Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Study online at quizlet.com/_4z2pe 1. abnormal behavior Patterns of thought, emotion, and actions that are deviant, unexpected, or "away from the standard" based on statistical, social-cultural, and/or functional standards. 14. anorexia nervosa Eating disorder characterized by continual food refusal and the pursuit of extreme thinness, leading to dangerously low body weight. 2. abnormal psychology The scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and ultimately change abnormal patterns of functioning. 15. A variation of anorexia in which the individual turns to bingeing and then goes on to vomiting or other purging as a way of keeping weight at very low levels. 3. acute stress disorder An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event, often including amnesia about the event, emotional numbing, and derealization, and lasting less than a month. Many victims later develop posttraumatic stress disorder. anorexia nervosa, bingeeatingpurging type (bulimarexia) 16. antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder marked by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. Deceitful, unremorseful, manipulative, lacks anxiety and guilt. 17. anxiety Mood state characterized by marked negative affect, behaviors, and bodily symptoms of tension in which a person apprehensively anticipates future danger or misfortune. 18. anxiety disorders A varied group of disorders that all have anxiety, fear, or tension as an essential feature. Includes specific phobias, social phobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. 19. aphasia Impairment or loss of language skills resulting from brain damage caused by stroke, Alzheimer's disease, or other illness or trauma. 20. apraxia Loss of motor activities (such as walking); one of the symptoms of dementia. 21. Asperger's disorder A pervasive developmental disorder in which individuals display profound social impairment and restricted or unusual behaviors, but without language delays seen in autism. 22. attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Developmental disorder in which persons are unable to focus their attention, they behave hyperactively or impulsively, or both. 23. attributional style The relatively consistent explanations a person forms about why personal stressors or other negative life events occur, taking the form of internal vs. external, stable vs. unstable, and global vs. specific. 4. addiction Physical dependence on a substance marked by tolerance, withdrawal symptoms during abstinence, or both. 5. affect A subjective feeling of emotion or mood often accompanied by bodily expressions noticeable to others. 6. age of onset Person's age when he or she develops or exhibits symptoms of a disorder. 7. agnosia Inability to recognize and name objects; may be a symptom of dementia or other brain disorders. 8. agoraphobia Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic symptoms were to occur. 9. alogia Deficiency in the amount or content of speech, a disturbance often seen in people with schizophrenia. Also known as poverty of speech. 10. alternate personalities / alters In dissociative identity disorder, the additional identities along with the host identity. Also known as subpersonalities. 11. American Law Institute (ALI) test (1955) A legal test for insanity that holds a person to be insane at the time of committing a crime, if during criminal conduct, the individual could not judge right from wrong or control his or her behavior as required by law. Compare M'Naghten Rule and irresistible impulse. 12. amnestic disorders Organic disorders in which the primary symptom is memory loss. 13. anhedonia Inability to experience pleasure, associated with some mood and schizophrenic disorders. 24. 25. auditory hallucinations autistic disorder (autism) Psychotic disturbance in perception in which a person hears sounds or voices although these are not real or actually present. The voices are often critical, accusatory, or demanding. Pervasive developmental disorder characterized by significant impairment in social interactions, extreme unresponsiveness to others, poor communication skills, and highly repetitive and rigid behavior. avoidant personality disorder A personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extremely sensitive to criticism. 27. avolition A symptom of schizophrenia marked by apathy, and an inability to initiate or complete important activities. 28. behavioral medicine Interdisciplinary approach applying behavioral science to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems. 29. behaviorism The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior, including dysfunction, without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). 26. 30. behavior therapy An group of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred internal factors as targets for change. Also known as behavior modification. 31. binge-eating disorder An eating disorder involving consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time, uncontrollable and distressing to the individual but not followed by compensatory behaviors. 32. 33. 34. biological paradigm Explanation of psychological dysfunction that primarily emphasizes biological process in the brain or illness as the cause. biopsychosocial model The model that psychological disorders are not caused by one or two factors in a linear way; rather, they are a product of a continual interaction of a number of biological, psychological and social factors. bipolar I disorder Mood disorder characterized by the alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes. 35. bipolar II disorder Mood disorder characterized by the alternation of major depressive episodes with hypomanic (not full manic) episodes. 36. body dysmorphic disorder A somatoform disorder marked by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance, for example, facial blemishes, size or shape of nose or ears. 37. borderline personality disorder A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of erratic moods, unstable self-image and relationships, cannot stand to be alone; intense anger, depression, and extremely impulsive behavior, including self-mutilation. 38. brief psychotic disorder Psychotic disorder involving delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech and behavior, that appear suddenly after a very stressful event and last anywhere from a few hours to 1 month. 39. bulimia nervosa Eating disorder involving recurrent episodes of uncontrolled excessive (binge) eating followed by compensatory actions to remove the food (e.g., deliberate vomiting, laxative abuse, excessive exercise). 40. catatonia A pattern of extreme psychomotor symptoms sometimes found in schizophrenia involving immobility, posturing, or excited agitation. 41. categorical classification A system of placing disorders in categories with the assumption that each disorder is clearly different from every other disorder (an "all-or-none" approach). Based on the medical model in which every diagnosis has a distinct set of characteristics and underlying cause. Compare to dimensional classification. 42. childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder involving severe regression in language, adaptive behavior, and motor skills after a 2- to 4year period of normal development. 43. civil commitment Legal proceedings that determine whether a person is mentally disordered and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily. 44. clang A rhyme used by some persons with schizophrenia as a guide to forming thoughts and statements. 45. clinical assessment / clinical interview Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder. 46. clinical psychology The specialty of psychology involving research, assessment, treatment, and prevention of abnormal behavior. 47. cognition The process of knowing; the thinking, remembering, judging, reasoning, and planning activities of the human mind. Behavior is often explained as depending on these processes. 60. cyclothymic disorder Chronic (at least 2 years) mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as manic or major depressive episodes. 48. cognitivebehavioral paradigm The model of human behavior that people can best be understood by studying how they perceive and structure their experiences and how this influences behavior. 61. deinstitutionalization Systematic discharge of people with severe mental illness from long-term institutional care in psychiatric hospitals so that they might be treated in community programs. 49. cognitive therapy Treatment approach that involves identifying and altering negative thinking styles related to psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety and replacing them with more positive beliefs and attitudes. 62. delirium Rapid-onset reduced clarity of consciousness and cognition, with confusion, disorientation, and deficits in memory and language. 63. delusion Psychotic symptom involving disorder of thought content and presence of strong beliefs that are misrepresentations of reality. 64. delusional disorder Psychotic disorder featuring a persistent belief contrary to reality (non-bizarre delusion) but no other symptoms of schizophrenia. 65. delusion (idea) of reference A person's unfounded belief that the actions, thoughts, laughter, and meaningless activities of others are directed toward or refer to him or her. 50. communication disorders Problems in transmitting or conveying information, including stuttering, selective mutism, and expressive language disorder. 51. comorbidity The presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time. 52. compensatory behaviors In eating disorders, those behaviors intended to avoid gaining weight from ingesting food. Examples are purging, forced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercising. 53. competency Ability of legal defendants to participate in their own defense and understand the charges and the roles of the trial participants. 66. delusion of grandeur A person's unfounded belief that he or she is a great inventor, historical figure, or other specially empowered person. 54. compulsions Repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behaviors or thoughts a person feels driven to perform to reduce anxiety. 67. delusion of persecution A person's unfounded belief that one is being plotted or discriminated against, or deliberately victimized. 55. conduct disorder Pattern of extreme disobedience in children, including theft, vandalism, lying, running away from home, and early drug use. May be precursor of antisocial personality disorder. 68. dementia Gradual-onset deterioration of brain functioning, involving memory loss, inability to recognize objects or faces, and problems in planning and abstract reasoning. 56. conversion disorder A somatoform disorder in which the person reports sensory or motor function impairment (such as blindness or paralysis), even though there is no detectable neurological explanation for the deficits. 69. dementia of the Alzheimer's type 57. course The pattern of development and change of a disorder over time. Gradual onset of cognitive deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease, principally identified by person's inability to recall newly or previously learned material. The most common form of dementia. 70. dependent personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by a person's pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, a condition that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation. 58. course modifiers Patterns of development in a disorder that help predict its future course. These include recurrence, time sequences, and seasonal patterns. 59. criminal commitment Legal procedure by which a person who is found not guilty of a crime by reason of insanity is confined in a psychiatric hospital. 71. depersonalization A disorder marked by a persistent and recurring feeling of being detached from one's own mental processes or body; the loss of one's sense of their own reality. Examples: feeling like you are in a dream; sensation of floating above or beside your body and observing yourself act. 82. dissociation The disconnection from full awareness of identity, memory, and/or consciousness of external circumstances. Occurs along a continuum from normal everyday experiences to severely dysfunctional disorders. 83. dissociative amnesia Inability to recall personal information, usually of a stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. 84. dissociative disorders A group of disorders in which the primary symptoms are a disturbance in the normally integrative functions of identity, memory, and consciousness. 85. dissociative fugue A dissociative disorder with amnesia in which person leaves familiar surroundings; sudden, unexpected travel away from home and inability to recall one's past, sometimes with assumption of new identity. 72. (depressive) cognitive triad Thinking errors in depressed people that are negatively focused in three areas: themselves, their immediate world, and their future. 73. derailment A thinking disturbance in schizophrenia involving rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another. Also called loose associations. 74. derealization The loss of one's sense of reality of the outside world. Examples: things may seem to change size or shape; people may seem mechanical. 86. dissociative identity disorder Process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder. Two or more identities (host + subpersonalities) which regularly take control of the person's behavior. Also called multiple personality disorder. 87. distal cause In studying the causes of behavior, all causes other than physiological processes in the brain. Compare to proximal cause. 88. double depression Severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder. 89. Down syndrome A type of mental retardation caused by a chromosomal aberration (chromosome 21) and involving characteristic physical appearance. 90. Durham Rule (1954) A legal test for insanity by which an accused person is not responsible if the criminal behavior is judged attributable to mental disease or defect. 91. duty to protect The principle that therapists must break confidentiality and notify the potential victim whom a client has specifically threatened. 92. dysfunction Thoughts, feelings, or behavior that is maladaptive or interferes with healthy daily functioning, positive growth, and fulfillment of potential. 75. diagnosis 76. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) Current version of the official classification system for psychological and mental disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. 77. diathesis-stress model Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder. 78. dimensional classification A system of organizing the attributes of psychological disorders as occurring on a continuum or spectrum (such as a scale of mild to severe), rather than present or absent. Can specify a cutting point and resemble a categorical system. 79. disease (medical) model of dependence The view that drug dependence is caused by a physiological disorder. This implies the user is a blameless victim of an illness. 93. dyslexia 80. disorder of written expression Condition in which one's writing performance is significantly below age norms. Learning disability involving marked impairment in the ability to recognize words and to comprehend what they read. 94. dyspareunia disorganized speech Style of talking often seen in people with schizophrenia, involving incoherence and a lack of typical logic patterns. A sexual pain disorder in which severe pain accompanies sexual activity but is not traceable to any medical cause. 81. 95. dysthymic disorder Mood disorder involving persistently depressed mood, with low self-¬esteem, withdrawal, pessimism or despair, present for at least 2 years, with no absence of symptoms for more than 2 months. 107. expressed emotion (EE) The hostility, criticism, disapproval, and overinvolvement demonstrated by some families toward a family member with a psychological disorder; this can often contribute to the person's relapse. 96. eccentricity An unusual pattern of behavior (idiosyncrasy, oddity) that others might find strange, but does not meet any other criteria of abnormality. Psychological disorders, by comparison, are usually based on dysfunction and distress. 108. expressive language disorder An individual's problems in spoken communication, as measured by significantly low scores on standardized tests of expressive language relative to nonverbal intelligence test scores. Symptoms may include a markedly limited vocabulary or errors in verb tense. 97. echolalia A symptom of autism or schizophrenia in which a person responds to statements by repeating the other person's words. 109. factitious disorder 98. (ego) defense mechanisms Common patterns of behavior -- often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation -- observed in response to potentially threatening situations. In psychodynamic theory, they are proposed to be unconscious processes to reduce anxiety. Disorder in which the individual's physical or psychological symptoms are intentionally faked, under voluntary control and are adopted in order to assume the role of a sick person. Compare to malingering. Called factitious disorder by proxy or Munchausen syndrome when a parent produces a physical illness in a child. 110. fear A family pattern in which members are overinvolved with each other's affairs and overconcerned about each other's welfare. The central nervous system's physiological and emotional response consisting of an immediate alarm reaction to present danger. 111. female orgasmic disorder A sexual dysfunction in which a woman rarely has an orgasm or repeatedly experiences a very delayed one following a normal sexual excitement phase. 112. female sexual arousal disorder Recurrent inability in some women to attain or maintain adequate lubrication or genital swelling during sexual activity. 113. fetishism Paraphilia involving long-term, recurring, intense sexually arousing urges, fantasies, or behavior involving the use of nonliving, unusual objects, often to the exclusion of all other stimuli. 114. flat affect Apparently emotionless demeanor (including toneless speech and vacant gaze) when a reaction would be expected. See also: inappropriate affect. 115. Forensic psychology The specialty of psychology concerned with connections between psychological practice and the judicial system. 116. frotteurism Paraphilia in which the person gains sexual gratification by rubbing against nonconsenting victims in crowds from which they cannot escape. 117. gender dysphoria Persistent unease and unhappiness with one's given gender. 99. enmeshment 100. epidemiology The scientific study of the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in a given population. 101. episodic course Pattern of a disorder alternating between recovery and recurrence. 102. etiology All the factors that contribute to the development of a disorder. 103. exhibitionism A paraphilia in which persons have repeated sexually arousing urges or fantasies about exposing their genitals to unsuspecting strangers and may act upon these urges. 104. expectancy effect People's response to a substance on the basis of their beliefs about it, even if it contains no active ingredient. This phenomenon demonstrates that cognitive as well as physiological factors are involved in drug reaction and dependence. 105. 106. expert witness Person who because of special training and credentials is allowed to offer opinion testimony in legal trials. exposure and response (ritual) prevention (ERP) The most widely used and accepted treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, in which the affected individual is prevented from engaging in compulsive ritual activity and instead faces the anxiety provoked by the stimulus, leading eventually to extinction of the conditioned response (anxiety). 118. 119. 120. gender identity disorder Psychological dissatisfaction with one's biological gender. A disturbance in one's identity as a male or female. The primary goal is not sexual arousal but rather strong wishes to be a member of the opposite sex. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry about numerous events and activities, accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness, irritability, and restlessness. genetic paradigm The approach to human behavior that focuses on both heritability of traits and complex interactions between genes and environment. Guilty But Mentally Ill (GBMI) An alternative to the verdict Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity which allows for both punishment and treatment. 122. hallucination Psychotic symptom of perceptual disturbance in which things are seen or heard or otherwise sensed although they are not real or actually present. 123. histrionic personality disorder A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of vain, dramatic, extravagant, attention-seeking behavior. Seductive without taking responsibility; needs immediate gratification and constant reassurance. human genome project The recently-completed comprehensive map of all human genes. 125. hypoactive sexual desire disorder Apparent lack of interest in sex and hence a low level of sexual activity. 126. hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder in which the person, misinterpreting rather ordinary physical sensa¬tions, is preoccupied with fears of having a serious disease. 127. hypomania An extremely happy or irritable mood accompanied by symptoms like increased energy and decreased need for sleep, but without the significant functional impairment associated with mania. 128. inappropriate affect Emotional displays that do not match the situation. See flat affect. 129. incidence The number of new cases of a disorder occurring in a population during a specific period of time (compare with prevalence). 121. 124. 130. incoherence In schizophrenia, an aspect of disorganized thinking wherein verbal expression is marked by disconnectedness, fragmented thoughts, and jumbled phrases. 131. informed consent Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a research study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it. 132. insanity Legal rather than psychological or medical concept which denotes a degree of abnormal condition which removes the individual's legal responsibility for their criminal actions. The criteria have changed over time and can vary from state to state. 133. intoxication A temporary drug-induced state in which people display symptoms such as impaired judgment, mood changes, irritability, slurred speech, and loss of coordination. 134. irresistible impulse A term, originated in an 1834 Ohio court ruling, concerning criminal responsibility that determined that an insanity defense can be established by proving that the accused had an uncontrollable urge to perform the act. Sometimes referred to as the "fit of passion" test. Not widely accepted. 135. learned helplessness theory of depression Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether in reality they do or not). 136. learning disorders A developmental disorder marked by reading, mathematics, or written expression performance substantially below levels expected relative to the person's age, IQ, and education. 137. least restrictive alternative The legal principle according to which a hospitalized patient must be treated in a setting that imposes as few restrictions as possible on his or her freedom. 138. loose associations Deficits in logical continuity of speech, with rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another. A characteristic of schizophrenia also called derailment. 139. major depressive disorder, (single or recurrent episode) Mood disorder involving one (single episode) or more (separated by at least two months) depressive episodes. Includes feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in sleep and appetite, loss of interest in activities, diminished concentration, and the inability to experience pleasure - persisting at least 2 weeks. 140. male erectile disorder Recurring inability in some men to attain or maintain adequate ¬penile erection until completion of sexual activity. 141. male orgasmic disorder Recurring delay in or absence of orgasm in some men following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to age and current stimulation. malingering Deliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by tangible gain or removal from a responsibility. Compare to factitious disorder. 142. 143. mania Mood disorder involving euphoric mood, frenzied activity, inflated self-esteem, grandiosity, endless energy, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, flight of ideas, agitation, or self-destructive behavior. 144. mental hygiene movement Mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the mentally disturbed by informing the public of their mistreatment. 145. mental illness Term formerly used to mean psychological or mental disorder but less preferred because it implies that the causes of the disorder can be found in a medical disease process. 146. mental retardation Significantly below average intellectual functioning (IQ<70) paired with deficits in adaptive functioning such as self-care or occupational activities, appearing prior to age 18. milieu therapy Humanistic approach to institutional treatment based on the principle that patients recover best in a climate that builds self-respect, individual responsibility, and meaningful activity. 148. mixed manic episode Symptoms of both mania and depression within the same week. 149. M'Naghten Rule A widely used legal test for insanity based upon an 1843 British court decision that holds a defendant to be insane at the time of committing a crime if the person did not know what he or she was doing or did not know right from wrong. 147. 150. mood disorders A varied group of disorders that include major depressive disorder and bipolar disorders. 151. moral therapy 19th-century psychosocial approach to treatment that involved treating patients with moral guidance and humane respect in normal environments. 152. moral weakness model of chemical dependence View that substance abusers should be blamed because their behavior results from lack of self-control, character, or moral strength. 153. multiaxial classification Categorization system used in DSMIV-TR, in which the individual is assessed on 5 types of information in order to provide a more complete picture of the disorder and its context. 154. multicultural perspective The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external factors, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members. 155. narcissistic personality disorder A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of fantasies of brilliance or beauty, belief of being entitled to special privileges. Arrogant, and expect to be admired and recognized as superior while envying others who are successful. 156. negative symptoms Behavioral deficits or less outgoing symptoms, such as flat affect and poverty of speech, displayed by some people with schizophrenia. 157. neologism An example of disorganized speech in schizophrenia referring to a word made up by the speaker, usually meaningless to a listener. 158. neuroleptic drugs A type of antipsychotic medications, dopamine antagonists, that diminish delusions, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior in psychotic patients but that may also cause serious side effects similar to the symptoms of neurological disorders. 159. neuropsychological testing Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances. 160. obsessions Persistent and recurrent intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that a person experiences as disturbing and inappropriate but has difficulty suppressing and causes anxiety. 161. obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) An anxiety disorder involving unwanted, persistent, intrusive thoughts and impulses accompanied by repetitive actions or rituals intended to suppress them. 162. obsessivecompulsive personality disorder A personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility and efficiency. 163. opponentprocess theory Explanation of drug tolerance and dependence: When a person experiences positive feelings these will be followed shortly by negative feelings, and vice versa. Eventually, the motivation for drug taking shifts from a desire for the euphoric high to a need to relieve the increasingly unpleasant feelings that follow drug use. A vicious cycle develops: The drug that makes a person feel terrible is the one thing that can eliminate the pain. 164. 165. 166. 167. oppositional defiant disorder An externalizing disorder of children marked by high levels of disobedience to authority, arguing repeatedly with adults, but lacking the extremes of conduct disorder. pain disorder A somatoform disorder in which the person complains of severe and prolonged pain that is not fully explainable by organic pathology and is thus assumed to be caused or intensified by psychological factors. panic attack paradigm Abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort in the absence of danger accompanied by a number of physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations. A set of basic assumptions (a model) that outlines the universe of scientific inquiry specifying both the concepts regarded as legitimate and the methods to be used in collecting and interpreting data. 168. paranoia A person's irrational beliefs that he or she is especially important (delusions of grandeur) or that other people are seeking to do him or her harm. 169. paranoid personality disorder A personality disorder involving pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. 170. paraphilias Sexual disorders in which sexual arousal occurs almost exclusively in the context of inappropriate objects or individuals. 171. Parkinson's disease Degenerative brain disorder principally affecting motor performance (e.g., tremors, stooped posture) associated with reduction in dopamine. 172. pedophilia A paraphilia involving strong sexual attraction toward children and may carry out these urges or fantasies. 173. personality disorders Enduring maladaptive traits, inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations that cause significant social impairment. Subjective distress may or may not be present. 174. personality tests (inventories) Self-report questionnaires that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them. 175. personality trait Enduring tendency to behave in particular predisposed ways across situations. 176. pervasive developmental disorders Wide-ranging, severe, and long-lasting dysfunctions in social interactions that appear before the age of 18. 177. phobia A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation. 178. phobic avoidance Extreme keeping away from feared objects or situations displayed by people with phobias. 179. placebo effect Behavior change resulting from the person's expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation itself. 180. positive symptoms Behavioral excesses or overt symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, displayed by some people with schizophrenia. 181. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Anxiety disorder that follows exposure to a severe helplessness- or fear-inducing threat. The victim reexperiences the trauma, avoids stimuli associated with it, and develops a numbing of responsiveness and an increased vigilance and arousal. 182. precipitating cause A life event or incident that triggers a disorder. See also reinforcing cause. 183. presenting problem Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem. 184. prevalence Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time (compare with incidence). 185. privileged communication The communication between parties in a confidential relationship that is protected by statute, which a spouse, doctor, lawyer, pastor, psychologist, or psychiatrist thus cannot be forced to disclose, except under special circumstances. 186. prognosis Predicted future development of a disorder over time. 187. projective tests Personality tests that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. 188. proximal cause Ultimately all behaviors are made possible by electrical and chemical activity in specific neurons of the brain. This is referred to as the proximal cause of behavior. Compare with distal causes. 189. 190. psychiatric social worker A mental health professional who is qualified to conduct psychotherapy upon earning a master's degree or doctorate in social work. psychiatrist Person who has earned an M.D. degree and has specialized in psychiatry during residency training. Trained to investigate primarily the biological nature and causes of psychiatric disorders, and to diagnose and treat them. 191. psychoactive substances Substances, such as certain drugs, that alter mood or behavior. 192. psychoanalytic (psychodynamic) paradigm Comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred conscious and unconscious mental forces. 193. 194. psychoeducation psychologist, clinical The component of treatment that helps people learn about symptoms, expected time course, triggers for symptoms, and treatment strategies. A mental health professional who has earned a Ph.D. degree in psychology or a Psy.D. and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic. 198. psychophysiological assessment Measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal. 199. psychosis Group of severe psychological disorders, including schizophrenia, featuring delusions and hallucinations. The affected person is said to be "out of touch with reality." 200. psychotherapy A diverse system of treatments in which words and the relationship between a client and therapist are used in order to help the client overcome psychological difficulties. 201. psychotic depressive episode Condition in which psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations accompany depressive episodes. 202. rapid cycling Temporal course of a bipolar disorder when transitions between mania and depression are frequent, occurring four or more times in one year. 203. reciprocal geneenvironment model Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder. 204. reinforcing cause In studying causes of abnormal behavior, a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior that is already occurring. See also precipitating cause. 205. relapse prevention Extending therapeutic progress by teaching the client how to cope with future troubling situations. 195. psychomotor retardation Extremely slow physical movements. Also, deficits in motor activity and coordination development. 206. repression In psychoanalytic theory, a process that forces unwanted material from the conscious to the unconscious. 196. psychopath Non-DSM category similar to antisocial personality disorder but with less emphasis on overt behavior; indicators include superficial charm and lack of remorse. 207. Rett's disorder Progressive neurological developmental disorder featuring constant hand-wringing, mental retardation, and impaired motor skills. 208. Rorschach test 197. psychopathology Scientific study of psychological and mental disorders. A projective test, in which a person reacts to inkblots, designed to reveal the inner personality of the person. 209. schema An underlying mental structure for organizing information about the world which is activated when the person encounters similar situations. Plural: schemata 210. schizoaffective disorder Psychotic disorder featuring symptoms of both schizophrenia and major mood disorder. 222. sexual sadism Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with inflicting pain or humiliation. 211. schizoid personality disorder A personality disorder featuring a pervasive pattern of Indifference to social contact. Socially isolated; indifferent to praise or criticism; limited range of emotions; do not experience much pleasure. 223. shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux) One of the psychotic disorders in which an individual develops a delusion similar to that of a person with whom he or she shares a close relationship. 224. social phobia Anxiety disorder marked by extreme, enduring, irrational fear (and consequent avoidance) of situations in which a person might be exposed to the evaluation of others and fear of acting in a humiliating or embarrassing way. 225. somatization disorder Somatoform disorder in which the person continually seeks medical help for recurrent and multiple physical symptoms that have no discoverable physical cause, despite a complicated medical history that is dramatically presented. 226. somatoform disorders A varied group of disorders in which symptoms suggest a physical problem but have no known physiological cause; believed to be linked to psychological conflicts and unmet needs but not voluntarily acknowledged. 227. specific phobia Anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational fear (and consequent avoidance) of a specific object or situation (such as heights, small closed places, or spiders), that markedly interferes with daily life functioning. 228. specifiers in mood disorders Developmental disorder characterized by the individual's consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite speaking in other situations. Patterns of characteristics that sometimes accompany major depressive or manic episodes and may help predict their course and prognosis. These include psychotic, melancholic, atypical, catatonic, chronic, and with postpartum onset. 229. Process by which some individuals may abuse substances in attempting to use them to relieve other problems such as anxiety, pain, or sleeplessness. spectator role A state of mind that some people experience during sex in which they focus on their sexual performance to such an extent that their performance and their enjoyment is reduced. 230. structured interview A method in clinical assessment consisting of an interview in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer; assists professionals in making diagnostic decisions based on standardized criteria. 231. substance abuse Maladaptive pattern of psychoactive substance use leading to significant distress or impairment in social and occupational roles, and use in hazardous situations. 212. schizophrenia Severe psychotic disorder that may involve characteristic disturbances in thinking (delusions), perception (hallucinations), speech, emotions, and behavior. 213. schizophreniform disorder Psychotic disorder involving the symptoms of schizophrenia but lasting less than 6 months. 214. schizotypal personality disorder A personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of cognitive distortions, odd beliefs about the world, and peculiarities of appearance and behavior that are disconcerting to others. Emotionally detached and isolated, but desire social contact. seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Mood disorder involving a cycling of depressive episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically with depression occurring during the winter. secondary gain The benefit (reinforcers) a person achieves beyond primary gain by the display of somatoform symptoms. These may include attention, sympathy, and avoidance of unwanted responsibilities. 215. 216. 217. 218. selective mutism self-medication 219. separation anxiety disorder Excessive enduring anxiety in some children that harm will come to them or their parents while they are apart. 220. sexual aversion disorder Extreme and persistent dislike of sexual contact; fear or disgust at the thought or sex or similar activities. sexual masochism Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with experiencing pain or humiliation. 221. 232. 233. substance dependence substance intoxication Maladaptive pattern of psychoactive substance use characterized by the need for increased amounts to achieve the desired effect, negative physical effects when the substance is withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and substantial effort expended to seek it or recover from its effects. Physiological reactions, such as impaired judgment and motor ability as well as mood changes, resulting from the ingestion of psychoactive substances. substancerelated disorders Range of problems associated with the use and abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other substances people use to alter the way they think, feel, and behave. subthreshold (subclinical) symptoms Presence of symptoms of a disorder that are clinically significant but do not meet full diagnostic criteria 236. suicidal ideation Serious thoughts about committing suicide. 237. supernatural model Explanation of human behavior and its dysfunction that posits important roles for spirits, demons, grace, sin, etc. 234. 235. 238. syndrome A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together. 239. systematic desensitization Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation. 240. tangentiality Characteristic of the loose cognitive and verbal associations seen in schizophrenia in which the person fails to answer questions and moves the conversation to unrelated topics. 241. tic disorder Disruption in early development involving involuntary motor movements or vocalizations. 242. token economy program Behavior modification system in which individuals earn items they can exchange for desired rewards by displaying appropriate behaviors. 243. tolerance (substance) Need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effect, and a diminished effect with continued use of the same amount. 244. Tourette's disorder Developmental disorder featuring multiple dysfunctional motor and vocal tics. 245. transvestic fetishism Paraphilia in which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite sex. 246. unconscious Part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person. The deeply hidden mass of memories, experiences, and impulses that is viewed in Freudian theory as the source of much behavior. 247. unipolar depression Depression without a history of mania. 248. vaginismus Recurring involuntary muscle spasms in the outer third of the vagina that interfere with sexual intercourse. 249. vascular dementia Progressive brain disorder involving loss of cognitive functioning, caused by blockage of blood flow to the brain that appears concurrently with other neurological signs and symptoms. 250. voyeurism Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is derived from observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked. 251. vulnerability Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder. 252. withdrawal (substance) A symptom of substance dependence or addiction. Severely negative physiological reaction to removal of a psychoactive substance, which can only be alleviated by the same or a similar substance.