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Chemistry - More About Electrons

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Electrons
What are they and where are they?
Agenda:
Review
Brain Break
Crash Course - Electrons
Brain Break
Electron Configuration Practice
Brain Break
Octet Rule, Nobel Gas Configuration
A Few Last Things
Review
Electrons
• Found outside
the nucleus
• Extremely small
• Negative
charge
Protons and Electrons
Electron Orbitals
Opposites
Attract
Electrons repel electrons
Protons repel protons
Protons and electrons attract
each other
How big are electrons,
neutrons, and protons?
More about Electrons
ptable.com
Here are a few problems…
•
Identify how many electrons a neutral atom would have.
•
Nitrogen?
•
Magnesium
•
Oxygen?
•
Xenon?
•
Carbon?
Ready for the
Answers?
Were you right?
•
Identify how many electrons a neutral atom would have.
•
Nitrogen - 7
•
Magnesium - 12
•
Oxygen - 8
•
Xenon - 54
•
Carbon - 6
Time for a Brain
Break!
Electron
Configuration
Video
Time for a Brain
Break!
Electron Placement
Electron Placement
Electron Placement
Electron Placement
Aufbau and Electron Orbitals
•
•
Aufbau (German for
“to build”) - electrons
want the lowest
possible placement
Pauli’s exclusion
principle - no two
electrons can exist in
the same space
Electron Shells
Here are a few problems…
•
Determine the electron configuration for the neutral atom
•
Nitrogen -
•
Magnesium -
•
Oxygen -
•
Xenon -
•
Carbon -
•
Iron -
Ready for the
Answers?
Were you right?
•
Determine the electron configuration for the neutral atom
•
Nitrogen - 1s22s22p3
•
Magnesium - 1s22s22p63s2
•
Oxygen - 1s22s22p4
•
Xenon - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6
•
Carbon - 1s22s22p2
•
Iron - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6
Time for a Brain
Break!
The Octet Rule
•
Electrons want to have eight electrons in their outer shells.
Why?
•
C, N, O, and F always obey this rule.
•
WATCH OUT! There are exceptions
•
•
Notable - H
Why is this important?
Electron Placement
Nobel Gas Configuration
Another (easier?) way to write electron configuration
An example
Write the electron configuration for sulfur using both the full
notation and nobel gas configuration
One more example
Write the electron configuration for silver using both the full
notation and nobel gas configuration
Here are a few problems…
•
Determine the electron configuration for the neutral atom
•
Nitrogen -
•
Magnesium -
•
Oxygen -
•
Xenon -
•
Carbon -
•
Iron -
Ready for the
Answers?
Were you right?
•
Determine the electron configuration for the neutral atom
•
Nitrogen - [He]2s22p3
•
Magnesium - [Ne]3s2
•
Oxygen - [He]2s22p4
•
Xenon - [Kr]5s24d105p6
•
Carbon - [He]2s22p2
•
Iron - [Ar]4s23d6
A Few More Things
Ions
ptable.com
Here are a few problems…
•
•
What type of ion (charge and cation/anion/neutral species would the
following elements make?
•
Sodium
•
Chlorine
•
Oxygen
•
Nitrogen
•
Neon
Can you notice any patterns between where an element is located on
the periodic table and it’s likelihood to loose/gain electrons?
Ready for the
Answers?
Were you right?
•
•
What type of ion would the following elements make?
•
Sodium - Cation, Na+
•
Chlorine - Anion, Cl-
•
Oxygen - Anion, O2-
•
Nitrogen - Anion, N3-
Can you notice any patterns between where an element is
located on the periodic table and it’s likelihood to loose/gain
electrons?
Lewis Dot Structures
Lewis Dot Structures
Here’s an example:
Draw the Lewis dot structure for oxygen
What about for Krypton?
Sodium?
Here are a few problems…
•
•
Draw the Lewis dot structure for the following elements
•
Potassium
•
Chlorine
•
Nitrogen
•
Neon
Can you notice any patterns between where an element is
located on the periodic table and it’s Lewis dot structure?
Ready for the
Answers?
Were you right?
•
•
Draw the Lewis dot structure for the following elements
•
Potassium
•
Chlorine
•
Nitrogen
•
Neon
Can you notice any patterns between where an element is
located on the periodic table and it’s Lewis dot structure?
On your own…
•
Complete the Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons worksheet
•
Complete the Electron Configuration worksheet
•
Complete the Lewis Dot Structure worksheet
•
Practice identifying electron configurations
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electroni
c-structure-of-atoms/electron-configurations-jaysal/e/electron-configurations-exercise?modal=1
• What are 3 things you’ve
3
•
2
•
1
learned?
What are 2 things you
want to learn more about?
What’s one question you
still have?
Resources
•
•
•
•
Periodic Table - https://www.ptable.com
Phet Build an Atom https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom
Review of Electron Configuration https://www.chem.fsu.edu/chemlab/chm1045/e_config.htm
l
Practice Identifying Electron Configurations https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electroni
c-structure-of-atoms/electron-configurations-jaysal/e/electron-configurations-exercise?modal=1
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