6‐pack stomach
____________________ 9. muscle that flexes for “dancers toes”
___________________ 10 adducts arm at shoulder point
___________________ 11. closes the eye
___________________ 12. kissing muscle
Word Bank
1. biceps brachii
2. sternocleidomastoid
3. triceps brachii
4. inner thigh adductor group
5. hamstrings
6. frontalis
7. masseter
8. rectus abdominus
9. gastrocnemius
10. obicularis orsis
11. deltoid
12. obicularis oculi
27. Label each of the following muscles. You are responsible for knowing their location on the test.
Muscles of the head & neck
Obicularis orsis
Obicularis oculi
Muscles of the arms & legs
Muscles of the trunk (anterior & posterior)
Gluteus maximus
Rectus abdominus
Biceps brachii
External oblique
Triceps brachii
Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi
Quadriceps femoris group
Adductor group
Hamstring group