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Types of Integrated Circuits

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TYPES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
INTRODUCTION TO ICS (INTEGRATED CIRCUITS)
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC) IS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE 21ST CENTURY IF I MAY SAY. IT HAS
FOREVER TRANSFORMED THE WORLD OF ELECTRONICS. IT HAS REDUCED THE SIZE OF ELECTRONICS FROM A REFRIGERATOR SIZE TO PALM
SIZE ELECTRONICS OR EVEN LESS.
UNLIKE VACUUM TUBES USED IN EARLY ELECTRONICS, ICS DISSIPATES LESS HEAT AND AS CONSUMES LESS ENERGY COMPARED TO
VACUUM TUBES. ITS RELIABILITY IS NOT TO BE COMPARED WITH THAT OF VACUUM TUBES, IT IS VERY RELIABLE. ICS HAVE CHANGED THE
FATE OF ELECTRONICS.
TYPES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
BASED ON THE METHOD OR TECHNIQUES USED IN MANUFACTURING THEM, TYPES OF ICS CAN
BE DIVIDED INTO THREE CLASSES:
• THIN-FILM IC
• THICK FILM IC
• MONOLITHIC IC
• HYBRID OR MULTICHIP IC
THIN-FILM IC
• THIN-FILM ICS ARE FABRICATED BY DEPOSITING FILMS OF CONDUCTING MATERIAL ON THE
SURFACE OF A GLASS OR CERAMIC BASE. BY CONTROLLING THE WIDTH AND THICKNESS OF
THE FILMS AND BY USING DIFFERENT MATERIALS SELECTED FOR THEIR RESISTIVITY, RESISTORS
AND CONDUCTORS ARE FABRICATED. CAPACITORS ARE PRODUCED BY SANDWICHING A FILM
OF INSULTING OXIDE BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTING FILMS. INDUCTORS ARE MADE BY
DEPOSITING A SPIRAL FORMATION OF FILM. TRANSISTORS AND DIODES CAN BE PRODUCED
BY THIN-FILM TECHNOLOGY; BUT USUALLY TINY DISCRETE COMPONENTS ARE CONNECTED
INTO THE CIRCUIT.
THIN AND THICK FILM ICS
• THESE DEVICES ARE LARGER THAN MONOLITHIC ICS BUT SMALLER THAN DISCRETE CIRCUITS.
THESE ICS CAN BE USED WHEN POWER REQUIREMENT IS COMPARATIVELY HIGHER. WITH A
THIN- OR THICK-FILM IC, THE PASSIVE COMPONENTS LIKE RESISTORS AND CAPACITORS ARE
INTEGRATED, BUT THE TRANSISTORS AND DIODES ARE CONNECTED AS DISCRETE
COMPONENTS TO FORM A COMPLETE CIRCUIT. THEREFORE, COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE THINAND THICK-FILM CIRCUITS ARE COMBINATION OF INTEGRATED AND DISCRETE COMPONENTS.
CLASSIFICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
BELOW IS THE CLASSIFICATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ICS BASIS ON THEIR CHIP SIZE.
• SSI: SMALL SCALE INTEGRATION. 3 – 30 GATES PER CHIP.
• MSI: MEDIUM SCALE INTEGRATION. 30 – 300 GATES PER CHIP.
• LSI: LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION. 300 – 3,000 GATES PER CHIP.
• VLSI: VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION. MORE THAN 3,000 GATES PER CHIP.
MONOLITHIC IC
• AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT OR MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ALSO REFERRED TO AS
AN IC, A CHIP, OR A MICROCHIP) IS A SET OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS ON ONE SMALL FLAT
PIECE (OR "CHIP") OF SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL THAT IS NORMALLY SILICON.
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