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Biomolecules Review (1)

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Unit 2 - Biomolecules
Monomer vs. Polymer
Monomer vs. Polymer
Monomer vs. Polymer
Carbohydrates
• Elements: C, H, O
• Monomer: monosaccharides
• Polymer: polysaccharides
Glucose
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates
• Function:
– Energy storage
– Identification on surface
Glucose
of cell membrane
Phospholipid
Lipids
• Elements: C, H, some O
• Subunits: glycerol + fatty acids
Phospholipid
Lipids
• Function:
– Long term energy storage
– Main part of cell membrane
• hydrophobic
Proteins
• Elements: C, H, O, N
• Monomer: amino acids
• Polymer: polypeptide (protein)
Proteins
• Function:
– Make reactions and
cell processes happen
– Build bones and muscle
– fight disease
Nucleic Acids
Pyrimidines (DNA)
• Elements: C, H, O, N, P
• Monomer: nucleotides
• Polymer: DNA or RNA
Nucleotides
Purines (DNA)
Nucleic Acid
Nucleotides are made of 3 parts:
• Phosphate group
• Pentose (5 carbon) sugar
• Nitrogenous base
Nucleic Acids
Pyrimidines (DNA)
• Function:
• 1. Carry genetic info
Nucleotides
Purines (DNA)
Macromolecules
include
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic acids
Proteins
that consist of
that consist of
that consist of
that consist of
Monosaccharides
Glycerol and
Fatty Acids
Nucleotides
Amino Acids
which contain
which contain
which contain
which contain
Carbon,
hydrogen,oxygen,
nitrogen
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen
Carbon,hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen,
phosphorus
Sugars and
starches
Fats and oils
DNA and RNA
Collagen, Keratin
Cell Membrane Structure
Extra cellular Fluid
Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane Structure
Proteins
Add stability and some
have carbohydrates
attached
Cell Membrane Structure
Carbohydrates
Act as chemical ID tags
Cell Membrane Structure
Protein channel
Allow larger or charged
molecules to pass through
the membrane by
facilitated diffusion.
Cell Membrane Structure
Phospholipids
Flexible, yet strong barrier
of the cell; is
semipermeable.
Cell Membrane Structure
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
Macromolecule reteach
Explain which biomolecule is
represented…
There may be more than one…
Contains Carbon
Carbohydrate
Protein
Lipid
Nucleic Acid
Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Nucleic Acid
Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen
Carbohydrate
Protein
Lipid
Nucleic Acid
Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen, Nitrogen
Protein
Nucleic Acid
The main part of the cell membrane
(yellow in the diagram)
Lipid
The passageways through the cell
membrane (pink in the diagram)
Protein
The “identification tags” the cell
membrane (blue in the diagram)
Carbohydrate
A long string of Amino Acids
Protein
• Function is to make up the cell membrane
that won’t dissolve in water
• Lipids
A polysaccharide
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
DNA
Nucleic Acid
• Function is to carry genetic information
• Nucleic acids
Large, complex folding chain of
amino acids
Protein
Amino acids
• Function is for energy storage and usage
• Lipid and Carbohydrate
A dissaccharide
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Monomer: nucleotide
Nucleotide
Key
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
• Nucleic Acid
• Function is to build bones and muscle
• Proteins
Phospholipids
Lipid
Hemoglobin transports oxygen in
our blood.
Protein
• Function is to control cell functions
• Protein