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A review of urban green space (open space and amenity area) planningin Hong Kong

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A review of urban "green space" (open space and amenity area)
planningin Hong Kong
Au, Chi-wai, David.; 區志偉.
Au, C. D. [區志偉]. (1993). A review of urban "green space" (open
space and amenity area) planning in Hong Kong. (Thesis).
University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved
from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b3125812
1993
http://hdl.handle.net/10722/36891
The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights)
and the right to use in future works.
A Review of Urban "Green Space” (Open Space
and Amenity Area) Planning in Hong Kong
AU Chi-wai, David
Workshop report
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for
the degree of Master of Science (Urban Planning),
Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management,
University of Hong Kong
August 1993
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. P. Y. Tam, my course supervisor
for his advice, guidance and assistance. I would also like to thank Dr. M.K. Ng for
her friendly advice and comments, Mr. A. Lau for his information and discussion and
Dr. A.G.O. Yeh and members of the Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental
Management for their assistance.
I am also grateful to my colleagues in the Territory Development Department, Urban
Services Department and Regional Services Department for their friendly and
informative discussions and the supply of relevant information. Special thanks is due
to Mr. R. Hastings, President of Hong Kong Institute of Landscape Architects and
my senior at work, for his advice, encouragement and support.
I am also indebted to the Director of Territory Development and Civil Service
Training Centre for the sponsorship of the three year study.
Finally but not lastly I would express my deep appreciation to my wife Juliana for her
unfailing support, encouragement, understanding and informative discussions and my
darling children Robin, Raphael and Rose for their patience and encouragement.
A Review of Urban
,,Green Space “ (Open
Space and Amenity
Area) Planning in
Hong Kong
by AU Cbi-wai, David
TABLE OF CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
ii
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES
viii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ix
CHAPTER 1. Introduction
/
\j
1.1 Background
1.2 Goal and objectives
1.3 Methodology
1.4 Definitions and scope of study
1.5 Limitations of study
CHAPTER 2. The significance of
2.1 Physical effects
6
2.2 Psychological / aesthetic values of planting
12
2.3 Tree planting in Hong Kong
13
ii
2.4 Values of trees and other plants in the urban landscape
14
2.5 Effect of
Garden
15
2.6 Recommendations
19
CHAPTER 3.
3.1 The U.K. example
21
3.2 The Singapore example
25
3.3 The Dutch example
28
3.4 The lesson learnt
. . . 29
CHAPTER 4.
4.1 The Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines ( HKPSG) . .
31
4.2 Existing provision of
4.3 Recommendations on
CHAPTER 5. Public attitude survey on
5.1 Objectives
39
5.2 Methodology
40
5.3 The survey results
40
5.4 The analysis of the results
44
5.5 Survey conclusions
47
CHAPTER 6. Cost of development and maintenance of
6.1 Development cost
48
iii
6.2 Maintenance and management cost
50
6.3 The implications
54
CHAPTER 7. Summary of findings and Recommendations
55
7.1 Summary of findings
55
7.2 Recommendations
57
CHAPTER 8. Conclusions
APPENDICES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
60
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1:
Flat A of Block 3 & 5,Site 7,Whampoa Garden price list and
percentage difference
Table 2.2:
Flat A of Block 3 & 5 of Site 2,Whampoa Garden - price list
and percentage difference
Table 3.1:
18
The anticipated land budget for Milton Keynes, when
completed
Table 3.2
17
21
An analysis of some green space provision in Milton Keynes
Parks
24
Table 3,3
The current Open Space provision in Singapore
26
Table 3.4
An analysis of some green space provision in Singapore
Parks
27
Table 4.1
Assessment chart of active open space requirements
34
Table 4.2
An analysis of ratio of green planting space to total open space
area
Table 5.1
36
The questions and response statistics of the public survey on
green attitude
41
Table 6.1
A simple table summarizing the type of park facilities and the
unit cost of developing the park
Table 6.2
49
Capital and recurrent cost of major New Town open space
projects
Table 6.3
51
Capital and recurrent cost of major New Town active
recreational facilities projects
Table 6.4
. . 52
Expenditure cost breakdown of Kowloon park in 1992-1993 . • 53
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1
Noise mitigation due to space and planting
7
Figure 2.2
Cooling effects of trees
8
Figure 2.3
Trees as wind deflector
10
Figure 2.4
Reduction of glare effect by trees
11
Figure 2.5
Trees as an urban design element
12
Figure 2.6
Whampoa Garden Master layout plan
Figure 3.1
The strategic land use plan of Milton Keynes New Town
Figure 3.2
The strategic land use plan of Singapore
Figure 5.1
Bar char of respondents' desire to have a green view from
16
...
home
Figure 5.2
Bar chart showing the additional amount of rent or purchase
45
Bar chart of respondents' preference of facilities in front of
their homes
Figure 5.4
25
44
price the respondents are willing to pay for a green view . . . .
Figure 5.3
22
46
Bar chart showing respondents' preferred
provision
46
vii
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1
A list of common landscape trees in Hong Kong
Appendix 2
Flats internal layout and price list of Whampoa Garden
Appendix 3
Information from Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority
Appendix 4
Summary of Schedule of land uses, Sha Tin New Town Outline Zoning Plan
Appendix 5
Photographs and detailed descriptions of parks surveyed
Appendix 6
Results of public opinion survey
Appendix 7
Schedule of unit costs of open space/landscape projects,
Territory Development Department
viii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
:
. . . " : : : : :
EXECUTIVE S U M M A R Y
1. Purpose and scope
The Project intends to review the existing planning standards in connection with the
provision of urban green space. Green space refers to the area allocated for planting
of trees, shrubs and growing of grass. The scope of the study will be restricted to the
urban area (Hong Kong Island,
planning review, I will concentrate on the Hong Kong Planning Standards and
Guidelines (HKPSG).
2. The study
2.1 Literature review and local case study
The study starts with literature review of the benefits of green space to us. It includes
both physical and psychological as well as aesthetic considerations. Economic
considerations will be reviewed to support the importance of the green space and a
local case study will be carried out to substantiate the argument.
2.2 Comparative study of overseas experience
In order to build up references, a comparative study on the green space planning
issue was carried out by book review as well as enquiries to overseas planning
authorities. Some information was collected from Milton Keynes New Town of the
U.K., Singapore
have specific reference to green space standards, their provisions have demonstrated
success in greening the urban environment Some garden designs were also surveyed
to indicate the amount of green space that is provided in these areas.
ix
2.3 Green space planning in Hong Kong
According to the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines,
green planning is dealt with is in Chapter 4 and 10,
Chapter 10 gives a very
comprehensive description of what urban landscape should be like but with neither
quantitative description nor specific guidelines on how this could be implemented
through the existing planning apparatus. On the other hand, Chapter 4 of HKPSG,
which provides quantitative standards to all recreation facilities, only mentions that
a.
"amenity area" should normally be landscaped (i.e. planted) and
b.
"open space
area in the passive facilities portion should normally be landscaped.
In this connection, it is clear that there are no direct and quantitative planning tools
in the HKPSG aiming at green space planning, albeit indirectly.
2.3.1 Review of amenity zoning
As regards "amenity" zoning,
an item of official provision. The land ownership is also arbitrary as it is normally
classified as Crown Land and part of the road reserve if it adjoins a road. The
municipal councils only provide horticultural maintenance to plants growing on the
land. When public works are required in the area
convenient place to be abused.
2.5.2 Review of open space standards
As regards "open space" planning, there is at present a standard of 2 :1 active to
passive facilities ratio in the existing HKPSG. The passive facilities refer to areas
usually landscaped where games facilities are not provided but where people can
enjoy the surroundings in a leisurely manner. The passive open space would
therefore largely be "green space "
In reviewing the argument paper of the Planning Standards Sub Committee based on
data from September 1975y it was noted that only vague reasons were given for
deciding the 2:1 active to passive facilities ratio. The argument was based on the
1975 stock of open space available in the Urban area (Hong Kong Island and
Kowloon). The active facilities area requirement was calculated from population
statistics with a simple assumption of per capita space requirement. The passive open
space area is the balance of the existing available space and the active facilities area
requirement.
The standards are largely outdated because a lot of the land based active facilities
including basket ball courts, badminton courts and volley ball courts are now housed
indoor in the multi-purpose indoor games halls to allow for use under all weather
conditions as well as for longer hours. Furthermore the standards do not take into
consideration the necessity and level of people's demand to have green space.
2.4 Existing provision of green space and possible improvement
As regards the content of a passive open space, a more detailed study was performed
with some recently completed projects in the new towns. It is found that the green
space portion of these projects are from 43% to 82% with an average of 58.8%. It
is therefore reasonable to suggest a minimum ratio of 50% green space for open
space in the HKPSG as an initial step to actively safeguard the provision of green
xi
environment although this provision may not be very favourable when compared with
what other countries could offer. This would very much be better than only
classifying open space for active and passive purposes since the possession of a
passive recreation area gives no guarantee of it becoming green space.
On the other hand, the 50% green space guideline would not really affect the present
design standards for public open space as most of them are supervised by competent
landscape professionals. Neither will it affect the provision of active facilities because
many are housed in Indoor Games Halls.
It would be a standardization and
recognition of green space provision in public open space and to extend the guidelines
to private developments as a consequence.
2.5 Implications to private developments
Once the HKPSG establishes the control, it is more likely that the private
developments will be more affected than the Government's. Despite the lack of a
significant emphasis on private open space and the fact it is still not counted in the
provision of open space, it is becoming more important in terms of alleviating the
need particularly in residential areas. Administratively, nearly all new residential
leases require the provision of landscaping work to non-built over areas. The
cumulative planting coverage or green space could be enormous. The 50% guideline
would therefore contribute very significantly to the green space inventory. The
guideline might actually reduce costs because planting is normally cheaper than hard
paving, tiling or other architectural features. The guideline would probably help to
reduce the feeling of subjectivity when government officers comment on private
schemes.
xii
2.6 Public attitude to existing green space provision
To further substantiate the arguments,
green space.
The results apparently agree with other findings. In terms of the
amount of additional money that people are willing to pay to purchase or rent a place
with a better green view, the statistical mean is 8 % which actually corresponds to the
figure obtained from the analysis of the Whampoa Garden development• When asked
about the preference of facilities in front of their properties, an overwhelming
majority of 48% chose green space compared with 14% preferring a concrete ball
court, another 14% wanted a bus stop, 7% and 6% respectively chose a refuse
collection area and wet market and the remaining 11 % were missing or invalid
answers. This seems to be in agreement with an American public survey on a similar
issue. In suggesting the ideal percentage of land use as green space around them
the statistical mean is 20% which is much higher than the existing standard for most
areas and is even higher than the total provision of open space. The gist of the
survey result is that people desire more green space environment around them.
2 . 7 Financial implications to Government
In day to day terms the success of establishing a green space standard is probably
dependent on the practicality of the idea which is related to the economics of
providing and managing the spaces. According to the financial analysis, the higher
the proportion of green space in an open space, the cheaper the capital cost. On the
other hand
when compared with other active recreational facilities.
In short, it could be
concluded that both the capital and the maintenance cost do not materially affect
decisions on green space provision.
xiii
3. Recommendations and conclusions
In conclusion, as demonstrated by this study, it is clear that there is a strong need to
supplement the current guideline in the HKPSG to ensure the achievement of a more
environmentally balanced surrounding. As the study demonstrated the importance of
green space, it would be reasonable to start the issue of urban green planning by
giving it a proper share of the open space provided.
The following are recommended as a result of this study:
cl
Green space shall form an item in land use planning and be properly
recognized and defined in the HKPSG.
b.
Amenity area, which should be totally landscaped, shall be counted as
100% green space. Consideration shall be given to strengthening the
protection of these green spaces by dearer specification of
horticultural and land responsibilities to the municipal councils.
c.
For open space, private and public, a guideline of minimum 50%
green space provision should be stipulated to ensure a reasonable
design particularly for private developments.
d.
Lands Department,
according to the guidelines to introduce appropriate clauses in the
special conditions for new development to ensure sufficient allowance
for open space and green space. Their subsequent role in ensuring
that the planting is properly maintained by the owner is also very
important to make the green space provision a success.
e.
Lands Department shall also consider the grassing and tree planting
of vacant crown land if there is no imminent use in view of the low
cost of planting and the environmental benefits.
f.
The total provision of green space shall form an inventory and be
monitored by the Councils through their executive departments Urban
Services Department and Regional Services Department.
g.
Planning Department shall carry out reviews from time to time on the
green space inventory as against the planned provision and make
necessary adjustments to the HKPSG, statutory plans or layout plans
to ensure the provision of a satisfactory level of green space. Public
satisfaction shall also be periodically assessed through social surveys.
h.
Environmental Protection Department shall assist in monitoring the
amelioration effects of green space in terms of pollution mitigation to
establish a more objective requirement (measurable benefit) of green
space to this effect.
L
Public education should be strengthened through official and semiofficial channel with Education Department,
Councils^ Radio Television Hong Kong, etc to promulgate the benefit
of the green environment to life and to educate the public to a higher
appreciation of the green environment.
The recommendations are not however exhaustive as there are simply too many issues
related to the provision including the overall provision of open space which affects
the amount of green space that can be provided.
xv
Chapter 1.
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CHAPTER 1. Introduction
1.1 Background:
Greening our surroundings is becoming an increasingly important issue for the global
reason of saving the environment given the past neglect of our predecessors and the
shameful fact that we still are damaging the environment for various selfish reasons.
Greening our environment provides part of the solution to saving the earth by
maintaining a more balanced environment, a more ecological globe, less greenhouse
effect and ultimately a more sustainable world. In microscopic terms, more planting
will add amenity and colour to the urban form and shade and breezeways will create
a cooler and less harsh environment to pedestrians, cyclists and outdoor users. Its
role in maintaining a balanced environment and creating an aesthetically pleasing and
environmentally pleasant townscape is undeniable. More people desire a better,
greener and more balanced environment which corresponds to the growth of personal
and societal wealth. At present,there are no planning standards or guidelines in
Hong Kong which indicate to planners or designers the area that is likely to be
devoted to planting. The basic assumption is that some area in the designated open
spaces will be planted.
In this study, I am concentrating on urban green space which refers to the old built
up area including Kowloon and Hong Kong Island as well as the new town area.
These are the areas where most of our population live and work and therefore
affected most substantially. In fact,the provision of rural green space is rather
substantial. At the present time,some 40% of the total land space in Hong Kong is
designated as country park. However, according to a land use study (Jim, 1989,
Geoforum) in the main urban area in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New
Kowloon,it was found that there was only 2.87 sq.km. of space used as parks and
open space in the study area which is 6.7% of the urban space. The green space
occupies about 52% of the area of the parks and open space. For the majority of the
land zoned commercial, commercial-residential, residential high-density, and
industrial and storage, the existing green space is between 2.8% to 6.3% which is
extremely low. In this study,the significance, planned and existing provision of
green space and people's attitude will be examined with a view to suggesting a better
planning framework for a greener environment.
1.2 Goal and objectives
1.2.1 Goal
The study will be a general review of the importance of 'green space'' concerning the
environmental and socioeconomic effects on the population. Comparative studies will
be conducted using examples from some selected areas, namely the U.K., the
Netherlands and Singapore. The analyzed results will then be compared to existing
land uses and planning provisions in Hong Kong. A public survey will be conducted
to substantiate some of the arguments and followed by a cost analysis of green space
development and management to confirm the practicality of a better green provision
in economic term. Recommendations are made based on these studies.
1.2.2 Objectives
The objectives are:
1.
To review the importance of green space including its environmental,
socioeconomic,and other effects;
To study the provision of green space as part of the public facilities in Hong
Kong and compared to the provision of similar facilities in the U.K., the
Netherlands and Singapore given their historical linkage, international
reputation in green environment planning and geographical similarities with
Hong Kong respectively;
3.
To examine the existing Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines in
connection with
4.
To investigate the public demand by public attitude survey; and
5.
To analyze the practicality of the proposal by examining the financial
implications of
1.3 Methodology
1.
The environmental benefits of
research data concerning the physical / environmental and psychological /
aesthetic effects.
2.
The economic significance of
literature reviews. A case study will also be conducted with local land cost
data to assess the effects of
3.
In relation to
review of information about green space planning and provision in the U.K.,
the Netherlands and Singapore will be undertaken.
4.
As regards existing uses and planning provisions in Hong Kong, relevant
chapters in the HKPSG will be reviewed. Some "developed" green space will
be surveyed and the results will be analyzed and recommendations made
according to the findings.
As regards the public demand, a questionnaire survey will be conducted to
ascertain the attitude of public in demanding for the
6.
As regards other considerations including capital investment and maintenance
cost, the assessment of these aspects will be based on project cost analysis and
management and maintenance expenditure data.
Practising landscape
architects and managers,town planners and recreational planners will be
consulted to advise on local concerns and practical problems.
1.4 Definitions and scope of study
The term green space, for the purpose of this study, shall mean areas allocated for
the planting of trees,shrubs and growing of grass. Urban green space refers to green
space in the old urban developed area of Kowloon, New Kowloon and Hong Kong
and new town development areas. The term open space shall mean local and district
open space. The scope of this study shall be focused on urban green space, industrial
land is generally not included.
In connection with planning, the study will concentrate on the content of the Hong
Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines. Related issues like land administration and
layout plan drafting and public education aspects will be mentioned but not in detail.
1.5 Limitations of study
The study has been carried out with special attention to a comprehensive coverage of
issues involved. However given the restriction of time and resources as well as
factors inherent, the following limitations are apparent:
1.
There is yet to be sufficient allowance for the counter argument in respect of
problems and disadvantages arising from having a green space or environment
in the urban area.
The study is limited only to
other competing factors that should be considered including the overall
provision of open space,inclusion of private open space in calculation of open
space provision and the standards for private open space. All of these are
essential to this study but have not been dealt with in sufficient detail.
Given the time resources, the coverage of the social survey is limited and may
not be statistically representative.
Chapter
The significance
space and
green
the
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CHAPTER 2. The significance of
No shade tree? Blame not the sun but yourself.
Ancient Chinese Proverb
The importance of planting especially trees to open space / environment could roughly
be classified in the following categories:“
a.
Physical effects including the improvement of air quality, a quieter
environment, a modulated microclimate due to its cooling effects,
ability to deflect wind, improvement of the soil condition and the
urban hydrology, reduction of glare and provision of recreational and
wildlife conservation.
b.
Psychological / aesthetic effects which include the improvement of
amenity, acting as visual buffers, amelioration effects to the hard built
environment.
2.1 Physical effects
2.1.1 Improvement of Air quality
Plants in general, and trees in particular, absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
and give off oxygen. Plants replenish our air supply and decrease the amount of
polluted air.
Trees also trap certain pollutants like sulphur dioxide and thereby
decrease the health hazard of living and breathing in. a congested city. Trees help to
recondition or purify the atmosphere.
Particulate matters like dirt, sand, soot, pollen,smoke and dust which is the normal
airborne pollutant could be deposited on natural surfaces.
Plant pubescence is
believed to be the most efficient collective mechanism for particles having diameters
between one and five um (Smith and Dochinger,1976). In a study on the efficiency
of trees as particulate removers, Bematzky (1966) found particle accumulations on
streets without trees in Frankfurt, Germany, to be three or four times greater than
streets having trees in the same area.
.
2.2.2 Noise mitigation due to space and planting
An individual tree may not have much
effect, trees together could however
form a barrier much like a sound
baffle. This acoustical control is made
possible because trees aid in reducing
noise as they break up the waves of
sound. In contrast,buildings amplify
Figure 2.1
Noise mitigation due to
space and planting
the loudness and frequency of sound as it reverberates and increases, bouncing off the
high walls of steel, glass and concrete.Leaves and branches decrease and interrupt
the movement of sound.
A number of studies have investigated the effect of trees and shrubs on noise
reduction. According to Nadel (1977),planting trees on a depressed or embanked
street or roadway reduces sound 16-20 decibels. Reethof (1976) notes that as a sound
wave approaches a forest edge, part of the sound is absorbed by surface material,
t
very low frequencies pass through the forest,and high frequencies will be reflected
and diffracted by larger trunks and branches. In trying out various planting designs
in the urban environment, Van Haverbeke and Cook (1972) found that a dense, tworow deciduous shrub and pine tree planting about 6.1 meters wide and 5.5 metres tall
produced a 15 dBA reduction as compared to a near-by tree lined paved street.
A l l studies suggest that when planted with enough width, vegetative barriers can
noticeably reduce noise in the environment. However, the width which seems to be
required (19-30 metres or a minimum of 6.1 metre with careful structured planting
design as mentioned above) implies the existence of a wide enough space* to be
allocated to the planting. This is very often not the case in Hong Kong.
However, the psychological benefits derived from using trees for visual screening
may provide additional relief from noise pollution.
2.2.3 Cooling effects of trees
Air temperature is affected by
the
control
of
long-wave
radiation from the buildings
and surfaces of the urban
environment.
By providing
shade form direct sunlight and
reducing
reflected radiation
from highly reflective surfaces,
F i g u r e 2•2
Cooling effects of trees
trees effectively regulate solar radiation, one of the principal mechanisms for heating
urban microclimates.
For board leaf trees with dense canopies,as much as 90 % of the direct sunlight
could be intercepted (Heisler,1974) while their leafless condition will alow between
40-70% of sunlight to reach the surface. (Robinette, 1972)
The building and streets that made up much of the urban environment are constructed
of materials having highly reflective surfaces. Asphalt, brick, and concrete will
reflect 15-50% of the radiation received (I Laurie, 1979).
In the process of moisture evaporation from leaf surfaces, energy is absorbed from
the atmosphere,resulting in a net heat loss in the atmosphere. The cooling effect
created by an isolated tree transpiring 100 gallons (455 litres) of water per day from
its leaves (2,500 kcal/hr) (about 2.9 kwatt/hr) is equivalent to five average room air
conditioners running 20 hours per day (Federer,1971). The energy cost alone is
about $40 per tree based on present day electricity rate. Trees are therefore the most
environmental friendly out door air conditioner.
2.2.4 Improvement of the soil condition
Trees can be effectively used to prevent the erosion of the upper horizon of urban soil
profiles by the forces of moving water and wind. Leaves and branches form canopies
or blankets that intercept raindrops before they strike the soil surface.
Tree also help control wind erosion by their dense leaves or needles that create an
effective barrier to air movement through plants by dense branching that controls and
slows wind close to the ground.
In addition to preventing soil erosion, trees are also an effective means for lessening
extreme fluctuations in moisture content and temperature of urban soils.
Tree
canopies help retain soil moisture by protecting soil from direct exposure to the
evaporative influences of wind and solar radiation and by increasing the porosity of
soils through the addition of organic matter. By physically shading soils from direct
exposure to solar radiation and trapping long-wave radiation from the earth's surface,
tree canopies also help prevent extreme variation in soil temperature.
2.2.5 Improvement of the urban hydrology
Paving and rooftops prevent water infiltration into soil and therefore causes major
surface runoff and may result in localized flooding in heavy rains.
Forest and
planting area could help in alleviating the problem by allowing a water to infiltrate
to the soil and to complete the water cycle through the transpiration of the leaves.
2.2.6 Trees as a wind deflector
Trees can be an effective barrier in deflecting
wind when planted in a row at right angles to
the direction of prevailing wind.
Various
combinations of shrub and tree planting can
be effectively used to control the flow of air
Figure 2.3
around and through buildings.
Trees
as
deflector
wind
2.2.7 Trees as precipitation controller
Trees can also moderate urban microclimates by controlling precipitation in all of its
forms including rain,fog and dew and by regulating the relative humidity of the air.
10
Apart from intercepting rainfall and reducing raindrop velocity before it hits the
ground, trees also acts as an water pump by absorbing water from the soil and
evaporating out to the atmosphere.
2.2.8 Reduction of glare
F i g u r e 2•4
Reduction of glare effect by trees
Trees can be used to control glare, either as it is produced from direct light sources
or as it is produced form reflective surfaces. The basic objective in controlling glare
is to place an obstructing element between the source of light.
With the dense
foliage, solar glare could very much be reduced. Suitably designed road central
reserve planters will help to block headlight glare affecting opposite vehicular traffic
at night.
2.2.9 Recreational and wildlife conservation
A well designed landscaped open space does not only provide users with a nice
environment, it is also an excellent venue for outdoor leisure activities. With harsh
weather for place like Hong Kong, a nice wooded open space would provide the
ameliorated environment for informal outdoor leisure activities including leisure
walking, jogging, cycling and even outdoor entertainment activities.
Trees in urban woodlands (Traegay, 1979) and other scattered pockets of natural
remains in the city can supply food and shelter for a variety of wild life. Tree
11
preservation and planting are important to enhance and conserve the wildlife
component of the city.
2.2 Psychological / aesthetic values of planting
2.2.1 Trees as an urban design element
Figure 2.5
T r e e s as an urban d e s i g n element
Trees as an urban design element is often expressed through the reinforcement of
designs which frequently are architectural and structural in concept.
Design
reinforcement could be achieved in a number of ways:
a.
Trees can be used to direct people towards a view of particular
significance or to direct their movement in certain prescribed directions
for reasons of safety.
b.
When used in masses or rows, trees can serve as a visually consistent
element and help to unify and to order area of chaotic or disorder
outlook due to the widely divergent building styles and scales.
c.
Trees can be used as visual barrier to separate perceived incompatible
uses.
d.
Trees can be used as elements of contrast within architectural or
structural environments of steel, brick, wood and concrete.
12
2.2.2 Child development and education
It is believed that the mental and intellectual development of a child is favoured by
frequent exposure to diversities of shape, size,colour and pattern. These benefits can
be realized through contacts with nature in the form of effortless observation,
experimentation and involvement.
The challenging and stimulating attributes of
vegetation can partly fulfil these benefits which are considered as inborn biological
needs (Steam, 1972) crucial in the formative years of human growth. Moreover, an
informal channel of education can be realized via intimate association with the
elements and this can hardly be conveyed by conventional modes of learning.
Suitable areas to fulfil this wilderness experience should be within easy reach of
children so that they can safely explore on their own. However, this ingredient is
gravely lacking in the well-trimmed and orderly urban parks and playgrounds.
2.3 Tree planting in Hong Kong
Hong Kong is situated in the subtropical region. The temperature, amount of rainfall
and level of sunshine are all generally favourable to trees. Since the founding of
Hong Kong, there has been efforts of tree planting in the urban area particularly in
the roadside and parks. In general, there is a wide varieties of trees, native and
exotic, available for planting for different purposes, e.g., dense foliage for shade and
noise buffer,board leaves for dust mitigation,good form for architectural design,
deep root for hydrology, quick growth for fast anchorage etc. An extensive list of
urban trees is attached at Appendix 1 for reference. The list is extracted from the
Plant Selection Matrix developed by Urban Services Department and the matrix
includes the various attributes of the trees including their heights, shapes, special
features and particular landscape applications.
13
According to Jim (1986),one the major problems to the urban trees in Hong Kong
is the lack of statutory control. As a result of building and engineering developments
everywhere, the evidence of existing trees being abused is no long a rare
phenomenon.
2.4 Values of trees and other plants in the urban landscape
Traditionally, the primary use of trees and other landscape plants has been focused
on their aesthetic qualities and beauty which are generally difficult to quantify.
However, trees and other landscape plants have assets beyond their aesthetic value.
Plants are living objects; they engaged in the most profound creativity in the world
including photosynthesis and other environmental and aesthetic functions as discussed
above. Other considerations such as timber value,fruit and nut production, wildlife
habitats, and recreational activities may be relevant in certain cases.
Trees and other landscape plants enhance property values and increase the city assets.
According to a report by Peters (1971),he found that on a 7 acre (0.81 ha) urban
tract of land, the total appraised value was US$302,000 ($2,355,600) of which shade
trees contributed 19% of the value. In 1973,Payne selected a 12 acre (4.9 ha) tract
of land and made a model mock-up of the area. Photographs of the model, each
showing varying numbers of trees, were shown to real estate appraisers who were
asked to estimate the per-acre value of the land. The results showed that open land
was appraised at US$1,500 per acre ($4,734 per ha)in contrast to US$2,050 per acre
($6,474 per ha) for two-thirds wooded land. It was concluded,on the average,that
trees contributed as much as 27 % of the appraised land value.
14
In 1980, a report in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Yearbook stated that with
the proper use of trees and shrubs about the home, winter heating bills may be
reduced as much as 15%,while summer cooling energy could cut by 50% or more.
In a 1981 U.S. Tax Court case in Arlington, Virginia,it was determined that the loss
of a single century-old black oak on a property valued at US$164,500 ($1,283,100)
reduced the value by US$15,000 ($117,000) or approximately 9% of the total
property value.
2.5 Effect of green space on property value - case study of Whampoa Garden
It is difficult to assess the effects of trees to the market values of houses in Hong
Kong as the majority of the residential developments are high-rise. In the following
study, an analysis will be carried out to determine the value of a property due to a
different location of the premises in relation to the green space.
In Hong Kong, due to the rapid development, it is not uncommon to find previously
sea front / park front buildings being blocked by new developments in front due to
land reclamation and site formation works. In this respect, therefore,developers are
keen to ensure that the buildings could be arranged to retain a good view
permanently. Consequently, private open spaces become a very important element
in providing the necessary openness in the lay out,adequate recreational facilities and
the green environment. Despite the lack of planning standard governing private open
space, developers are generally willing to provide sufficient private open space
wherever possible within the developments to make the residential properties more
valuable due to the added facilities, aesthetics and improved image.
15
Whampoa
Garden is a
m a j o r
comprehen
s i
v
e
residential /
commercial
project
redeveloped
on the exWhampoa
Figure 2.6
Whampoa Garden Master layout plan
" - ) " f l a t s o f case study I - see 2,5,1
"»o " flats of case study II - see 2.5.2
dockyard. The private housing estate provides about 10,000 flats in 90 residential
towers for some 40,000 population. The provision of local open space is generally
up to the urban planning standard of 6.2 ha (about 15.5 ha/100,000 population as
compared with the HKPSG minimum of 15 ha/100,000 in urban area).
It is interesting to find that the unit price of residential floor-space could differ by
nearly 8% in cost with a slight difference in position which in turn affect the green/
open view from the flats. In carrying out the following case study, the flats chosen
for comparison were identical in size, facilities provided, orientation and even internal
layout.
16
2.5.1 Case study I - Flat A of Block 3 & 5,Site 7,Whampoa Garden
Flat A of Block 3 & 5, Site 7,Whampoa Garden price list1 and
percentage difference (Ref: Appendix 2 The full price list and detailed
layout of the flats)
Table 2.1:
Floor
Cost
($ M),Block 3
Cost
($ M),Block 5
% difference
16
0.86
0.82
5.52
15
1.03
0.98
5.32
14
1.03
0.97
5.34
13
1.02
0.97
5.36
12
1.02
0.97
5.37
11
1.02
0.97
5.39
10
1.01
0.96
5.41
9
1.01
0.96
5.42
8
1.01
0.96
5.44
7
1.01
0.95
5.46
6
LOO
0.95
5.47
5
1.00
0.95
5.49
4
LOO
0.94
5.51
3
0.99
0.94
5.54
2
0.98
0.93
5.60
Average
LOO
0.95
5.44
All flats A in block 3 and 5 are equal in size, 888 sq ft ( 82.47 sq. m.) except the
ones on 16th floor. All face North West, they share the same podium garden,
facilities and internal layout but flats A of Block 5 sit on a better position in relation
to the garden.
1
The original selling prices supplied b y the developer in July f 1987•
17
2.5.2 Case study n - Site 2 of Block 3 & 5
Table 2.2:
Flat A of Block 3 & 5 of Site 2,Whampoa Garden - price list2 and
percentage difference (Ref: Appendix 2 The full price list and detailed
layout of the flats)
Floor
Cost
($ M),Block 3
Cost
($ M),Block 5
% difference
16
0.36
0.34
7.42
15
0.37
0.35
7.18
14
0.37
0.35
7.20
13
0.37
0.35
7.25
12
0.37
0.34
7.27
11
0.37
0.34
7.31
10
0.37
034
7.33
9
0.36
0.34
7.37
8
0.36
0.34
7.40
7
0.36
0.34
7.44
6
0.36
0.34
7.46
5
0.36
0.33
7.51
4
0.36
0.33
7.53
3
0.35
0.33
7.65
2
0.34
0.32
7.89
Average
036
0.34
7.41
All flats H in block 3 and 5 are 469 sq ft (43.6 sq, m.) in size and face South West,
they share the same podium garden,facilities and internal layout but flats H of Block
3 sit on a better position in relation to the garden.
The original selling prices supplied b y the developer in August, 1985•
18
Given the current cost per unit floor area at about $4,500 per sq ft,the difference of
5.41 % for the 888 sq ft unit and 7.44% for the 469 sq ft unit could mean a difference
of $216,000 and $156,000 respectively.
It is obvious that the only difference between the flats is their positions. One has a
much better position on the podium garden than the other. This is similar to the
enhancement effect in the case study in America where properties with good amenity
trees could have their value raised by up to 27%. As the affluence of people grows,
the desire of people to have a better environment is also a lot stronger than before.
This is evidenced by the fact that there is a gradual improvement of site planning and
the provision of green space in the new residential developments. The result of the
finding here actually echoes the attitude survey in Chapter 5 where the respondents
were found to be willing to give an additional 8 % to the rent or price of a property
for a better green view.
2.6 Recommendations
Despite the long list of environmental benefits in relation to green space, the effects
are yet to be recognized by the Environmental Protection Department in Hong Kong.
It is recommended that Environmental Protection Department investigates and assists
in monitoring the amelioration effects of green space in terms of pollution mitigation
to establish 汪 more objective requirement (measurable benefit) of
effect. The municipal councils should also accept that pollution control by green
plant is an acceptable reasons for trees planting as the Councils' inclination is more
on tree planting for amenity and passive recreation purpose.
19
On the other hand,public education should be strengthened through official and semiofficial channel with Education Departments, Urban and Regional Councils, Radio
Television Hong Kong etc to promulgate the benefit of the green environment to life,
to educate the public to a higher appreciation of the green environment and the fact
that there are economic and environmental benefits of trees rather than pure
ornamental use-
it is noted that there is in recent years a great uprise of provision of private open
space because of its enhancement effects to property value and also because
practically all new lease conditions require development to provide landscape
treatment to non-built over area. The cumulative provision of private open space and
green space is enormous.
As the present open space planning does not include
private provision, it is perhaps the right time to consider including this wholly or
partially in terms of open space provision in land use planning and to maintain a
certain guideline to design to ensure a good proportion of green space is provided.
20
Chapter 3.
Green space planning
other countries
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CHAPTER 3.
3.1 The U.K. example
The planning standards and guidelines of the British new town, Milton Keynes is
chosen here for the comparative study because it is a new town aiming at a high
quality landscape. This is in line with the Master Plan goal of "an attractive city".
The parks and other open spaces cater for the outdoor activities of residents and
visitors but they also establish a green image for the city and a setting for its
buildings. This setting is reinforced further by city road landscaping, local open
space and at a small scale, by the hard and soft landscaping of streets and roadways
and the landscape component in built development. Together,these elements create
汪 structural framework for development and provide the "predominant continuity of
green space"
Table 3.1:
The anticipated land budget for Milton Keynes, when completed.
Designated area
Hectares
% of
Gross residential
3,690
41.5
Gross employment
1,060
12.0
Central Milton Keynes
160
2.0
Other (facilities, services and utilities outside CMK)
475
5.5
Brickfields
275
3.
Roads and reservations
1,250
14.0
Parks and open space
1,970
22.0
8,880
100.0
Total
(source: Milton Keynes Development Corporation.
1992.)
The planning of Milton Keynes began in 1967 when the U.K. Minister of Housing
and Local Government designated 汪 site of almost 9,000 ha for the development of
2
1
D A Boundary
Figure 3.1
The s t r a t e g i c l a n d use p l a n o f M i l t o n Keynes New Town
the town for an eventual population of about 250,000.
Table 3.1 shows the
anticipated land use budget and Figure 3.1 shows the strategic land use master plan
of Milton Keynes.
The parks and open space provision is actually below Hong Kong standard (8.8 ha
for Milton Keynes vs 20 ha for new town in Hong Kong). However, the lower
public open space provision is more than compensated by the low density of
residential development which allows ample space for private open space.
The
difference in population density is alarming (67.75 people per ha in Milton Keynes
vs 737.6 people per ha in Sha Tin - please refer to Appendix 4 for the summary of
schedule of land uses, Sha Tin New Town Outline Zoning Plan, for comparison
purpose). The achievement of the high quality landscape character as part of its
master plan is implemented through its residential areas planning design principles.
With the overriding aims for high environmental quality, variety and a sense of place,
the design of residential dwellings is emphasized to be conscious and coordinated.
The essential guidelines as contained in the Milton Keynes residential planning design
principles,is that each separate scheme should be set in a coherent framework of
landscape. Grid-square Structure Plans are provided to guide the framework and
scheme briefs ensure compatibility between schemes. Much attention is focused on
streetscape design, with planting, hard and soft surface treatments, special features
and building frontages combined to create a sense of place,particularly along main
local routes.
Concerning the provision of green space, a general heavy emphasis on the natural
planting environment is observed. According to the book,Planning of the Milton
Keynes (Milton Keynes Dev Corp 1992),the development of both district and local
parks are heavily emphasized on its green provision. Table 3.2 shows the analysis
of four park examples.
23
Table 3.2
An analysis of some
Project
Park
area
(ha)
Planting
area (ha)
Planting
portion
Remarks
1.
40
36.8
92%
The city's central park
designed to relate to the
urban development with
facilities including a civic
park with a narrow
promontory serving as a
landmark, middle park with
mainly woodland, city
gardens with concentrated
display of plants.
2. Kents
Hill
District
Park
12.5
11.6
93%
A district park serving an
immediate catchment of
about 15,000 people for
whom it performs the
function of a conventional
town park. It provides a
green setting for facilities as
well as allowing for a wide
variety of active and passive
uses in a relatively
concentrated space.
3.
Crownhill
Local Park
1.94
L8
93%
Local park (standard
provision 0.6ha/1000
population) with facilities
like car park, footpaths,play
equipment and extensive
planting areas.
4. Local
park at
Walnut tree
0.24
0.19
80%
Local park with footpath and
hard surfaced area.
Campbell
Park
24
3.2 The Singapore example
llni
UIT
cmMmm
mcial m p t i
NUT / LUT tTATIM
« M T LAHMHO
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rwwiMt LAw i n # nm
mnwwATmtAL w
Figure 3.2
The s t r a t e g i c l a n d use p l a n o f S i n g a p o r e
One of the major tools to be used for the greening and beautification of Singapore is
the Green and Blue Plan.
It will form the framework for improved leisure
opportunities. It weaves together a system of open spaces that complement waterways
-thus giving rise to the green (foliage) and blue (water) name.
This network is made up of six types of open spaces:
1.
Natural open spaces - such as mangrove swamps, wooded areas and
nature reserves.
2.
Major parks and gardens - such as regional parks and district parks.
3.
Sports and recreation grounds - including stadiums, golf courses,
adventure parks and camping sites.
4.
Boundary separators - which serve as green linkages connecting major
parks and recreational areas and as green belts between urbanized
districts.
5.
Internal greenways and connectors - which define neighbourhoods and
25
precincts within 汪 local community of 200,000 to 300,000 people.
Greenways can be naturally landscaped or informal. Connectors are
proposed pedestrian malls that link neighbourhoods and town centres
within new towns.
6.
Other open areas • including military training areas and agricultural
land.
7.
Waterways - like the Singapore river and other rivers, and some of the
major canals can be adapted for recreational use and can bring people
closer to the water.
Table 3.3
The current Open Space provision in Singapore ( source: Urban
Redevelopment Authority,3 July 1993 - please refer to Appendix 3)
Types of open space
Ha/1,000 population
Land area (Ha)
1. Natural open space
1.4
4,340
2. Parks and gardens
0.7
2,080
3. Sports & recreation
0.4
1,120
Total
205
7,540
When Table 3.3 is compared with the existing Hong Kong provision and standards,
Hong Kong has a very much better margin in the provision of natural open space.
Based on the Planning Department record as at March, 1989, there is some 40,833
ha of Country Park in Hong Kong, this is almost 10 times the area of "natural open
space" in Singapore although Singapore has a gross area of 57,000 ha only or about
57% of Hong Kong. This is thanks to the rather difficult terrain in Hong Kong which
practically prohibit the development of much of the rural hinterland which is now
designated as country park.
26
On the other hand, the standards of provision of open space in the form of parks and
gardens, sports and recreation facilities in Singapore are comparatively much higher
than Hong Kong.
The standards are 0.7 ha/1,000 population and 0.4 ha/1,000
population respectively compared with Hong Kong's 0.067 and 0.133 for passive
open space and active open space respectively.
The ten times difference in the
provision of passive open space accounts for the rather better feeling of greenery and
balanced landscape environment in the built area of Singapore than in Hong Kong.
As regards the ratio of passive and active use, according to the Curator (Planning),
Parks and Recreation Department, there are no specific standards and guidelines on
the design of parks and open spaces in Singapore. However, as a general rule of
thumb in the design of parks, more passive areas (for passive activities and planting)
will be provided.
This is illustrated in Table 3,4 which gives the
analysis of two of their popular parks,Pasir Ris Parks and Seletar Reservoir Park.
Table 3.4
An analysis of some green space provision in Singapore Parks
Project
Park
area
(ha)
Planting
area (ha)
Planting
portion
Remarks
1. Pasir Ris
Park
78.8
63
80%
Facilities include
holiday bungalows, 5
carparks, footpath,
cycletrack, esplanade,
ornamental gardens,
children's playground,
barbecue areas, plazas
etc
2. Lower
Seletar
Reservoir Park
3.55
3.10
87%
Facilities include
recreation paths,
shelters, sitting out area,
toilets etc
27
3.3 The Dutch example
The Netherlands has always been the front runner in terms of urban
planning. As in Hong Kong, the role of landscape within the city has been related
mainly to the form and appearance of open spaces. Since the 60,s,the rapid growth
of interest in the greening of cities in the Netherlands did begin to have a strong
impact on planning policies.
By the late 70’s the concept described by the word "Green" had come to include all
aspects of the unbuilt areas of cities. It covered more than public open space and
included all private unbuilt areas where plants and nature predominated.
According to the Nature in Urban Areas report, the green areas of a city have five
main functions:
a.
"Green" acts as a buffer between man and the pollution caused by his
activities, as nature has a capacity to clean water,air and soil.
b.
"Green" has an aesthetic function, in that plant material can be used
to create spaces within which we are conscious of a sense of harmony
and it can be used to screen the cities' eyesores. Ecological harmony
is also put forward as a factor influencing aesthetics,even if it does
not meet any of the rules of conventional aesthetic appreciation.
c.
"Green" has a recreational function, as it provides a siting of leisure
time activities and experiences.
d.
"Green" has a psychological function, because contact with nature
gives urban man a unique opportunity to experience for himself the
natural world.
e.
Finally, the "green" aspects of the city give the town planners an
28
opportunity to create a "whole" out of the disparate elements that
normally make up a city. In part, the green areas are the linking
spaces between different land uses and give form to the city. They
allow the penetration of the countryside landscape into the city and a
gradual change in landscape from the informal character on the edge
of the city,where it meets the countryside, to the formal character of
the city centre,where man's commercial and administrative functions
dominate.
The direct effect of the interest of many Dutch cities in the green space planning has
lead to a very extensive growth of green space in each city. For instance, in the
town of Breda there were 5 sq. m. of green space per inhabitant in 1950. In 1985,
this amounts to 40 sq.m. per inhabitant.
3.4 The lesson learnt
Although both the U.K. and Singapore do not have clear quantitative specifications
on green space provision, it is evident that they do value the importance of this as
demonstrated in the park design examples. As urban open space is one of the best
tools in the existing planning system to ensure the provision of green space, it would
therefore be good if we could stipulate a certain standard in open space design.
Depending on the finding in later chapters, a "reasonable" standard could be
designated according to some of the existing provisions and the standard could then
be raised gradually to correspond with that in other countries subject to the local land
use requirements and the public demand. On the other hand, consideration should be
given to stipulating a per capita green space standard as in the Netherlands which
29
shall include, as in case of Hong Kong,
and amenity area planting. The level of provision should be actively monitored to
ensure compliance and practicality of the standards.
30
Chapter 4.
Green space planning and
provision in Hong Kong
CHAPTER 4.
4.1 The Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines ( HKPSG)
At the moment,the issue of green space planning is dealt with by Chapter 10 and 4
of the HKPSG under the heading of Landscape and Conservation and Recreation and
Open Space respectively.
4.1.1 HKPSG Chapter 10 _ Landscape and Conservation
The Chapter gives a very comprehensive description of what urban and rural
landscape should be like in Hong Kong. It discusses in detail the planning of rural
and urban environment with respect to landscape and conservation concerns. The
section in relation to urban landscape is summarised as follows:
a.
maximising the presence and value of vegetation
b.
creating a landscape framework within the urban setting
c.
providing for function: i.e. maintenance, convenience and use of urban
spaces; and
d.
conserving valuable landscape and cultural features
Despite the general attempt to achieve 汪 comprehensive planning scenario in both
rural and urban environment, Chapter 10 lacks the quantitative instrument in steering
planners and landscape professionals to commit to a quantifiable objective. It does
not for example specify how the urban landscape framework should be realized in a
layout plan by specific zoning. There is also no suggested guideline on how much
area should be reserved for the purpose of amenity,vegetation preservation and
creation of a suitable landscape framework within the urban setting.
31
4.1.2 Chapter 4 of HKPSG - Recreation and Open Space
As regards Chapter 4 of HKPSG - Recreation and Open Space,it provides
quantitative standards to all recreation facilities. Of all the facilities mentioned, the
closest to stipulating the green space requirements is in relation to "amenity area" and
"open space", which mentions that:
a.
"amenity area" should normally be landscaped (i.e. planted) and
b.
"open space" should have a 2 : 1 active to passive facilities ratio in
which the passive facilities portion should usually be landscaped.
a. "Amenity area"
As regards "amenity" zoning, it is not counted as open space provision. It is also not
part of the statutory plan. The land ownership is also arbitrary as it is normally
classed as Crown Land and part of the road reserve if it adjoins a road.
The
municipal councils only provide horticultural maintenance to plants growing on the
land. The land is not owned by the councils and is therefore not under their control
apart from the plant on the surface - it is sometimes sad to learn that even the root
system under the surface may not be safe. At the moment, whenever there is any
public works / utilities requirement,amenity areas are the most convenient places to
be abused.
b. "Open space"
As regards the stipulated passive facilities requirement. This refers to areas usually
landscaped where games facilities are not provided but where people can enjoy the
surroundings in a leisurely manner. The passive open space should therefore largely
be green space.
32
According to a planner in the Regional Services Department and Landscape Architects
in the Territory Development Department, the 2: 1 active to passive facilities ratio
is not often adhered to but rather to allow a flexible design approach to suit local
requirements. On the other hand, due to the rather harsh weather in Summer, a lot
of the land based active facilities including basket ball courts, badminton courts and
volley ball courts are now housed indoors in the multi-purpose indoor games halls to
allow for use under all weather conditions as well as for longer hours. Management
of these indoor facilities is also made easier with the convenience of better design.
The planning advantage of Indoor Games Halls and facilities like swimming pools is
that they can be developed in land zoned Government / Institution & Community
(GIC) and can therefore relieve the pressure of reserving space for active facilities in
areas zoned "open space".
In reviewing the argument paper of the Planning Standard Sub Committee based on
data from September 1975,there were only reasons given for deciding on the 2 : 1
active to passive facilities ratio. The basis of argument was to use a nominal space
allocation per head of between 2.5 sq.m. per head to 15 sq.m. according to the age
group assuming that they play mini-soccer and basket ball games etc and to suggest
a per 100,000 population theoretical assessment chart as in Table 4.1.
With the above calculation and the 1971 census information of the total population
and age group distribution,汪 minimum provision of 12 ha/ 100,000 population was
worked out. As the gross provision in the old urban area is about 15 ha / 100,000
population, it was therefore rccomniended that a more moderate 10 ha
population be aimed at and thus the 2 : 1 active to passive ratio was established. As
33
there is more space allowed in the New Towns, a more generous provision of 20 ha
/100,000 population is allowed but the ratio of 2 : 1 is simply adopted.
Table 4.1
Assessment chart of active open space requirements
Group
Percentage of age Space
group likely to
allocation
require use of
per head
sports facilities at sq. m.
any one time
Pre-school children
15%
2.5
Assuming mainly
small children's
play grounds.
Primary-school children
25%
10.0
Assuming mainly
mini-soccer &
basket ball.
Young adults
25%
15.0
ditto
Mature adults
20%
15.0
ditto
Middle-aged adults
15%
10.0
Assuming
smaller type of
field events.
Remarks
Assuming small
informal "games"
areas.
(source : Appendix to Report of Ah»hoc working group to Standard of Provision oi
Recreation Facilities, July 1981)
Senior Citizens
2.5
5%
It is not the intention of this study to examine the overall provision of open space
although this is probably overdue given that Chapter 4 has been produced for more
than ten years. As for the amount of green space provided, the ratio of active to
passive open space should definitely be reviewed given the lessons learnt through the
application of the HKPSG for the past decade and also the change in people's habits.
34
4.2 Existing provision of
As regards the content of passive open space, a more detailed study was performed
with some recently completed projects in the new towns where a higher standard of
design is normally found due to the employment of landscape professionals and
engagement of landscape consultants by the Territory Development Department. It
is found that the
Table 4.2. Photographs and details of the surveyed parks are in Appendix 5.
The survey as detailed in Table 4.1 represents a general wide spectrum of projects
in different new towns including Tuen Mun,Sha Tin, and Sheung Shui / Fanling.
They are all quite recent projects taking into accounts the need of both active and
passive facilities, the balance of environment, aesthetics and amenity. They include
small local open space from 0.0305 ha, medium size district open space of 0.67 to
3.5 ha and town parks of 8.3 and 11 ha respectively. The portion of planting area
varies from 0.46 to 0.75 of the total site area with all of them basically functioning
as parks with active and passive facilities though the design brief generally
concentrate more on the passive side. The average green space provision in these
parks is 58% of the total site area. For reference purposes, the figure is similar to
Victoria Park which was built in 1957 with a site area of about 18.3 ha and about 9.3
ha of planting area, i.e. about 50%.
35
Table 4.2
An analysis of ratio of green planting space to total open space area
Project
Park
area
(ha)
Planti
ng
area
(ha)
Planting
portion
Remarks
(please see Appendix 5 for photographs
and more detailed description of the
parks)
1. Landscaping to Roads
in Tuen Mun
12
9.9
83%
Roadside open spaces and amenity
areas built and planted in 1987 costing
$ 25.6 million
2. Tuen Mun 11
Town Park
5.7
52%
Town park with lake, artificial cascade,
play area,active sports facilities and
planting built in stages from 1980 1990 at a cost of $ 114 million
3. North
District
Central Park
8.3
3.8
46%
Town park with lake, water features
and active facilities and planting built in
1989 at a cost of $ 30 million
4. District
Open Space
at Area 14B
& G,Shatin
3.5
1.5
43%
District park being built for completion
in 1994 with cycling,lawn bowling,
squash, tennis and passive facilities at a
cost of $ 50 million
5. Pak Fuk
Tin Sum
3.0
1.36
45%
District park with an artificial turf
soccer pitch and various active and
passive facilities completed in 1990 at a
cost of $20 million
6. Local
Open Spaces
in Area 7,
Fanling
1.55
0.712
46%
4 of local open spaces in Sheung Shui
town centre to be constructed in 1994
at an estimated cost of $19 million
7. Hong Lok
0.95
0.55
58%
District park constructed in 1987 with
active and passive facilities at a cost of
6 million
8. District
Open Space
in Area 46,
Fanling
0.67
0.50
75%
District park in the residential
neighbourhood of Fanling with mainly
passive facilities for construction in
1994 at an estimated cost of 5 million
9. Local
Open Space
in Area 4,
Tuen Mun
0.2
0.13
65%
2 local open spaces with planting,
sitting out areas,and children play
equipments constructed in 1989 at a
cost of $1.5 million
10. Local
Open Space
in Kwan Tei
North
0.0305
0.023
75%
A local open space in the rural out-shirt
of Fanling with planting, sitting out
area and children play equipment to be
constructed in 1994 at an estimated cost
of $ 0.5 million
Park,
Fanling
Park,
Fanling
58.8%
2.42
Average
4.12
(source: Territory Development Department, open space projects design information)
36
4.3 Reconunendaitioiis on
Owing to the vulnerability of amenity area." and the lack of proper control authority,
the municipal councils which are in charge of looking after the plants on top should
be given the proper land right and be responsible for the management of both the
plants and the land where the plants grow. The
with other
later review of the standard.
As regards the provision of
of
ratio of 50%
safeguard the provision of green environment. The standard may still be low when
compared with what other countries are offering. The imposition of a standard could
however mark the beginning to with of
would be very much better than only classifying open space for active and passive
purposes since even passive areas give no guarantee of becoming
the other hand, the 50%
present public open space design as a great no of facilities are housed in indoor games
halls and could be developed in area zoned GIC. There could also be co-existence
of
children's play area on turf etc. In longer term planning,consideration should be
given to raising the standard and to keep an inventory of urban green space to include
both public and private open space as well as amenity areas.
Once the HKPSG establishes the control, it should then be implemented through day
37
to day planning control when plans for both government and private developments are
submitted for vetting. As mentioned, it is more likely that the private submissions
require closer vetting than the Government's.
Despite the lack of a significant
emphasis on private open space and the fact it is still not counted in the provision of
open space, it is becoming more and more important in terms of alleviating the need
for provision of public open space particularly in residential areas. Administratively,
nearly all new residential leases require the provision of landscaping work to non-built
over areas which could practically include everything from open car parks to podium
areas and even roof tops. The cumulative planting coverage or
enormous. In this respect, consideration should be given to regularizing the provision
of private open space by instituting 汪 reasonable standard. The 50% guideline would
contribute very significantly to the
private or public. The guideline might actually reduce costs because planting is
normally cheaper than hard paving, tiling or other architectural features.
According to Landscape Architects in Territory Development Department, who are
the officers in charge of commenting on the landscape designs for the District Lands
Authorities, the ultimate benefit which will derive from the guideline to landscape
design for private developments is that it will protect green planting from being used
as a space filler on the podium deck. Very often,podium decks which are used as
podium gardens and are advertised in an exaggerated manner to promote the sale of
properties, are prone to non-environmental friendly uses like the installation of airconditioning plant, oversized transparent plastic tiles introduced as sky light features
for ground floor shopping arcades etc. The guideline would probably help to reduce
the feeling of subjectivity when government officers comment on private schemes.
38
Chapter 5.
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CHAPTER 5. Public attitude survey on
In 1970,Life Magazine commissioned the Louis Harris organization to poll the
American population as to the desired life styles and environmental values. Ninetyfive percent of those polled listed "green grass and trees around me" as an important
environmental value.
In 1975 Cooper conducted a comprehensive and penetrating study of residents'
satisfaction in a low-income public housing area m California. Her findings suggest
that the perception of "trees and grass" as important elements contributing to the
quality of the residential environment is one that is shared across socioeconomic
population definitions.
5.1 Objectives
In order to ascertain the attitude of the general public in Hong Kong, a survey was
carried out to canvass their views on green environment and open space.
The
objectives were as follows:-
a.
To understand the respondents' attitude concerning their satisfaction on
the green environment and their desire to have green environment
particularly in the vicinity of their living area;
b.
To
collect
information
concerning
the
respondents'
basic
socioeconomic characteristics; and
c.
To explore possible correlation between respondents' background and
their attitude.
39
5.2 Methodology
25 volunteers were recruited from the Morrison Hill Technical Institute (they were
pursuing a part time Certificate course unrelated to the survey subject) to serve as
interviewers. Altogether 71 questionnaires were completed. The students' ages are
from 18-35,with secondary level of eduction. Most of them did not have previous
survey experience but they were briefed on the meaning of various questions. They
were briefed on various techniques including the great importance of their neutrality
when conducting the interviews. They were also asked to try to select interviewees
of as different social background and age group as possible.
5.3 The survey results
The results of the survey are summarized in Table 5.1 (graphic presentation of the
results is also appended, ref Appendix 6).
40
Table 5.1
The questions and response statistics of the public surveyon green attitude
Questions
Response
% of total
1. Satisfaction with green environment
around their living area.
4
3
2
4
2
2
1
6
13
3 2
Very satisfied
Satisfied
Alright
Not satisfied
very unsatisfactory
Missing / invalid answers
Total
2. Do you plant at home?
4
5
3
8
3
1
4
1
o
2
3
2
Yes
Yes and can name 3 species
Missing / invalid answers
Total
3. Do you have any green view from home?
4
7
7
3
2 8
13 1
A lot
Some
Cannot see
Missing / invalid answers
Total
4. Do you like to have green view from home?
Yes, very much
Yes, i f possible
Alright
Not quite interested
Not at all
Missing/invalid answers
Total
29
44
41
5. How much more are you willing to pay to
purchase or rent a place for a better green view?
8
15 1
10-20%
20-30%
100%
Missing / invalid answers
Total
41
8 4
41
10
About 5%
5-10%
6. Do you often visit parks?
d
n
a
s
r
e
o
uetolva
ntgali
nfr
n y eqkei
fte齟 § f l m l l k ; o
o比.tleinMn
IIsomeNotdsl
7. Do you have any improvement suggestions?
to your nearby park (may have more than 1 choice)
Very insufficient green
Insufficient green
Better to have more green
More hard facilities
Missing / invalid answers
Total
•
^ts.
a
e
l
n
t
e
b
i
uldmen
sir
I
ho翻
少
z
肝
n
严
mn e s w
r
e
n
r
s
t
r
l
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sI
i
/
s
比
a
ralrESmoll
8.onNOAbwlososo-soThMiTO
d
9. What is the preference of facilities in front?
of home i f you were given the following choices.
Concrete ball court
Planting area with trees and grass
Refuse collection area
Bus stop
Wet market
Missing / invalid answers
Total
10. Which part of Hong Kong do you live?
New Town
Urban Kowloon or Hong Kong
Rural N.T.
Missing I invalid answers
Total
11. Do you live m public or private Housing estate?
8
7
2
48
19
4
71
6
Housing estate resident
Non-housing estate resident
Missing / invalid answers
Total
12. What is your age group?
3
5
2
3
2
7
1
1
4
5 6 o
18-25
25-35
35-45
45-55
55 or above
Missing / invalid answers
Total
30(
tA
iA
2
2
2
5 1 o o
IX
4
1X
5
1X
8
13. What is your occupation?
Technical
Junior Management
Clerical
Professional
Secretarial
Managerial
Student
Housewife
Retired
Others
Missing /invalid answers
Total
1
14. What is your income level?
2
3
9
4
3
2
43
5
3
Less than $2,000
$2,000 to 5,000
$5,000 - 10,000
$10,000 - 25,000
$25,000 or more
Missing / invalid answers
Total
5.4 The analysis of the results
5.4.1 The social profile of the respondents
According to the returns, an overwhelming majority of the respondents are residents
in the urban area (90%). Most of them belong to the 5,000 - 10,000 and 10,000 25,000 income groups (81%) and aged between 18 - 35 (72%). Their occupational
backgrounds are also rather diverse but the majority classified themselves in the
technical, junior management and clerical categories.
5.4.2 Their "Green11 attitude
As regards the respondents' satisfaction with the green environment around, they axe
more inclined to feeling satisfied - about 69 % says alright, satisfied or very satisfied.
About half of the respondents do have plants at home and about 76% of the
respondents could see some or a lot of green view from home.
Concerning their desire
On 4
Do you want a
门 v i ©w。
to have more green
view from home, about
85 % of the respondents
prefer to have a green
living environment and
of
the
85%,
44%
1
y nucH
indicated
preference.
YWJ
strong
Figure 5.1
19ml
Not q
Not mt. a l l
"Mtad I nva
Bar char of respondents' desire to
have a green view from home
44
h e n
Qn 5 Pay more for a green view。
s k e d
quantitatively
how
much the respondents
aie willing to pay for
the green view,82% of
the
respondents
are
willing to pay some
1T
1
Figure 5.2
money.
Bar chart showing the additional
amount of rent or purchase price the
respondents are willing to pay for a
green view
58% of the
respondents are Willing
to pay about 5% more,
14% willing to pay five to 10% more, 8% to pay 10-20% more and 1% at 100%
more.
Statistically,the mean is about 8% more of the property value that the
respondents are willing to pay when purchasing or renting a place for an improved
amenity. This finding is roughly similar to the earlier analysis about Whampoa
garden property value which reveals that there could be an over 7 % difference
between some flats due only to a slight difference in location in the garden podium.
This arguments the belief of some people that a better landscape environment does
not justify its investment cost.
Although less than half the population has the habit of visiting parks regularly, when
asked about park improvement suggestions about three quarters of the replies green
planting in contrast to the alternate choice of the inclusion of more hard facilities like
toilet and seats.
45
In
answers
question
to
about
the
Gln.g Preference of f a c i l i t i e s ifo home
the
preference of facilities
in front of home, more
than half (54%) prefer
m
m
with trees and grass in
front of home,
court n^rue« col lection
wet marKet
f"
TTeea and grRsa area
Bus stop
invalid _
16%
respondents prefer to
1
to have a planting area
F i g u r e 5.3
Bar chart o f respondents' preference
o f f a c i l i t i e s i n f r o n t o f t h e i r homes
have a concrete paved ball court and another 16% prefer a bus stop, only
prefer a refuse collection area and wet market respectively. This is in line with the
earlier mentioned American survey that up to 95 % of the American population listed
"green grass and trees around me" as important element in terms of life style.
Qn. 8 Green space requirement
With respect
provision
to the
of
space,
necessary to have some
area reserved for such
a purpose with
the
majority of respondents
ticking the answer from
Figure 5.4
Bar
chart
showing
respondents‘
p r e f e r r e d green space p r o v i s i o n
5%
to
and ttie
statistical mean of respondents are 20% which is much higher our existing or planned
provision.
46
5.5 Survey conclusions
In connection with the overall result of this survey, it could be seen that the
respondents are generally preferring:
a.
to have more green view and space than now;
b.
to have
c.
to have
and
d.
to have better green view even that means paying more rent or
purchase price for a flat.
In sum, the public attitude supports government in placing a higher emphasis on the
provision of
that there is an imminent need to review green planning or open space and landscape
planning which were based on rather aged information. For
and also other land use planning, it is essential that the standards and actual provision
and demands be regularly reviewed and the assessment be returned for further
planning review to ensure the standards and guidelines are up to date and reasonable
for implementation.
47
Chapter 6.
Cost of development and
maintenance of green space
CHAPTER 6. Cost of development and maintenance of
In reality the success of establishing 汪
the practicality of the idea which is related to the economics of providing and
managing
6.1 Development cost
According to Table 6.1,the summary schedule of unit costs of open space / landscape
projects,Territory Development Department for projects tendered in the period Jan
87 to Mar 93 (see also Appendix 7 for the full schedule), the averaged unit cost of
the projects could vary from $8 to $974 per sq. m. for slope afforestation with
seedlings supplied by others free to the building of town parks which have a very
high percentage of hardwork. For pure "green" planting work, the cost is in the
region of about $100 per sq m.
It can be seen that the cost actually does not depend on what type of open space is
being developed. The cost is dependent on the amount of hardwork of the project.
The higher the percentage of hard work element, the more expensive is the cost, for
all 4 types of project with high hard work element (75% plus), the cost is in the
range of $558 per sq. m. to 948. For projects with medium proportion of hard work
( 7 - 45% ), the cost is about $236 per sq. m. whereas pure planting is only $99 per
sq. m. For slope afforestation which normally has the tree seedlings supplied by the
Agriculture and Fisheries Department, the cost of planting is as low as $8 per sq. m.
48
Table 6.1
A simple table summarizing the type of park facilities and the unit cost
of developing the park
Project category
% cost of
hardwork
Unit cost
range $/sq
m
Averag
ed unit
cost $/
sq m
1. Town Park
86 - 94%
657 - 1277
948
76 - 100%
357 - 1543
558
84 - 94%
610 - 1299
829
i. 7 “ 45%
ii. 75 - 100%
iii. Planting
and soil only
107 - 341
444 - 1064
93 - 138
236
633
99
Can include water features, cafe,
toilets,play areas, planting etc
2. District Open Space
Outdoor areas of more than local
significance providing active and /or
passive recreation space for
concentrated population
3. Local Open Space
Outdoor areas providing active and/or
passive recreation space for
concentrated populations in the
immediate vicinity
4. Amenity Area
Landscape areas too small to be
included in QS calculations but
providing visual relief and limited
recreation value
Slope afforestation with seedlings
supplied by others
0%
-
8
There is therefore no excuse that
cost. The balance of decision should rest on relative demand based on objective and
subjective factors including the environmental balance and people's demand for the
amenity, space and tranquillity. Given its relatively cheap cost,considerations should
be given to planting up all vacant crown land with no immediate ( say one year )
development plan with grass and tree seedlings. Even when it has to be clear-felled
in the future, the amenity and environmental improvement before the development
49
would still justify its cost given the very fast growth rate of many tree species used
in Hong Kong (Ref: Appendix 1 for some common tree species planted in Hong
Kong ). In cases where some trees could be retained in the development, the semi
mature or mature tree may actually help to enhance the value of the property as
demonstrated in Chapter 2 concerning the economic value of
investment in urban tree planting should not be seen as a pure expenditure item but
an asset to both the physical environment and the economic world.
6.2 Maintenance and management cost
The following is an analysis of 19 projects in North East New Territories based on
the original Public Works Subcommittee Papers information.
6.2.1 Open space with a mix of active and passive facilities
In Table 6.2, there are 11 typical new town open space projects with standard
facilities including children's play areas, plazas, park lighting,sitting out areas,
toilets,fountains and extensive planting.
It could be seen that the average management cost of is about 7.5% which does not
seem to be too excessive. However, since only one of the papers included the
estimated revenue which is recouped from the rent of kiosks, a better comparison in
this respect was not possible.
50
Table 6.2
Capital and recurrent cost of major New Town open space projects
Project3
Recurrent
Cost $ M
Revenue
$M
Recurrent/capital cost
10.7% ]
TP Area 9,
Fanling
18.5
1.98
TP Area 7,
Fanling
8.9
0.48
5.4%
TP,Area 4,
Tai Po
5.5
0.46
8.4%
11.0
0.26
2.4%
3.8
0.68
17.9%
DOS Area 1,
Tai Po
10.8
0.65
DOS Area 42
& 44,Fanling
13.2
0.76
5.8%
DOS Area 22
TP
4.8
0.21
4.3%
DOS Area 24,
TP
6.8
0.28
DOS Area 七
FL
5.2
0.41
10.4
0.97
T SQ Area 4,
Tai Po
DOS Area
13B, Fanling
DOS Area 15,
TP
Average
3
Capital
Cost $ M
9.0
0.67
0.20
6%
4.2%
4.1%
7.9%
9.3%
7.5%
•
TP = Town Park, T SQ = Town square and DOS = District open space
51
-
6.2.2 Active recreational projects
In Table 6.3 there are the analysis of nine typical active recreational facilities
projects.
Table 6.3
Capital and recurrent cost of major New Town active recreational
facilities projects
Project4
Capital
Cost $ M
Recurrent
Cost $ M
Revenue
$ M
Recurrent/capital
cost
Soccer Pitch
Area l,Tai Po
5.9
0.36
6.2%
SP-CPX Area
22,Tai Po
23.8
0.89
3.7%
SwP Area 22,
Tai Po
37.3
2.25
LOS
6.0%
IRC(A), Area
8,Fanling
5.2
0.69
0.24
13.4%
IRC(B),Area
17,Tai Po
7.9
0.56
IRC(C),Area
6,Fanling
24.3
0.85
IRC(C),Area
3/23,Tai Po
11.0
0.85
IRC(C),Area
16.5
0.80
0.42
4.9%
2.3%
16.5
1.09
0.60
6.6%
3.7%
3.1%
8.7%
7.1%
0.67
3.5%
0.7%
7.8%
8,
TaiPo
Average
From Table 6.3, it can be seen that the cost of management and maintenance relative
to the capital investment is only 6.6% which is lower than the extensively landscaped
parks. Given the revenue generated due to the fee charging system for the use of
facilities and the rents from the franchised canteen and kiosk service the relative
recurrent cost could even be lower. However, due to comparative expensive cost of
4
SP-CPX = Sports Complex, SwP = Swimming Pool &
IRC(A,B or C) = Indoor Recreation Centre ( type A r B or C )
52
these facilities compared with open space projects,the absolute expenditure is still
well over 60% more for the management and maintenance of the active facilities.
According to the expenditure cost breakdown of Kowloon Park in Table 6.4,a more
in-depth study could review the expenditure pattern of green space.
Table 6.4
Expenditure cost breakdown of Kowloon park in 1992-1993
Item
Expenditure ($ M)
% of total
Personal emoluments
2.93
29.3
Hardwork maintenance
3.28
32.8
Cleansing and hygiene
1.90
19.0
Security
1.46
14*6
0.198
1.98
Plant furniture maintenance
0.0208
0.208
Electricity
0.0497
0.497
0.163
1.63
9.98
100
Horticultural supplies
Others
Total
It can be seen that a high portion of maintenance cost is spent on items like the
maintenance of hard facilities including toilets, paving areas and associated electrical
and mechanical facilities. A substantial portion of money and time is also spent on
security,cleansing and hygiene activities which relates more to visitors than the upkeeping of the horticultural standard of the park. For amenity areas where planting
is substantial but not heavily used by recreational goers,the cost of maintenance
could be significantly reduced.
It therefore follows that the cost of maintaining the green space provision is
%
dependent on the way the space is used. The more accessible 汪 space to people for
53
passive recreation purposes the more which has to be spent on items like security,
cleansing and power supply for lighting. Large tracts of amenity area which provide
wonderful greenery and performs the environmental improvement functions could cost
next to nothing in terms of maintenance.
6.3 The implications
In short,it can be concluded that the cost of development and maintenance for the
green facility is relatively cheaper than a comparable active facility and the concern
about the cost of management and maintenance should not therefore be an issue to
developing more green space. This point was reaffirmed by a planning officer in
Regional Services Department who confirmed that the council when considering what
has to be provided, is more concerned with what is needed than its maintenance cost
except when a rather non-standard facility is proposed.
54
b
7
.
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CHAPTER 7. Summary of findings and Recommendations
7.1 Summary of findings
Based on the above discussions,the findings can be summarized as follows:
a-
The physical benefits of planting trees are well established including the
mitigation of air and noise pollution problems, cooling effects, improvement
of the soil condition, urban hydrology,acting as wind deflector, precipitation
controller and glare reducer and to provide a pleasant environment for outdoor
recreation and wildlife conservation. Trees are very important components
of urban design and could help in the mental and intellectual development of
a child.
b.
Economically, trees are found to be value enhancers of residential properties
in the U.S.
In Hong Kong where high density high rise residential
developments are common, properties are found to be enhanced by their
superior position in private green space. The economic benefits of individual
trees can also be evaluated using valuation formula recommended by
professional societies.
In reviewing the green space planning issue in other places, namely Milton
Keynes in the U.K. and Singapore, although there is no direct evidence of a
categoric specification of green space land use, there are evidence of a
relatively high level of green provision in parks and open space provision
which is in the region of about 80%. This is higher than most of the newly
designed parks in Hong Kong. In the town Breda of the Netherlands, the
green space provision is about 400 ha per 100,000 population. This is even
higher than the total land space available per person in Hong Kong. Although
this is not achievable in Hong Kong given the constraints,the inclusion of a
55
proper
a reasonable standard in Hong Kong.
d.
When looking at the planning standards and guidelines in Hong Kong, there
are currently two chapters that are related to
4 and Chapter 10.
The former concerns the planning of open space and
recreational facilities and the latter about landscape and conservation. There
is however no coherent link between the two chapters. Chapter 4 relates to
the provision of open space and facilities and virtually all known sport
activities are listed and specified with a recommended provision standard
except that
therefore vulnerable to being taken over especially in private open space by
other specific uses particularly the ones required under statutory rules or for
operational reasons including the provision of fire access and allowance for
air-conditioning plant.
In reviewing some of the open space recently constructed or soon to be
constructed, it can be seen that the planting portion is about 43% to 83% with
a statistical average of 58%. A 50%
considered reasonable to be enforced initially despite this is still rather low
compared with the examples found in Singapore and the U.K.. This could
serve as a bench-mark for the reference of government departments and act
as an objective standard to private developers in making plans for private open
space.
In reviewing the public opinion, my survey revealed that most respondents
desire more
are willing to pay more in order to have a better green view. The statistical
56
average is about 8% of the property price or rent which seems to agree with
the result of my case study in Whampoa Garden. This suggests that the public
desire a higher
g.
Concerning the capital investment cost as well as the maintenance cost,it is
found that the per unit area price to build hard landscape feature and facilities
in open space is much more than that for green space • It is therefore
reasonable to expect that the municipal councils would not be against green
space for reasons of increased maintenance. In an interview with a council
planner, she admitted that the council's preference for facilities is more
affected by local demand rather that the 2:1 ratio stipulated in the HKPSG or
for financial reason.
7.2 Recommendations
Based on this study,it is strongly advised that there should be some proper planning
provision for green space in Hong Kong, based on its physical and psychological
importance as well as the wishes of the urban population.
When considered
practically, the idea is not very expensive given the generally low cost of providing
and even maintaining these green spaces compared with other recreational facilities.
A proper quantitative provision standard is strongly recommended to accord a suitable
priority ranking to the subject to protect the landscape design from having to struggle
for the survival of the green space. As demonstrated by this study, it is clear that
there is a strong need to supplement the current guideline in the HKPSG to ensure the
achievement of more environmentally balanced surroundings.
57
The followings are recommended as a result of this study:
Green space
recognized and defined in the HKPSG to reflect its significance.
Amenity area, which should be totally landscaped, shall be counted as 100%
green space.
these
responsibilities to the municipal councils.
For open space, private and public, a guideline of minimum 50%
provision should be stipulated to ensure a reasonable design particularly for
private developments. Consideration shall be given to counting private
space
under monitor.
Lands Department, as the land administration authority, shall act according to
the guidelines to introduce appropriate clauses in the special conditions for
new development to ensure sufficient allowance for open space and
space.
maintained by the owner is also very important to make the
provision a success.
Lands Department shall also consider the grassing and tree planting of vacant
crown land if there is no imminent use in view of the low cost of planting and
the environmental benefits.
The total provision of
by the Councils through their executive departments Urban Services
Department and Regional Services Department.
Planning Department shall carry out reviews from time to time on the
58
space
adjustments to the HKPSG, statutory plans or layout plans to ensure the
provision of a satisfactory level of
satisfaction shall also be periodically assessed through social surveys.
8.
Environmental Protection Department shall assist in monitoring the
amelioration effects of
a more objective requirement (measurable benefit) of
effect.
9.
Public education should be strengthened through official and semi-official
channel with Education Department, Urban and Regional Councils, Radio
Television Hong Kong, etc to promulgate the benefit of the green environment
to life and to educate the public to a higher appreciation of the green
environment.
The recommendations are not exhaustive however as there are simply too many issues
related to the provision including the overall provision of open space which is
affecting the total area of
suggested 50% is purely indicative of planting space for all open space. The long
term establishment of a green space inventory and a planning standard will be
essential ensure proper care and attention be allocated to looking after our green
environment.
59
Chapter 8.
,J
•-'
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,
CHAPTER 8. Conclusions
It is generally considered that the present planning standards and guidelines in Hong
Kong does not giving sufficient weighting to the subject of green planning and is
certainly not quantitative enough. The most desirable way to handle this is to detail
the present HKPSG making
right or as part of an open space or residential development etc. An inventory shall
be created to monitor the achievement of standard and for future reviews.
It is easier said than done to make an environment green and natural. It takes years
of planning, design, implementation and even more importantly maintenance and care
to achieve the goal. I hope,with the efforts in planning the provision and through
the long term public education, we might ultimately achieve the ideal.
60
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A list of common landscape trees in Hong Kong
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Reference: Chapter 2.
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Appendix 2
Flats internal layout and price list of Whampoa Garden
Reference: Chapter 2,section 2.4 Case study of Whampoa Garden
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1,316,400
1,312,400
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9/F樓
1,178,716
1,324,400
900,502
1,011,800
1,182,276
1,328,400
1,185,480
903,172
1,014,800
10/F 樓
1,185,836
1,332,400
1,189,040
1,336,000
905,842
1,017,800
11/F 樓
1,336,400
1,192,600
908,512
1,020,800
12/F 樓
1,178,360
1,174,800
1,171,240
1,167,680
1,164,120
1,155,220
1,137,420
1,324,000
1,320,000
1,316,000
1,312,000
1,308,000
1,298,000
1,278,000
897,832
895,162
892,492
887,152
882,702
873,802
1,008,800
§
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991,800
981,800
3/F樓
2/F樓
999,800
4/F樓
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7/F樓
1,181,920
1,328,000
1,340,000
976,100
1,137,420
1,134,216
986,100
1,155,220
!
868,729
H. 877,629
§ 882,079
1,298,000
1,152,016
1,294,400
991,100
1,308,000
1,164,120
1,160,916
1,304,400
994,100
890,089
892,759
895,429
898,099
900,769
903,439
906,109
1,167,680
1,312,000
1,164,476
1,308,400
!
911,449
*$814,439
887,419
^
3 884,749
1,171,240
1,316,000
1,000,100
1,003,100
1,006,100
1,009,100
1,012,100
1,015,100
1,018,100
1,021,100
1,024,100
*$ 915,100
八九祈
11% Discount
71.83 s.m.方米
773 s.f.方呎
997,100
1,174,800
1,320,000
1,189,040
1,336,000
1,171,596
1,192,600
1,340,000
1,178,360
1,196,160
1,344,000
1,324,000
1,199,720
1,348,000
1,181,920
1,203,280
1,352,000
1,185,480
$1,178,360
八九折
11% Discount
$1,324,000
價
1,328,000
[
訂
Usted Price
90.10 s.m.方米
970 s.f.方呎
102.87 s.m.方米
1,107 s.f.方呎
1,332,000
1,189,396
1,192,956
1,340,400
1,196,160
911,182
1,023,800
13/F 樓
1,196,516
1,199,720
913,852
1,026,800
$1,175,156
八九祈
11% Discount
1,200,076
$1,320,400
價
1,344,400
1,348,000
挪688
15/F 樓
14/F 樓
i
訂
Usted Price
1,348,400
$1,178,360
八九折
11% Discount
89.87 s.m.方米
967 s.f.方呎
102.61 s.m.方米
1,104 s.f.方呎
1,203,280
1,352,000
價
Listed Price
916,522
八九祈
11% Discount
90.10 s.m.方米
970 s.f.方呎
102.87 s.m.方米
1,107 s.f.方呎
1,029,800
I
訂
Usted Price
72.23 s.m.方米
777 s.f.方呎
82.47 s.m.方米
888 s.f.方呎
*$765,934
16/F 樓
樓
Floor
出售面積
s
Saleable Area
建築面積
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Site 7/Block 3
3 Price
PriceLLi isstt第
第七
七期
期/ /第
第三
三座
座價
價目
目表
表
LU
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16/F 樓
樓
Floor
出售面積
Saleable Area
建築面積
Gross Area
位
4¾
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Ol Y - S %
845,678
950,200
947,200
m
%%
|
i
826,988
1,160,916
1,152,016
1,134,216
1,308,400
1,304,400
1,294,400
1,274,400
1,167,680
1,164,120
1,155,220
1,137,420
1,312,000
1,308,000
1,298,000
1,278,000
CO
!
I
1,336,000
1,340,000
1,344,000
1,171,240
1,167,680
1,316,000
1,278,000
1,298,000
1,137,420
1,155,220
1,164,120
1,174,800
1,320,000
1,178,360
1,181,920
1,328,000
1,324,000
1,185,480
1,189,040
1,192,600
:
訂 價
Usted Price
934,400
937,400
940,400
943,400
913,400
923,400
928,400
831,616
834,286
836,956
839,626
842,296
844,966
946,400
847,636
1IL. -
852,976
855,646
952,400
955,400
958,400
961,400
*$763,620
八九祈
11% Discount
773 s.f.方呎
71.83 s.iu方米
82.01 sm方米
883 s.f.方呎
§ 826,276
N.) 812,926
co
di:
929,200
1,168,036
1,312,400
1,171,240
C\J
CO
§
—
i —
i
939,200
1,171,596
1,316,400
1,174,800
8
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r•—
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00
2/F樓
848,348
953,200
1,175,156
1,320,400
1,178,360
1,324,000
1,199,720
1,196,160
1,203,280
1,352,000
§
M
C
T
co C1O
3/F樓
851,018
956,200
1,178,716
1,328,400
1,185,480
1,185,836
1,189,396
1,181,920
1,328,000
1,182,276
1,332,400
1,189,040
!
1,336,400
1,192,600
1,192,956
1,196,516
TT-
Y
—
840,338
853,688
959,200
,1,332,000
1,340,400
s
5CD
CO
4/F樓
856,358
962,200
1,336,000
1,340,000
1,344,400
1,199,720
$1,178,360
八九祈
11% Discount
$1,324,000
訂 價
90.10 s.m.方米
970 s.f.方呎
102.87 s.m.方米
1,107 s.f.方呎
Listed Price
T-
5/F樓
859,028
965,200
§
861,698
1,344,000
1,348,000
1,348,400
1,203,280
1,200,076
$1,320,400
$1,175,156
八九折
11% Discount
$1,178,360、
八九祈
11% Discount
89.87 s.m.方米
967 s.f方呎
102.61 s.m.方米
1,104 s.f.方呎
8
o
968,200
864,368
867,038
1,352,000
$1,324,000
訂 價
Usted Price
90.10 s.m.方米
970 s.f方呎
102.87 s.m.方米
1,107 s.f.方呎
o
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8/F樓
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974,200
977,200
8
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869,708
八九祈
11% Discount
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Listed Pric»
72.23 s.m.方米
777 s.f.方呎
82.47 s.m.方米
888 s.f.方呎
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Floor
出售面積
價
訂 價
Usted Price
401,120
434,000
432,000
430,000
428,000
426,000
401,120
399,280
397,440
395,600
393,760
391,920
436,000
434,000
432,000
430,000
426,000
8/F樓
6/F樓
OS
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2/F樓
3/F樓
424,000
422,000
417,000
407,000
390,080
388,240
383,640
374,440
424,000
422,000
417,000
407,000
446,400
444,400
410,688
408,848
407,008、 442,400
405,168
444,400
442,400
432,400
430,400
#425,400
#415,400
388,240
383,640
374,440
434,400
436,400
438,400
390,080
391,920
393,760
395,600
397,440
1
402,960
.l
438,000
,
402,960
,
382,168
391,368
395,968
397,808
399,648
401,488
403,328
405,168
448.400
412,528
448,400
404,800 |
334,604
330,004
320,804
363,700
358,700
348,700
330,280
325,680
316,480
359,000
354,000
344,000
395,968
391,368
382,168
430,400
425,400
415,400
331,660
365,200
366,700
333,040 j
335,984
337,364
338,744
360,500
368,200
334,420
397,808
432,400
434,400
436,400
362,000
340,124
341,504
342,884
344,264
345,644
347,024
348,404
399,648
369,700
371,200
372,700
374,200
375,700
377,200
378,700
349,784
363,500
335,800
337,180
338,560
339,940
341,320
342,700
344,080
380,200
401,488
366,500
368,000
369,500
371,000
372,500
374,000
345,460 |
$339,756
九二折
8% Discount
365,000
:
408,848
410,688
412,528
414,368
375,500
$369,300
訂 價
403,328
438,400
440,400
407,008
450,400
416,208
414,368
452,400
九二祈
Listed Price
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
36.10 s.m•方米
388 s.f.方呎
8% Discount
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
43.60 s.m•方米
469 s.f,方呎
$403,328 丨 $364,600 $335,432
九二折
8% Discount
452,400
訂 價
Usted Price
416,208
二祈
$438,400
A
8% Discount
$317,676
450,400
438,000
《
§.§
12/F 樓
價
406,640
408,480 I
440,000
442,000
444,000
訂
42.90 s.m•方米
461 s.f.方呎
42.90 s.m•方米
461 s.f.方呎
Listed Price
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
$311,604 *$345,300
九二祈
8% Discount
406,640
444,000 408,480
$395,600
九二祈
8% Discount
442,000
!
$430,000
訂
42.90 s.m.方米
461 s.f.方呎
42.90 s.m.方米
461 s.f.
Saleable Area
Listed Price
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
建築面積
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
位
Gross Area
單
Flat No.
Price L
Lii s
s tt 第
第二 期 / 第 三 座 價 目 表
358,200
359,700
361,200
362,700
364,200
365,700
367,200
368,700
370,200
371,700
373,200
$362,300
$333,316
343,344
341,964
340,584
339,204
337,824
336,444
335,064
333,684
332,304
343,344 1 373,200
371,700
370,200
368,700
367,200
365,700
364,200
362,700
361,200
341,964
340,584
339,204
337,824
336,444
335,064
333,684 !
332,304
330,924
X 二祈
$333,316 :$362,300
訂 價
8% Discount
323,564
314,364
341,700
328,164
329,544
to 314,364
•
351,70( |<* 323,564
328,164
351,700
329,544
九二折
Listed Price
8% Discount
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
訂 價
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
Listed Price
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Listed Price
438,000
436,000
434,000
432,000
430,000
428,000
426,000
424,000
422,000
#417,000
401,120
399,280
397,440
395,600
393,760
391,920
390,080
388,240
383,640
438,000
436,000
434,000
432,000
430,000
428,000
426,000
424,000
422,000
9/F樓
8/F樓
4/F樓
6/F樓
5/F樓
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407,000
i
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374,440
342,100
340,600
339,100
337,600
336,100
333,100
331,600
417,128
415,288
413,448
411,608
409,768
407,928
406,088
404,248
417,128 丨 453.400
451,400
449,400
447,400
445,400
443,400
441,400
415,288 |
411,608
409,768
407,928
406,088-.
404,248
447,400
445,400
443,400
339,020
337,640
336,260 , 4 4 1 , 4 0 0
334,880
330,280
374,500
373,000
371,500
370,000
368,500
367,000
365,500
364,000
359,000
349,000
344,540
343,160
341,780
340,400
339,020
337,640
336,260
334,880
330,280
321,080
374,500
373,000
371,500
370,000
368,500
367,000
365,500
364,000
359,000
349,000
401,120
399,280
397,440
395,600
393,760
391,920
390,080
388.240
383,640
374,440
455,400
340,400
321,080
449,400
341,780
LL
451,400
343,160
344,540
345,920
434,400
434,400
424,400
399,648
390,448
f
#326,600
390,448 !#316,600
399,648
334,600
343,600
418,968
455,400
418,968
376,000
345,920
376,000
402,960
422,648
1
345,100
420,808
457,400
420,808
347,300
377,500
347,300 ! 457,400
377,500
348,680
379,000
406,640 |
320,252
339,100
340,600
342,100
343,600
345,100
291,272
300,472
305,072
306,452
307,832
309,212
306,452
305,072
^
^
291,272
307,832
§
309,212
310,592
311,972
313,352
314,732
316,112
317,492
336,100
310,592 :337,600
311,972
313,352
314,732
316,112 j
317,492
318,872
$310,224
8% Discount
九二折
$337,200
Listed Price
訂 價
318,872 1 346,600
346,600
422,648
8% Discount
459,400
459,400
348,680
Listed Price
320,252
461,400
424,488
九二折
348,100
461,400
350,060
380,500
350,060
$447,400
$411,608
九二折
$310,224
九二祈
$337,200
!
8% Discount
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方BR
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
$411,608
$447,400
訂 價
Listed Price
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
九二祈
8% Discount
42.90 s.m.方米
461 s.f.方呎
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
訂 價
$340,032
訂 價
Listed Price
8% Discount
408,480 :380,500
S5.s § ) 25.5 邑
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417,000
440,000
404,800
442,000
440,000
406,640
442,000
408,480
444,000
訂 價
Listed Price
$369,600
九二祈
8% Discount
$251,988
訂 價
Listed Price
$311,604 *$273,900
九二祈
8% Discount
42.90 s.m.方米
461 s.f.方呎
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
36.10 s.m.方米
388 s.f.方呎
$395,600 *$338,700
九二祈
8% Discount
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
43.60 s.m.方米
469 s.f.方呎
51.80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
樓
15/F
價
$430,000
次
Usted Price
樓
Floor
出售面積
訂
42.90 s.m.方米
461 s.f.方呎
Saleable Area
建築面積
51,80 s.m.方米
558 s.f.方呎
位
Gross Area
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Appendix 3
Information from Singapore
Urban Redevelopment Authority
Reference: Chapter 3
PROVISION O F PARKS & GARDENS IN SINGAPORE
TVPES OF PARK & GARDEN
LEVEL O F PROVISION
1 Regional Park
National
AVERAGE SITE
DESCRIPTION/REMARKS
area (ha)
Approx 30 or more
,
A regtOAai park Is generally of size 30 ha but can be a smaJfer stae i
it has special and unique features
One regtonat par1< serves a
sometimes natron wide
Local
Precinct
2 Town Park
Approx 10
Landscaped park to serve a DGP Can be provided in 2 nos So
long as total land area meets provision standards To be designed
fandscaped and managed by PRD
3 Town Centre
Garden
Approx. 3
landscaped formal garden located r^ar the Town Centre Also
serves as a Nejghbourhood Pafk for that neighbourhood 、
4 Neighbourhood
Park
Approx 2
One neighbourhood park serves a HDB neighbourhood of 5,000 t o
6 000 dus Can be provided in
nos s o long a s
land area
meets provision standards Need not be provided tf Town Centre
Garden is located within the same neighbourhood
Approx 0 2
One precfnct park serves a HD8 precinct of around 800 tfus
Accommodates p^aygrotind and pfay equipment For HDB estates,
can utilise open spaces between buiidtng blocks tn a precinct layout
Can be provided in 2 or more rK)s a s long a s total land area meets
provision standarc/s
Approx
0 2 - 2 ha
One oommuriity parf< serve reskients tn a conventional housing
estate with predommanlly semi-detached and terrace houses (types 1
& II) withtn a 250 m service radius
5 Precinct Park
or
Community Park
2
tout
OPEN SPACE PROVfSION IN SINGAPORE
、
YEAR
OPEM S P A C E
HA/1,000 P O P U U T I O N
”
TYPES O F
“
•
、
2030
1 2
1 1
1 0
0 7
0 9
0 9
0 9
0 4
0 5
0 5
0 5
2 5
2 6
2 5
2 4
1 4
PARKS A N D G A R D E N S
SPORTSA N D RECREATION
TOTAL
、
2010
NATURAL O P E N S P A C E
l1"'
, 2 0 0 0
EXISTING
OPEN SPACE SUPPLY BY LAND AREA
I
ITY P E SO F
YEAR
.
‘
LANO AnEA (HA)
“
, ^
v
、2030
EXISTiMG
2000
[NATURAL OPEN SPACE
4,340
4,140
4,140
4,140
I PARKS A N D G A R D E N S
2,080
3,150
3,350
3,600
I S P O R T S A N D RECREATION
1,120
1,650
1,750
1,800
[
7,540
8,940
9,240
9,540
丨 S P A C E
TOTAL
‘
x
Appendix 3
‘
2010^
4
•
'
|
Appendix 4
Summary of Schedule of land uses, Sha Tin New Town Outline Zoning
Plan
Designated area
Hectares
% of
Gross residential
610.08
34.1
Commercial
6.60
0.37
Industrial
102.97
5.76
Others
288.95
16.2
Government/ institution/ community
310.28
17.38
Major roads and junctions
203.28
11.39
Open space
263.12
14.74
Total
1,785.28
100.0
Reference: Chapter 3
Appendix 5
Photographs and detailed descriptions of parks surveyed
(discussion in Chapter 4 )
Reference: Chapter 4
Section 4.2 A survey on the green component of some open space
projects
1. Landscaping to Roads contract, Tuen Mun New Town
roads and
interchange
s. About 12 hectares of central road reserves, verges, open spaces and amenity areas of various public roads in
the new town were landscaped. Trees and shrubs were planted on road embankments and along roads and raised
planters built in selected locations for improved amenity and screening purposes. Shaded sitting out areas and
landscaped footways were also constructed as part of the project.
2. Tuen Mun Town Park
Cost: HKS
114 million
Nature and
size: Town
park,
12
ha.
Description
: T h e park
was
built
in three
phases and
w a s
completed
in 1990. It
provides
active and
passive
recreational
facilities
including a
large lake
with rowing
a
n
d
boating facilities, a 120-meter flowing water feature with pools and cascades believed to be the largest of such
water feature in Asia, an island cafe with arching stone bridge, promenade, a 800-seat amphitheatre, a roller
skating rink, children's play areas, multi-games area, sitting areas, pavilions, toilets, maintenance areas and
pedestrian footbridges connecting the park directly into adjacent civil and cultural complex, residential areas and
transport. The whole site is extensively planted.
Appendix 5.1
3. North District Town Park
H K $ 3 0
million
Nature and
size : Town
park, 8 , 3
ha.
Description
: T h e park
w
a
s
completed
in 1990 and
w
a
s
designed by
consultants
and
was
completed
in 1989. It
is t h e
largest
urban park
District (Fanling/ Sheung Shui N e w Town) with a population o f around 300,000. T h e park is located c los e to
the centre o f the development area. It is adjoined by both m o d e m commercial buildings as well as traditional
village areas. The main features o f the park include an ornamental lake with an artificial rock waterfall, an open
air performance area, children's play areas, ball games areas, formal gardens, a service building with toilets and
kiosk and a comprehensive pedestrian network. The whole site is extensively planted with trees and shrubs.
4 . District o p e n s p a c e a t area 1 4 G a n d B , Sha Tin
Cost : HKS
5 0 million
Nature and
Area
District
park,
ha.
4.1
Description
: T h e park
is being
built
will
include the
provision o f
2 full sized
l a w n
bowling
greens
(artificial
grass);
4
tennis
courts,
1
cycling
circuit with
adventure cycling area,1 management building serving sports facilities with 4 squash courts, toilets and changing
rooms, 1 building with cycling facilities and refreshment kiosk, extensive passive recreation area with shaded
seating, tree lined avenues, ornamental planting, water features and a 8 0 0 m length riverside promenade.
Appendix 5 . 2
ill
a
F
'
d
从
n
a
r
2
4
A
$ o
HKO
K
11
d : t
n
ca
a
h
11:
.ptlispaeLlcthoti.cl.mlw
M
t t
賴
j ::5::
_
:$::
t
減
§
rts’
u
o
C
b
os
u
j
0
s
a
b
:44
w .
rear
ar
「
e 1
Thin
.
r
e
a
s
42
肌
J
-c
Sap
•Inds
似 d
a n
淑
^
a a
n
e
a s
工g y
e
s
,
e
n
rire
to 2
1 a
,
1lien
,
a
v
p让
,inilenggp
n a k t d d .snLl.l-rag,’s
o ^cen)eaane nil
D:-dpc.lnlF-lnatuSP.Jtcpv
:
比
e
a
t
3
,
.g.rlls-ictdtru9^i l i J d e f i c
h g adra
.1
stouitursrkW r h t n £ 1 9 9 c l u t i f 3 t c g r l l w w
o
u a t r i 辽
eTLSr3nn
alcrtlroitorhlale
c 2 m NADP
In
a
p
s
p
o
l
e
£
.
D•a
iriii
• »
•夢
til
H J?
Local open space in Area 7, Fanling
Cost : HKS
19 million
Nature and
Area
Local open
space
ha.
Description
The
project
includes 4
small local
open space
in the busy
town centre
area.
It
will be
built in
1994-1995.
Faq^ilities
provided
according
to size and local conditions but are mainly out door sitting out area with shaded sitting arrangementst fountain
features, colonnade features and extensive planting.
Appendix 5.3
7. Hong Lok Park, Fanling Area 13B
Cost ; HKS
6 million
Nature and
size :
District
35Si__ «iti i
碟
赛
SS •
翻
•rr-ni:.,
\
park, 2 ha.
Description
: T h e park
facilities
include an
ornamental
» 1
pavilions,
sitting
areas, rock
gardens and
a children's
play area.
The whole
site
is
extensively
landscaped.
The design
characteristics of the park is that it made use of the two existing earth mounds in the site which provides the
necessary enclosures to act as both noise and visual barrier. The mounds act as backdrops to the ornamental lakes
and allows a more interesting manoeuvre o f planting design especially on the slope. The pavilion on the mound
top enables the structure to stand out as a feature and provide a good viewing spot to visitors.
District open space in Area 46,Fanling
Cost ; .HK$
5 . 7 million
lifttSi M
iI
Nature and
size :
District
park, 0.67
ha.
Description
: T h i s is a
district
open space
adjoining a
estate
of
about 7000
population.
The design
brief asked
1
;
l y
recreation
area with major facilities including sitting-out and landscaped areas,children's play area and a store room for
maintRnflnop.
Appendix 5 . 4
9. Local open spaces Area 4A, Tuen Mun
uiUl
• hi
f
•, u]
ol ,f |i' u|
ul I
•e , H
【
,
• tJI
PI
Cost : $
1.5 million
•
Nature and
size : Two
neighbourh
ood parks,
total 2 , 0 0 0
sq m.
km
Description
; T h e two
local open
spaces were
built
in
1988 -1989
in Area 4A’
Tuen Mun
N e w Town,
a residential
neighbourh
ood.
The
intention
create two
open spaces with ample planting spaces, sitting out areas and children's play areas. Given the fact that the two
sites were adjoined by a Primary School and a kindergarten respectively, one area was provided with a
comprehensive modular type play equipment for children and the other for toddlers.
10. Local open space in Kwan Tei North
Cost : HKS
0.5 million
Nature and
size
Neighbour
hood sitting
out
area,
0.0305 ha.
Descrip)tion
:This i
neighbourh
ood sitting
put area in
a rural
mixed
industrial /
residential
area. The
design
is
currently
undertaken
for a start
of construction in early 1994. The facilities include lighting, out door seats,children play area wilh extensive
planting around.
Appendix 5.5
Appendix 6 Results of public opinion survey
Reference: Chapter 5 Public attitude survey on green survey
Satisfactf〇门 t 〇 green environment
40
35
30
eJGB-Muffluid
‘/ery sat i sfTedr
Sat1sf
Alrfght
\[ery unsatisfactory|
ejsuods©
Appendix 6.1
On. 3
Can y o u s e e g r e e n f r o m home?
scoasl-
ii
_
i
InvaI〗d anew«r
G门.4
Do y o u waint a g r e e n v i e w ?
稱
纖
very much |
AIrTght
Y e s , i f p o s s i b l e Not q u r t e
~~Not at 丨I
1nterested
Appendix 6.2
1
Inva11d answer
Qn 5
P a y more f o r a g r e e n v 丨 ewT*
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
|
About %
5
Qn. B
5--10¾
|
20-30%
10-20¾
J I nva I i d answer
100¾
Do y o u v i s i t p a r k s '
asuodsmL.®0«4Juttu
」
20
V©yr often I Sometime jvery 〗rrfrequent 丨 Invand ansvAar
Frequently
Nat definite D
o not I ike to go
Appendix 6.3
ed
Qn.
7
P a r k Imporvement s u g g e s t i o n s
scoasL
Q门.8
Green space requirement
~
^
30-40»rrhe rrore the better
Appendix 6.4
‘
| 50¾ o r m o r c l j n v a 1 Td a n s w e r
Q n . 9 P r e f e r e n c e o f f a c i l i t i e s I f o home
®Mcn*uwaLalc»e+Juiao_Jall
m
8 a I I cD
o it r t
R e f u s e c o I l e c t ron a r 4 a
Wet m a r k e t
9ee and g r a s s a r e a
Sue s t o p
丨I n v a 11 d anovv®r
G 门,10
PesjdentlaJ
丨o c s i t i o n
s
i
e®cd4Jualui-ati
J
Rural N . T .
U r b a n Kowloon o r Hong Kong
Appendix 6.5
|
I n v a l i d answer
Qn.
1c3
&
9L
»a0
«1
I
11
Res丨dent丨 sU e n v i r o n m e n t
60
50
40
30
20
10
Housing estate resrdent
Inva丨1d answer
hton-houeTna ostat© re© i dent
Qn, 1 2
Age g r o u p
40
35
30
25
O
S
^
^
1
1«
f0O
k
15
10
ia-25
35-43
45-55
Appendix 6.6
I nva I 】
d ansvuer*
Qn . 13
Occupait "ionai I b a c k g r o u n d
23
26
24
Sc
22
20
a<n
aL
a
18
•H
12
3
I
16
14
iQ
i
n
8
t ^ ti w i » w^
•
•
厂
‘• f “ 1 • |
T"~
T e c h n K^ l I 丨 C l e r i c a l S e c r e t a r i a l Student: | R e t f r e d | n v a ! T d a n s
j n r Mat P r o f © e e i o n a l M a n a g e r 1 a l H o u © © w l f ©
Others
Income1 l e v e 1
Q门.14
i0
f统
O
L.
%
«
1u
k
纖;;
M
_
十 h角1n «:2 n n n I S 5 J OQQ 二 1 0 , 0 0 0
t o a m t o 5,000
I S23^ QOQ o r —
$10,000 - 2 5 』 0 0
Appendix 6.7
,
answer
—i
i
Appendix 7
Schedule of unit costs of open space/landscape projects,
Territory Development Department
!
巧mor•丁 DEPAim細,
N
; L^nTI?knrfRTOfl.^N ^
一
•
”
(丨丨 丨丨⑶細随!冗
STATRD}
.….…厂•,,;【,IM, j j r-u i
d*:n proi^ci
site cond i t ion, a ccoiir, i h i) i t y, f«-icUitien
i n
|
rojcct Category
own Park {TD
an include water features, cafe,
oilets, play areas, planting etc
oilcts,
丨
:[strcit Onenn Space
Space (D
(DOS))
astrict.
Hitdoor
Hi
tdoor areas off m
moorree than
than local
local
lignificance providing active
md/or
m
d/or passivp'
passivp' recreation
recreation ispace
space
or concentrated
concentrated population
population
jpcal Open Spnce {LOS)
Outdoor areas providing active
and/or passive recreation space
for concentrated populations in
the imtnediate vicinity
Amenity Area (AA)
Landscape areas too small to be
inclnded in O
S calculations hut
providing visual relief and
limited recreation value
Urban Road R(U)
Amenity treatment in road reserve
including raised planters,
motrnding, paved areas, cycle
parks, sitting areas etc
Rural Road R(R)
PIflnting of vorgen, central
refTerve, slopes etc
Aio' und Building (LB)
Amenity planting around buildings
surh as schools, rrwimming pool
complexes, civic btiildingn,
fire-stations etc
Percentage of Hardworks
75 - 100¾
86 - 94¥"
94%
、『"T
' 1 丨
1
....丄
Averaged Uni
Unitt Cost
Cost $/«3
Unit Cost Range $$/M
Unit
/M22 (averaged area per project)
675 - 1311
974 {54400 N2)
(See Remarks
75 - 110000%
75
%
76 - 1100%
%
366 - 11585
666
6
66 (42870 «2)
(See
75
77
636 -
1334
830
(8‘120 M2)
(200 M2)
(300 H2}
(950 M2)
⑴
(ii)
(iii)
0- 5
0
%
7 - 45%
>
7
5 - 100%
75 - 100%
Planting and soiling
110 456 95 -
350
1093
142
243
650
101
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
0 " 50%
4-35%
50 - 75%
53 - 54%
- 10~0%
_75 —
Roadside/slope planting
Planting
Slope planting
Planting and soiling
including kcrbing
Planting inc]uding
soiling of :(a) palms, shrubs and
ground cover
(b) shrubs and ground
cover
Planting of whips,
seedlings shrubs,
climbers etc
Amenity planting and
soiling
Amenity (roadside)
Planting
154 234 -
251
242
197 (9660 M2)
237 (6840 M
323 (150 H2)
100 (24700 M2)
52
(500
63
(660 M-)
248
(940 M
(i)
“
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Others (0)
(i) Afforestation
TaT Affor^stntion vitb
concrete footpath
(b) Slope Afforestation
(Seedlings supplied
by others)
(ii) Turfing
(iii) Street Park
(iv) Promenade
(v) Urban Fringe Road
(Planting and Top
“'‘
5
4
%
0%
0%
9
8
%
!m
0%
63
143
566
295
393
159
20
117
-
369
186
186
155
1
)2)
(90 M2
M
22
(340 M
M))
2
{27*10 MM
)2)
1B
80
42
(6(6
000 H2)H2)
(!500
(1
500 Hn
533
533
IB (129500 M
*
>
2
8 {8B100 n )
J-l (1500
2092 (6110
949 (4400
43 (48400
H2)
M23)
H)
M
M
The grpater the degree of rpmofenejis, the higher the unit: cost
marks 1 fa) Location
eg Tr»lnmls
(b) Arosi
The nma 1 lor the nrpn to he dove loped, the hiyhcr the inn* I cont
(c) t e Condi tion Tho
tlio amount of site works involved, the higher ht<> miit cos I
ef f\\t rMhni ve oartl)works( demo 1 i (ion, ftrrvice 1<i
mi, ot c
The 'jroater Uie difficulty of accessing the site, tl»e higher the nnit cost
(d) Accessibility
eg itM-1 oun traf f ic fongont iou rontil t ing from closing proximi ly to t own cent re
( o ) Fnci lit ier»
Tm
i fiini-p and/or hi(/]i^r Uie (lunU t y of f aci 1 i tics to be provide七
hiyhr^r th
CoOfJt
(f) Design
TI^
i )1i •jlior tho design soph is lien tion provided # the higher ttta unit cost
smarkn 2 Due to 1 irni Led cost infor.imtion availnble for TP nnd DOS projects tendered in 1 987-90 period, pro-1987 TP and IJOS
projects aro also tnken into account for cf)mpilat ion of «iveragft imit cost
Appendix Tl
BIBLIOGRAPHY
i
—
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n
e
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纖
、v I
S l
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議
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. !r
?
隣
_
t
瞧
_
_
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雾
赠
彻
Zr .
:
、
施
#
&>:¾
.,
.
•
*•
^
^JWB
-,,,
^
一
:¾¾¾
:
嘱
1
.#
,
V
.
r•*
•
.
,
f
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;
'>
_
•
.
^
,
•
.
.
'-d...
广,--
v^3V
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aldous, Tony.
London: RIBA Pubns.,1979.
Arnold, Henry F. Trees in urban design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,
1980.
Bristow,R. (1984) Land-use planning in Hong Kong: History Policies and
Procedures. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong.
Clouston, B (1984) Trees in towns. Architectural Press, London.
Cole, L. (1986) Urban opportunities for a more natural approach. In: Ecology and
Design in Landscape, pp. 417-431,A.D. Bradshaw,D.A. Goode and E.H.P.
Thorp(Eds). Blackwell, Oxford.
yDeSanto, Robert S. Open space as an air resource management measure.
Washington, D.C. : U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1976
Dwyer,DJ. (1986) Landuse and regional planning problems in the New Territories
of Hong Kong, Geogrl 7., vol 152,232-242.
Francis, M. Community open spaces: greening neighbourhoods through community
’/action and land conservation.
Gehl,Jan, 1936. Life between buildings: using public space.
Nostrand Reinhold, cl987.
New York: Van
International Society of Arboriculture, 1983. Guide for Establishing values of trees
and other plants. Sixth edition.
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