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CHAPTER-1

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Motorcycle Gas Exhaust Filter Using Eggshells
A
Research Study
Presented to the Science Department
Of
San Remigio National High School
San Remigio, Cebu
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Subject
Research IV
Flores, Vince Fernand
Muñoz, Ronald Jey
March 2019
ABSTRACT
Most of the people today use motorcycles as their means of transportation. Every day,
these motorcycles release huge volume of gases in the atmosphere that lead to climate change.
This study was conducted to determine the amount of gases emitted by vehicles with gas exhaust
filter using eggshells and to compare it to the amount of gases emitted without the gas exhaust
filter (eggshell). The materials were collected and then the first tin can and the second tin can
were attached to each other. The pounded eggshells were put inside the tin cans and then the
third and the fourth tin cans were attached to the first and second tin cans. The filter was then
attached at the motorcycle’s exhaust. The AEA (Automotive Emission Analyzer) was used in
measuring the amount of gases emitted by the motorcycles like Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon
Monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The test was repeated three times with the eggshell
filter and without the eggshell filter. Based on the result of the t-test for two correlated groups, it
showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of the amount of HC and CO
emitted by the motorcycle exhaust with and without the eggshell filter since the t-calculated for
both gases HC (12.19260229) and CO (4.930069697) are greater than t-critical (4.303). It also
showed that there was no significant difference between the mean of the amount of CO2 emitted
by the motorcycle exhaust with and without the eggshell filter since the t-calculated for CO2
(3.023715783) is lesser than t-critical (4.303). Therefore, the researchers concluded that the
eggshell as motorcycle gas exhaust filter is effective in filtering the Carbon Monoxide (CO) and
the Hydrocarbon (HC).
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Motorcycles are almost permanent primary means of transport in developing countries
which actually reflect on the poverty level of the economy. Of recent, many have abandoned
their professional trades for motorcycle riding as fast way of making a living. Most people use
motorcycles which increased tremendously the number of motorcycles in some cities, hence the
tendency of air pollution (Narayanan, 2007).
Motorcycles emit gases into the air that pollutes it. Average motorcycle is about 15 times
more polluting per mile than passenger car and big truck. Motorcycles collectively emit sixteen
times more hydrocarbon and three times carbon monoxide (Carpenter, 2008). The motorcycle
used 28% less fuel than the comparable decade car and emitted 30% fewer carbon dioxide
emissions, but it emitted 416% more hydrocarbons, 3,220% more oxides of nitrogen and 8,065%
more carbon monoxide. Motorcycles were indeed more fuel-efficient than cars and emitted less
of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, but they emitted far more smog-forming hydrocarbons and
oxides of nitrogen, as well as the toxic air pollutant carbon monoxide (Hyneman and Savage,
2011).
Presently, the environment is witnessing the reduction in air quality due to overcrowding,
traffic congestion and the general deterioration of air pollution (Lave and Seskin, 1997). Due to
the emission of harmful gases by motorcycle known as pollutants, these can result to climate
change and climate change can result in impacts to air quality (US EPA, 2017).
Climate change is one of the most fundamental challenges ever to confront humanity. In
fact, the Philippines is ranked third among the four countries in the world most vulnerable to
climate change, a recent survey by HSBC showed (Flores, 2018). According to PAGASA, the
most recent scientific assessments have confirmed that this warming of the climate system since
the mid-20th century is most likely to be due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas
concentrations from human activities.
In addition to that, this problem may result in smog, acid rains, eye irritation, cardiac and
respiratory disorders and other diseases. Our environment is daily endangered by one of the
man’s activities, the commercial transport business as a means of survival and man is at great
danger of being extinct from such activities (Jimmy et al., 2014).If this act continues, the country
will continue to suffer from climate change and becomes uninhabitable.
Due to this alarming condition of climate change, the researchers came up with this study
that could reduce the amount of gases emitted by the vehicles such as CO2, CO and the HC. The
medium to be used must be capable of absorbing the gases from the vehicle exhaust. The
researchers decided to use eggshell as gas filter because it has calcium carbonate that can filter
the gases.
Statement of the Problem
The major problem in the country is the increasing amount of gases in the atmosphere
that were being emitted by motorcycles. As one of the solutions to this, an improvised device
using local materials was constructed.
Specifically, it aims to:

Construct a device that can reduce the amount of gases emitted by motorcycles

Test the effectiveness of eggshell in filtering the gases emitted by motorcycles

Compare the amount of gases emitted by motorcycle with and without the eggshell filter
Hypothesis:
1.
Ho:
There is no significant difference between the mean of the amount of HC,
CO and CO2 emitted by the motorcycle exhaust with and without the
eggshell filter.
2.
Ha:
There is a significant difference between the mean of the amount of HC,
CO and CO2 emitted by the motorcycle exhaust with and without the
eggshell filter.
3. Level of significance = 0.05
Significance of the Study
This study gives benefits to the following:
Environment. Hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emitted by motorcycle
promote the build-up of greenhouse gases, air pollution and ultimately environmental
degradation. It can greatly benefit the environment for it is has a potential to filter the
harmful gases emitted by various motorcycle vehicles.
Country. If the environment of the country will be benefited, it will help avoid the negative
impacts of air pollution. It will help the country reduce the amount of gases emitted by
the motorcycles and lessen the percentage of the diseases caused by air pollution.
Community. The pollution caused by the emission of harmful gases by motorcycle is linked
with breathing problems, neurological damage, cancer, and a host of other serious
problems. Pollution affects everyone. The people will be safe from the diseases brought
by the harmful gases that are being emitted by motorcycles.
Commuters. The toxic gases emitted by the motorcycles will be filtered and it will be
minimized. It will help the commuters avoid the harmful effects of air pollution. It will
help the commuters not to feel suffocated while traveling due to polluted air.
Definition of Terms
AEA (Automotive Emission Analyzer) is used in measuring the amount of gases emitted by the
motorcycle.
Eggshells acts as the gas exhaust filter that is emitted by motorcycles.
Motorcycle is used as the test subject that emits gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon
monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC).
T-test for two correlated groups is a statistical test used to determine the mean of two group
data used in measuring the amount of gases emitted by the motorcycle like Carbon
Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbons (HC) with and without filter.
Scope and Limitation
The study was conducted at COMVAL Emission Testing Center, Bogo City, Cebu last
November 10, 2018. The study was done using the Automotive Emission Analyzer (AEA).
Three trials were conducted on measuring the gases like the CO2, CO and the HC emitted by the
motorcycle with and without the filter. The quantitative measurements of the three gases are
expressed in percentage. T-test for two correlated group was used to determine the significant
difference on the mean on the three gases emitted by the motorcycle with and without filter using
level of significance of 5%.
The study limits on the use of the materials in constructing the device like tin cans and
electrical tapes found at the researchers' house. The eggshells were collected in the neighboring
households. The study focuses on testing the effectiveness of the eggshells as a motorcycle gas
exhaust filter and the amount of gas emitted by the motorcycle while the motorcycle was in a
standby mode and the engine was turned on. Each testing was conducted for 30 seconds in each
trial.
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