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Design Technology Task Preprimary

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Rationale for Teaching and Learning in Technologies (1003 words)
While many of today’s experts emphasize the importance of technology in young children’s lives in order to prepare them for the future
(Yates, 2017), there are still concerns amongst parents as well as physicians, policymakers and educators that the use of technology in early
childhood settings could impact children’s physical and social development in a negative way (Daugherty, Dossani, Johnson & Wright, 2014).
What could have originated this controversy and how does it affect today’s early childhood education of Australia?
Donahoo (2014) suggests that the current thinking about the negative impact of screen time on young children’s development is based on
research from 1992, a time when screens were passive experiences such as watching television. Over many years, up until 2013, parents
have been advised to avoid screen time for children under two years and to limit screen time to a maximum of two hours when they get
older (Donahoo, 2014). However, the rapidly changing digital world that today’s children grow up in is very different from the world in which
televisions, videos and computers were considered new technologies and children were passive consumers (Radich, 2013). Children can
touch screens and use them creatively to scaffold and support their learning and development and foster their agency and autonomy
(Donahoo, 2014). Research by Bird (2013) has shown that children in kindergarten who were given the opportunity to use iPads, digital
cameras and other technology devices rarely used it solitarily. Children were always engaged in social interaction exploring technology,
capturing events, playing imaginatively, fostering their literacy, numeracy and motor skills, expressing themselves creatively and solving
puzzles. During these activities, children developed social skills by helping and mentoring their friends and proudly showed their parents at
the end of the day recordings and pictures of what they had learnt (Bird, 2013). Some of the main benefits of digital technology are
possibilities to document learning by taking photographs, recording the children’s voices and filming. Not only can children and educators
share these documentations with families, but it also allowed children to revisit what they had done (Ficken, 2013). Finally, in 2014 the
UNESCO (as cited in Donahoo, 2014) highlighted that Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] does support young children’s
learning and their development of skills in literacy, problem-solving, and creativity when it is used judiciously (Donahoo, 2014). To be
successful in and beyond school, children need to be digitally literate which means that they must have the skills and the knowledge to use
technology for analysing, learning and exploring and children from low-income families would have a vast disadvantage if technology is not
integrated in early childhood education (Daugherty et al., 2014).
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Due to this rapidly changing world, the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians [Melbourne Declaration]
(Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA], 2008) acknowledges the changing ways in which ICT
are used for sharing developing and processing information and technology. The paper emphasises that in the next decade, technologies in
schools need to show a significant increase in effectiveness so that all young people develop high skills in using ICT. Governments, schools,
parents and carers are collectively responsible that all young Australians are successful in learning, confident and creative individuals as well
as active and informed citizens (MCEETYA, 2008). Based upon these goals the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia [EYLF]
(Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments [DEEWR], 2009) and the
Western Australian Curriculum (School Curriculum and Standards Authority [SCSA], 2014) reinforce the importance of providing children
with intentional, engaging and authentic hands-on experiences that support their creative thinking and their ability to solve problems in
order to become innovative for future obstacles and complex challenges (SCSA, 2014; DEEWR, 2009). The EYLF emphasises that children use
technologies in order to become confident and involved learners and effective communicators and that Digital Technologies enable children
to globally connect with people and resources to inspire new ways of thinking. (DEEWR, 2009). The ‘Technology’ learning area of the
Western Australian Curriculum (SCSA, 2014) is divided into two related subjects, namely Design and Technologies and Digital Technologies.
In both subjects, children develop project management skills and engage in design, computational and system thinking in order to create
solutions for various needs and problems. In Design and Technology, the children actively engage in exploring engineering principles and
systems, food and fibre production and materials (SCSA, 2014). In Digital Technologies, the children extend and build upon their ICT
capacities and move from consuming to creating technology (Vivian, 2014) exploring digital systems and the representation of data (SCSA,
2014). A combination of the two subjects facilitates the children’s development of technical knowledge and skills and their ability to
scrutinise digital and design challenges in order to develop possible solutions through experimentation and creative thinking (SCSA, 2014).
Both, UNESCO (as cited in Donahoo, 2014) and the Melbourne Declaration (MCEETYA, 2008) emphasise the importance of the judicious use
of digital technology. Today’s children are raised in a digital culture and are often referred to as ‘digital natives’ with iPads and mobile
phones as part of their lives (Yates, 2017). However, just because they are physically able to use these tools does not mean that they know
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how to use them beneficially and it is the educator’s role to make sure they do (Donahoo, 2016). Fleer (2106) emphasizes that the role of the
educator is to support and scaffold the children in their problem-solving process and to provide opportunities that encourage them to
become independent, confident, creative and critical thinkers, skills that will help them succeed in other learning areas such as Mathematics,
Science, HASS and Literacy (Fleer, 2016).
As we live in a rapidly changing world, it is important to challenge one’s opinions and beliefs and compare them with the actual research and
findings to ensure that our children, the future generation of this country, have the best education they can possibly get. The fact that digital
technology plays an essential and valuable role in this education should no longer be denied.
VTE4100 Technology Assignment
Denise Kuendig #10459105
3/12
VTE4100 Design Technology Plan (1487 words)
Book Title
THE STORY of FERDINAND
Author
Munro Leaf
Illustrator
Robert Lawson
Intended year level
K – Year 2
Fig1 - Casey (2014)
Summary of the book
(no more than 50 words)
Ferdinand, a very gentle bull who would rather smell on flowers than
fight like his brothers, gets chosen for the bullfights in Madrid because of
his fierce reaction to a bee sting. However, he doesn't fight the matador
and therefore stays alive.
Fig2 - Casey (2014)
Year level (PP- year 2)
Fig3 - Casey (2014)
Preprimary
What is the design brief:
The technology task requires the children to:
A CARRIAGE FOR FERDINAND
Introduction: The educator reads the book to the children. In the book, some illustrations show how
Ferdinand is being transported to and from Madrid in a carriage. Children retell the story using Ferdinand
the classroom plush toy. Problem: There is no carriage! So they will have to build one.
The children collaboratively investigate vehicles that move due to the turning of their wheels. They design
and create their own carriages by using recycled material and wooden lollipop sticks for their axles. The
carriages need to have two turning wheels and carry Ferdinand for at least five meters in a straight line on
the veranda when being pulled with a string. Allocated time: This task and the story of Ferdinand will be
integrated with other learning areas and therefore go on for at least a week.
VTE4100 Technology Assignment
Denise Kuendig #10459105
Fig4 - Amazon (2018)
4/12
Outline the technology process: Describe the 4 process elements of Investigate, Design, Create and Evaluate in relation to your technology
task.
Investigate

In collaboration with the educator, the children brainstorm all the vehicles they know that have wheels, their
characteristics, attributes and functions. The educator is on the lookout for alternative conceptions.

In groups, children investigate wheels by
o Searching books
o examining toy cars and real cars in the carpark

Outside school children make further investigations by studying the wheels of trolleys, prams, tractors, skateboards,
toys and anything they can find.

As a class, they search the internet for further information (ICT).

Children draw, glue or note what they discovered into a “Talking and Thinking Floorbook” (Warden, 2015).

Children investigate and explore the available materials and tools to decide if it is appropriate to build vehicles with two
turning wheels.
o Materials: recycled material collected and brought in by parents such as cardboard boxes of many different
shapes and sizes, newspaper, milk, juice, pet and plastic containers including lids, jars including lids, bubble
wrap, cups, coffee cup lids, old CDs or DVDs, wood slices etc.
o Tools: glue, tape, string, wire, nails, hammer, hole punch plier, handle drill and glue gun, Makedo cardboard
construction toolkit.
o Discussion and suggestion to add material appropriate for axles such as wooden lollipop sticks or poles, knitting
needles, straws, water hoses etc.

Children explore, test and critique different materials and joining techniques to find and select suitable objects and
tools for the task.
Design
Based upon their findings during the investigation phase, the children now individually design their carriages by drawing
and describing their ideas which will later be added to the “Floorbook”. The educator and the educational assistant [EA]
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help the children by writing their descriptions and ideas onto their paper. Children share their thoughts in groups giving
critical and constructive feedback to their peer as well as rethinking their own ideas based on the feedback they received.
Educator reinforces the criteria of the task. Will it be big/strong enough to carry Ferdinand?
Create
Based upon their design, the children now create their vehicles with the available material making modifications when they
realise that something does not work the way they expected. Educator and EA assist the children if necessary but as little as
possible. Children and educators take photographs of the different stages of their creations to document their journeys
(ICT).
Evaluate
In the evaluation phase, children demonstrate their carriages to the rest of the class on the veranda which is being
recorded by a partner (ICT).
Afterwards, children work in pairs to reflect on the criteria of the task and evaluate their design.

Does the carriage have two turning wheels?

Is it made out of the provided material?

Does it move forward in a straight line through the turning of its wheels when being pulled with a string?

Can it carry Ferdinand?

Can endure the rough surface of the veranda over at least five meters?
Further questions to think about:

How far could it go without falling apart?

Would it still move forward if the surface was rougher or the weather conditions differ?

How much could it carry?
Based on the answers to these questions, children evaluate and judge their vehicle and its success to fulfil the criteria and
share their thoughts with their partner and later on with the rest of the class. Children film each other with iPads and
generate QR codes (ICT) to include in their “Floorbook”.
VTE4100 Technology Assignment
Denise Kuendig #10459105
6/12
Western Australian Curriculum Links
Design technologies
(Written as learning goals with the SCSA (2014) Content Descriptor code included)
Knowledge and understanding- choose one technologies context to address (i.e. Engineering principles and systems, food and fibre
production or Materials and technologies specialization)
Copy and paste the
Elaborate on this to form your own learning goals specific to your task.
outcomes from SCSA
As a result of the learning experience, the students will
Ways in which objects
1. Discuss characteristics and attributes of wheels on different vehicles.
move: push, pull, bounce,
2. Analyze and critique different materials and tools to make appropriate and suitable choices.
slide, fall, spin,
3. Design and create a vehicle with two turning wheels out of the material provided.
float (ACTDEK002)
4. Judge and evaluate their own creation against the criteria in the task.
5. Collaborate with peers and work independently.
TECHNOLOGIES SKILLS
Copy and paste the skill/s from the SCSA (2014) Technologies Learning Area that you will develop in your task.
Year
Investigating
and defining
Designing
Producing and
implementing
Evaluating
Collaborating and
managing
PP
Explore
Generate and record design ideas by
Use given components
Use personal
Work independently,
needs for
describing, drawing, modelling
and equipment to
preferences to evaluate
or with others when
design
and/or a sequence of written or
safely make simple
the success of simple
required, for solutions
(WATPPS01)
spoken steps (WATPPS02)
solutions (WATPPS03)
solutions (WATPPS04)
(WATPPS05)
Integrated Curriculum Areas
(Copy and paste from SCSA (2014) with the Content Descriptor code included)
List 2 cross curricular outcomes from any of the learning areas below
HASS
Mathematics
Explore a range of sources (e.g. observations, interviews, photographs,
Sort, describe and name familiar two-dimensional shapes and
print texts, digital sources) (WAHASS03)
three-dimensional objects in the environment (ACMMG009)
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Denise Kuendig #10459105
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Language & Questions to be used:
List the range of questions that a teacher could ask during the investigation process.
What language/vocabulary will be introduced, taught and emphasised during the technology design task?
Questions
Investigate: How are wheels of the different vehicle similar? What do they have in common? Why do you think that
is? What would happen if one wheel was bigger than the other? How and why would this material support the
Language/Vocabulary
Wheels, axle, movement,
turn, rotation, revolution,
construction of a vehicle? What could be challenging when adding weight to the axle? How can you make sure that
diameter, radius, center,
the wheels stay fixed on the axle? How could you allow the axle to turn freely when adding a bench/box for
round, circle, create, build,
Ferdinand to sit on?
construct, creativity, design,
Design: What is similar in your design and the vehicles you have observed? What could be difficult when pulling your
designed vehicle with a string? What criteria are you fulfilling with your design? How could you solve this problem?
imagination, attributes,
characteristics, movement,
Create: How did other children solve this problem you are facing? What could you use to make it stronger/more
carriage, weight, shape,
stable? What other material could you use to support your idea? How have you incorporated the ideas of your
purpose, criteria, research,
design?
investigation, recycle,
Evaluate: What do you think about your vehicle? If you were to design another vehicle, what would you change and
sustainability, three-
what would you do the same and why? How did it make you feel to demonstrate your vehicle to the class? How did
dimensional, test, punch, drill,
it make you feel to see the vehicles the other children built? What have you noticed in their vehicles that worked
connect, attach, right angle,
really well? Why do you think that is? Plus all the above mentioned specific questions of the evaluation phase.
parallel, symmetric
EYLF Pedagogical Considerations
Principles
Practices
(Highlight those principles that are relevant to your learning experience)
(Highlight those practices that are relevant to your learning experience)
Secure, respectful and reciprocal relationships
Holistic approaches
Learning through play
Partnerships with families
Learning environments
Continuity of learning and transitions
High expectations and equity
Responsiveness to children
Intentional teaching
Respect for diversity
Cultural competence
Assessment for learning
Ongoing learning and reflective practice
VTE4100 Technology Assignment
Denise Kuendig #10459105
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Display ideas, sharing ideas and further possibilities:
What should happen to the products?

Each child brings their own plush toy to sit on the carriage.

Carriages are exhibited all around the classroom including the children’s research books, learning journeys with photographs and Video QR
Code (ICT) for parents to look at and talk about with children and educator. Further exhibitions at a whole school assembly and local
technology centre for the entire community.
How can the learning be transferred or applied beyond the experience?

The uniqueness of every child can be discussed. Ferdinand was very different from his brothers, and that is ok. Each child in the class and
each carriage is different, and that is ok too.
How can you extend and further develop skills and concepts used or introduced in this experience?

Children can now design and create vehicles with four wheels after investigating the relation between the two axles. They could build a
vehicle with four wheels that will roll down a narrow board that is only slightly tilted.
Assessment
How will you assess this project?

Authentic assessment through observation and pedagogical documentation (Edwards et al., 2011, p. 227) throughout the whole learning
experience using the “Floorbook" as a point of reference.

Anecdotal notes about the children’s participation, engagement, collaboration, independence, skill development, creative thinking and
problem-solving and evaluation provide relevant information for future learning experiences.

Notes about how they answered the above-stated questions.

Assessment of their evaluation and reflection rather than assessing if they had fulfilled the task successfully.
VTE4100 Technology Assignment
Denise Kuendig #10459105
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Integrating digital technologies
Outline how digital technologies could be integrated into the design technologies task.
As mentioned throughout the task, the children (with the appropriate support of the educators):
 use the internet for investigation,

take photographs throughout their creation process,

film each other when demonstrating the vehicles and evaluating the project,

upload their video and photograph footages onto Magisto (https://www.magisto.com/video/mine) and create a short insight into their
learning journey including pictures of their process, demonstration and evaluation.

Send these videos to their parents through Seesaw Family (https://web.seesaw.me/), and

Generate and print QR Codes for the exhibition.
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References:
Amazon. (2018). ADULT FERDINAND Plush [Photograph]. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/ADULT-FERDINAND-Plush-20cmORIGINAL/dp/B078RN5NNM/ref=sr_1_1?s=kids&ie=UTF8&qid=1537331379&sr=1-1&keywords=ferdinand+bull (19/09/2018)
Bird, J. (2013). A world of digital possibilities. Every child, 19, 14–15. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=728682162543642;res=IELHSS
Casey J. (2014). The Story of Ferdinand illustrated by Robert Lawson [Images]. Retrieved from:
https://www.jacketflap.com/megablog/?blogid=9...2&page=3820 (19/09/2018)
Daugherty, L., Dossani, R., Johnson, E., & Wright, C. (2014). Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. How
Much and What Kind? (pp. 1–6). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments (2009). Belonging, Being
and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Retrieved from
https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/4629/EYLF_complete_doc.pdf
Donahoo, D. (2014). Screens have changed- our policies will too. Every child, 20(4), 20–21. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=735080532276194;res=IELHSS
Donahoo, D. (2016). The technology conversation. Every Child, 22(3), 12–13. Retrieved from https://search-informit-comau.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=462971881078092;res=IELHSS
Edwards, C., Gandini, L., & Forman, G. (Eds.). (2011). The hundred languages of children : the reggio emilia experience in transformation. Retrieved
from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Ficken, S. (2013). The use of digital technology in early childhood. Every child, 19, 8–9. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=728663529572384;res=IELHSS
Fleer, M. (2016). Technologies for children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA]. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Educational
Goals for Young Australians. Retrieved from
http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf
Radich, J. (2013). Technology and interactive media as tools in Early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Evrery child, 19,
18–19. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=728719428486158;res=IELHSS
School Curriculum and Standards Authority [SCSA]. (2014). Technologies. Retrieved from
https://k10outline.scsa.wa.edu.au/home/teaching/curriculum-browser/technologies
Vivian, R. (2014, October 17). What's The Difference Between ICT Capabilities & the Digital Technologies Learning Area? [Blog post]. Retrieved
from https://digitaltecheducation.weebly.com/bits--bytes-blog/whats-the-difference-between-ict-capabilities-digital-technologies-learningarea (25/09/2018)
Warden, C. (2015). Talking and thinking floorbooks : An approach to consultation, observation, planning and assessment in children's learning(Third
edition. ed.). Ayrshire, UK: Mindstretchers.
Yates, R. (2017). Digitally connected, confident and creative early learners. Educating Young Children: Learning & Teaching In The Early Childhood
Years, 23(2), 35–40. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=127916697&site=ehostlive&scope=site
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12/12
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