Uploaded by Christian Brodermann

Ch 8 Islam

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“Submission”
ISLAM
BEFORE ISLAM
The concept of monotheism was already well
established (Judaism and Christianity)
 Certain Arabian religious traditions (Ka’aba)
would later be integrated into Islam
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MUHAMMAD
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Born 570
Merchant- travelled
Receives word of God
from angel Gabriel (610)
Preaches
Builds on Arabian
religious tradition
Between 634 and 656
the Quran is written down
and authorized
Muslims consider it the
sacred word of God
The Hijra
•Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina in
622. Becomes the political leader and leads
many to embrace the faith
•This journey becomes known as the “hijra,” a
turning point for Islam (first year in Muslim
calendar)
•Thus, Mecca is not the first place Islam
becomes popular, Medina is.
Five Pillars of Islam
• All Muslims accept five duties
1. faith “There is no God but Allah,
and Muhammad is his
messenger”
2. daily prayer (5 times facing
Mecca)
3. charity to the poor
4. fasting during Ramadan (9th
month of Islamic calendar; Quran
was revealed to Muhammad
5. hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca (once
in lifetime)
Five Pillars help provide unity
Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
Pilgrims camp outside waiting to kiss
the Kaaba’s black stone
Islamic Law
The Islamic system of law, called
Sharia, regulated moral conduct,
family life, business practices,
government, and other aspects of
a Muslim community.
CONVERSION TO ISLAM
Often spread by traders and conquest- no
monastic or missionary communities
 Best sources indicate it was gradual and
unforced – people were impressed by the
Muslim community’s wealth, culture, and
common goals
 Egalitarianism, like Christianity.
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WOMEN
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Subservient to men
Yet had more rights than
many women at the time:
property, divorce
Role of women changes
greatly in Islam’s history;
as Islam contacts local
groups, customs, such as
the veil, become
integrated into Islam
Seclusion
THE CALIPH
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Successor to
Muhammad and leader
of the Muslim
community
Abu Bakr (Original
Follower)- Syria
Umar I
Uthma I
Ali
ALI’S ELECTION CAUSES A SCHISM IN THE
ISLAMIC COMMUNITY
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Supporters – called
shi’a or shiites - Caliph
must be from the family
of Muhammad
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Against- Sunnis – Caliph
should be chosen by
leaders of the Muslim
community
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Result: Constant issues over succession; who
should be the next Caliph? Sunni or Shiite?
Who is Muhammad's legitimate successor?
The World of Islam Today
UMAYYAD CLAN
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Expands the Islamic
empire into Africa,
Europe, and Asia (661750)
How were the Muslims able to
conquer so many lands?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Byzantine and Iranian (Persian) empires were weak
from years of fighting each other.
People in the Fertile Crescent welcomed Arab conquerors
as liberators.
The Arabs used bold, efficient fighting methods, which
overwhelmed traditional armies.
The common faith of Islam united a patchwork of tribes
into a determined, unified state.
Extensive trade
ABBASID CALIPHS (750- 1258)
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Revolt against Umayyads
“Golden Age” of govt.
structure, learning and
architecture (Arabic
numerals, Math, Rubaiyat)
Preserved Greek and
Roman learning
Continued trade
Increased slave labor
Issues over succession and
reliance on mercenary
(Mamluks) armies weaken
Abbasids
MOSQUE IN IRAN
MOSQUE IN INDIA
MOSQUE IN MALI, AFRICA
CASTLE OF THE MOORS, PORTUGAL
THE ABBASID EMPIRE AT ITS PEAK
SELJUK TURKS
Conquer Abbasids but ruled in their name (c.
1000 – 1100)
 Restores centralized authority to Middle East
 Ruled the Islamic empire at the time of the
Crusades
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Islam Penetrates Europe
ISLAM IN AFRICA
Beginning in 8th century
 Converted rulers before common people
 Success in western Africa
 Less success in Eastern Africa (Christianity)
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Ethiopia, especially, remains Christian
SUFIS
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Religious mystics
Disdained worldly
pleasures
Music, poetry and dance
were central
Simple and dedicated
SLAVERY
Slavery important in later Muslim society (like
Rome)
 Muslims could not be enslaved
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Decline of the Muslim Empire
Despite the decline of the empire,
Islam continued to link diverse people
across an enormous area.
• Around 850, the caliphs became unable to maintain
centralized control, and the empire fragmented.
• In the 900s, Seljuk Turks invaded the Middle East and
built a large empire in the Fertile Crescent.
• In the 1200s and 1300s, Mongol invaders dominated
the Middle East.