“Submission” ISLAM BEFORE ISLAM The concept of monotheism was already well established (Judaism and Christianity) Certain Arabian religious traditions (Ka’aba) would later be integrated into Islam MUHAMMAD Born 570 Merchant- travelled Receives word of God from angel Gabriel (610) Preaches Builds on Arabian religious tradition Between 634 and 656 the Quran is written down and authorized Muslims consider it the sacred word of God The Hijra •Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina in 622. Becomes the political leader and leads many to embrace the faith •This journey becomes known as the “hijra,” a turning point for Islam (first year in Muslim calendar) •Thus, Mecca is not the first place Islam becomes popular, Medina is. Five Pillars of Islam • All Muslims accept five duties 1. faith “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger” 2. daily prayer (5 times facing Mecca) 3. charity to the poor 4. fasting during Ramadan (9th month of Islamic calendar; Quran was revealed to Muhammad 5. hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca (once in lifetime) Five Pillars help provide unity Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) Pilgrims camp outside waiting to kiss the Kaaba’s black stone Islamic Law The Islamic system of law, called Sharia, regulated moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community. CONVERSION TO ISLAM Often spread by traders and conquest- no monastic or missionary communities Best sources indicate it was gradual and unforced – people were impressed by the Muslim community’s wealth, culture, and common goals Egalitarianism, like Christianity. WOMEN Subservient to men Yet had more rights than many women at the time: property, divorce Role of women changes greatly in Islam’s history; as Islam contacts local groups, customs, such as the veil, become integrated into Islam Seclusion THE CALIPH Successor to Muhammad and leader of the Muslim community Abu Bakr (Original Follower)- Syria Umar I Uthma I Ali ALI’S ELECTION CAUSES A SCHISM IN THE ISLAMIC COMMUNITY Supporters – called shi’a or shiites - Caliph must be from the family of Muhammad Against- Sunnis – Caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community Result: Constant issues over succession; who should be the next Caliph? Sunni or Shiite? Who is Muhammad's legitimate successor? The World of Islam Today UMAYYAD CLAN Expands the Islamic empire into Africa, Europe, and Asia (661750) How were the Muslims able to conquer so many lands? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Byzantine and Iranian (Persian) empires were weak from years of fighting each other. People in the Fertile Crescent welcomed Arab conquerors as liberators. The Arabs used bold, efficient fighting methods, which overwhelmed traditional armies. The common faith of Islam united a patchwork of tribes into a determined, unified state. Extensive trade ABBASID CALIPHS (750- 1258) Revolt against Umayyads “Golden Age” of govt. structure, learning and architecture (Arabic numerals, Math, Rubaiyat) Preserved Greek and Roman learning Continued trade Increased slave labor Issues over succession and reliance on mercenary (Mamluks) armies weaken Abbasids MOSQUE IN IRAN MOSQUE IN INDIA MOSQUE IN MALI, AFRICA CASTLE OF THE MOORS, PORTUGAL THE ABBASID EMPIRE AT ITS PEAK SELJUK TURKS Conquer Abbasids but ruled in their name (c. 1000 – 1100) Restores centralized authority to Middle East Ruled the Islamic empire at the time of the Crusades Islam Penetrates Europe ISLAM IN AFRICA Beginning in 8th century Converted rulers before common people Success in western Africa Less success in Eastern Africa (Christianity) Ethiopia, especially, remains Christian SUFIS Religious mystics Disdained worldly pleasures Music, poetry and dance were central Simple and dedicated SLAVERY Slavery important in later Muslim society (like Rome) Muslims could not be enslaved Decline of the Muslim Empire Despite the decline of the empire, Islam continued to link diverse people across an enormous area. • Around 850, the caliphs became unable to maintain centralized control, and the empire fragmented. • In the 900s, Seljuk Turks invaded the Middle East and built a large empire in the Fertile Crescent. • In the 1200s and 1300s, Mongol invaders dominated the Middle East.