HDFS 101 Unit 1 Exam Chapter 1: A Cultural Approach to Human Development Section 1: Human Development Today and Its Origins Describe how the human population has changed over the past 10,000 years and explain why the United States is following a different demographic path from other developed countries. Distinguish between the demographic profiles of developed countries and developing countries in terms of cultural values, income, and education. Define the term socioeconomic status (SES) and explain why SES, gender, and ethnicity are important aspects of human development within countries. Explain the process of natural selection and trace the evolutionary origins of the human species. Apply information about human evolution to how human development takes place today. Section 2: Theories of Human Development Summarize Freud’s psychosexual theory of human development and describe its main limitations. Describe the eight stages of Erikson’s psychosocial theory of human development. Define the five systems of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and explain how it differs from stage theories. Outline the cultural-developmental model that will be the structure of this book and describe the new life stage of emerging adulthood. Section 3: How We Study Human Development Recall the five steps of the scientific method and the meanings and functions of hypotheses, sampling, and procedure in scientific research. Describe some ethical standards for human development research. Summarize the main methods used in research on human development. Describe the major types of research designs used in human development research. Chapter 2: Genetics and Prenatal Development Section 1: Genetic Influences on Development Distinguish between genotype and phenotype and identify the different forms of genetic inheritance. Describe the sex chromosomes and identify what makes them different from other chromosomes. Explain how the theory of genotype → environment effects casts new light on the old nature–nurture debate. Describe the process of fertilization and conception. Section 2: Prenatal Development and Prenatal Care Describe the structures that form during the germinal period, and identify when implantation takes place. Outline the major milestones of the embryonic period and identify when they take place. Describe the major milestones of the fetal period and identify when viability occurs. Compare and contrast prenatal care in traditional cultures and developed countries. Identify the major teratogens in developing countries and developed countries. Section 3: Pregnancy Problems Explain how chromosomal disorders occur. List the major causes of infertility for both men and women and describe current treatments. Compare rates of infertility worldwide, and contrast the views of infertility in developed and developing countries. Chapter 3: Birth and the Newborn Child Section 1: Birth and Its Cultural Context Describe the three stages of the birth process and methods for easing its discomfort. Name two common types of birth complications and explain how they can be overcome by cesarean delivery. Summarize the history of birth in the West from the 15th century to today. Describe cultural variations in birth beliefs and identify who may assist with the birth. Compare and contrast cultural practices and medical methods for easing the birth process. Describe the differences in maternal and neonatal mortality both within and between developed countries and developing countries. Section 2: The Neonate Identify the features of the two major scales most often used to assess neonatal health. Identify the neonatal classifications for low birth weight and describe the consequences and major treatments. Describe neonates’ patterns of waking and sleeping, including how and why these patterns differ across cultures. Describe the neonatal reflexes, including those that have a functional purpose and those that do not. Describe the neonate’s sensory abilities with respect to touch, taste and smell, hearing, and sight. Section 3: Caring for the Neonate Describe the cultural customs surrounding breast-feeding across cultures and history. Identify the advantages of breast-feeding and where those advantages are largest. Describe neonates’ types of crying and how crying patterns and soothing methods vary across cultures. Describe the extent to which human mothers “bond” with their neonates and the extent to which this claim has been exaggerated. Describe the reasons for postpartum depression and its consequences for children.