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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PART 1 (TERMS)

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Abnormal Psychology Final Exam
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1.
abnormal
behavior
Patterns of thought, emotion, and actions that
are deviant, unexpected, or "away from the
standard" based on statistical, social-cultural,
and/or functional standards.
14.
anorexia
nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by continual
food refusal and the pursuit of extreme
thinness, leading to dangerously low body
weight.
2.
abnormal
psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in
order to describe, predict, explain, and
ultimately change abnormal patterns of
functioning.
15.
A variation of anorexia in which the individual
turns to bingeing and then goes on to
vomiting or other purging as a way of
keeping weight at very low levels.
3.
acute stress
disorder
An anxiety disorder in which fear and related
symptoms are experienced soon after a
traumatic event, often including amnesia about
the event, emotional numbing, and
derealization, and lasting less than a month.
Many victims later develop posttraumatic
stress disorder.
anorexia
nervosa,
bingeeatingpurging type
(bulimarexia)
16.
antisocial
personality
disorder
A personality disorder marked by a pervasive
pattern of disregard for and violation of the
rights of others. Deceitful, unremorseful,
manipulative, lacks anxiety and guilt.
17.
anxiety
Mood state characterized by marked negative
affect, behaviors, and bodily symptoms of
tension in which a person apprehensively
anticipates future danger or misfortune.
18.
anxiety
disorders
A varied group of disorders that all have
anxiety, fear, or tension as an essential
feature. Includes specific phobias, social
phobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety
disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and
posttraumatic stress disorder.
19.
aphasia
Impairment or loss of language skills
resulting from brain damage caused by
stroke, Alzheimer's disease, or other illness or
trauma.
20.
apraxia
Loss of motor activities (such as walking); one
of the symptoms of dementia.
21.
Asperger's
disorder
A pervasive developmental disorder in which
individuals display profound social
impairment and restricted or unusual
behaviors, but without language delays seen
in autism.
22.
attention
deficit /
hyperactivity
disorder
(ADHD)
Developmental disorder in which persons are
unable to focus their attention, they behave
hyperactively or impulsively, or both.
23.
attributional
style
The relatively consistent explanations a
person forms about why personal stressors
or other negative life events occur, taking the
form of internal vs. external, stable vs.
unstable, and global vs. specific.
4.
addiction
Physical dependence on a substance marked
by tolerance, withdrawal symptoms during
abstinence, or both.
5.
affect
A subjective feeling of emotion or mood often
accompanied by bodily expressions
noticeable to others.
6.
age of onset
Person's age when he or she develops or
exhibits symptoms of a disorder.
7.
agnosia
Inability to recognize and name objects; may
be a symptom of dementia or other brain
disorders.
8.
agoraphobia
Anxiety about being in places or situations
from which escape might be difficult (or
embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic
symptoms were to occur.
9.
alogia
Deficiency in the amount or content of speech,
a disturbance often seen in people with
schizophrenia. Also known as poverty of
speech.
10.
alternate
personalities
/ alters
In dissociative identity disorder, the additional
identities along with the host identity. Also
known as subpersonalities.
11.
American
Law Institute
(ALI) test
(1955)
A legal test for insanity that holds a person to
be insane at the time of committing a crime, if
during criminal conduct, the individual could
not judge right from wrong or control his or
her behavior as required by law. Compare
M'Naghten Rule and irresistible impulse.
12.
amnestic
disorders
Organic disorders in which the primary
symptom is memory loss.
13.
anhedonia
Inability to experience pleasure, associated
with some mood and schizophrenic disorders.
24.
25.
auditory
hallucinations
autistic disorder
(autism)
Psychotic disturbance in perception in
which a person hears sounds or voices
although these are not real or actually
present. The voices are often critical,
accusatory, or demanding.
Pervasive developmental disorder
characterized by significant impairment in
social interactions, extreme
unresponsiveness to others, poor
communication skills, and highly repetitive
and rigid behavior.
avoidant
personality
disorder
A personality disorder featuring a
pervasive pattern of social inhibition,
feelings of inadequacy, and extremely
sensitive to criticism.
27.
avolition
A symptom of schizophrenia marked by
apathy, and an inability to initiate or
complete important activities.
28.
behavioral
medicine
Interdisciplinary approach applying
behavioral science to the prevention,
diagnosis, and treatment of medical
problems.
29.
behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an
objective science that (2) studies behavior,
including dysfunction, without reference to
mental processes. Most research
psychologists today agree with (1) but not
with (2).
26.
30.
behavior
therapy
An group of therapy methods based on the
principles of behavioral and cognitive
science as well as principles of learning as
applied to clinical problems. It considers
specific behaviors rather than inferred
internal factors as targets for change. Also
known as behavior modification.
31.
binge-eating
disorder
An eating disorder involving consumption
of large amounts of food in a short period
of time, uncontrollable and distressing to
the individual but not followed by
compensatory behaviors.
32.
33.
34.
biological
paradigm
Explanation of psychological dysfunction
that primarily emphasizes biological
process in the brain or illness as the cause.
biopsychosocial
model
The model that psychological disorders
are not caused by one or two factors in a
linear way; rather, they are a product of a
continual interaction of a number of
biological, psychological and social
factors.
bipolar I
disorder
Mood disorder characterized by the
alternation of major depressive episodes
with full manic episodes.
35.
bipolar II
disorder
Mood disorder characterized by the
alternation of major depressive episodes with
hypomanic (not full manic) episodes.
36.
body
dysmorphic
disorder
A somatoform disorder marked by
preoccupation with an imagined or
exaggerated defect in appearance, for
example, facial blemishes, size or shape of
nose or ears.
37.
borderline
personality
disorder
A personality disorder involving a pervasive
pattern of erratic moods, unstable self-image
and relationships, cannot stand to be alone;
intense anger, depression, and extremely
impulsive behavior, including self-mutilation.
38.
brief
psychotic
disorder
Psychotic disorder involving delusions,
hallucinations, or disorganized speech and
behavior, that appear suddenly after a very
stressful event and last anywhere from a few
hours to 1 month.
39.
bulimia
nervosa
Eating disorder involving recurrent episodes
of uncontrolled excessive (binge) eating
followed by compensatory actions to
remove the food (e.g., deliberate vomiting,
laxative abuse, excessive exercise).
40.
catatonia
A pattern of extreme psychomotor symptoms
sometimes found in schizophrenia involving
immobility, posturing, or excited agitation.
41.
categorical
classification
A system of placing disorders in categories
with the assumption that each disorder is
clearly different from every other disorder
(an "all-or-none" approach). Based on the
medical model in which every diagnosis has
a distinct set of characteristics and
underlying cause. Compare to dimensional
classification.
42.
childhood
disintegrative
disorder
Pervasive developmental disorder involving
severe regression in language, adaptive
behavior, and motor skills after a 2- to 4year period of normal development.
43.
civil
commitment
Legal proceedings that determine whether a
person is mentally disordered and may be
hospitalized, even involuntarily.
44.
clang
A rhyme used by some persons with
schizophrenia as a guide to forming thoughts
and statements.
45.
clinical
assessment /
clinical
interview
Systematic evaluation and measurement of
psychological, biological, and social factors
in a person presenting with a possible
psychological disorder.
46.
clinical
psychology
The specialty of psychology involving
research, assessment, treatment, and
prevention of abnormal behavior.
47.
cognition
The process of knowing; the thinking,
remembering, judging, reasoning, and
planning activities of the human mind.
Behavior is often explained as depending
on these processes.
60.
cyclothymic
disorder
Chronic (at least 2 years) mood
disorder characterized by alternating
mood elevation and depression
levels that are not as severe as manic
or major depressive episodes.
48.
cognitivebehavioral
paradigm
The model of human behavior that people
can best be understood by studying how
they perceive and structure their
experiences and how this influences
behavior.
61.
deinstitutionalization
Systematic discharge of people with
severe mental illness from long-term
institutional care in psychiatric
hospitals so that they might be
treated in community programs.
49.
cognitive
therapy
Treatment approach that involves
identifying and altering negative thinking
styles related to psychological disorders
such as depression and anxiety and
replacing them with more positive beliefs
and attitudes.
62.
delirium
Rapid-onset reduced clarity of
consciousness and cognition, with
confusion, disorientation, and deficits
in memory and language.
63.
delusion
Psychotic symptom involving
disorder of thought content and
presence of strong beliefs that are
misrepresentations of reality.
64.
delusional disorder
Psychotic disorder featuring a
persistent belief contrary to reality
(non-bizarre delusion) but no other
symptoms of schizophrenia.
65.
delusion (idea) of
reference
A person's unfounded belief that the
actions, thoughts, laughter, and
meaningless activities of others are
directed toward or refer to him or her.
50.
communication
disorders
Problems in transmitting or conveying
information, including stuttering, selective
mutism, and expressive language disorder.
51.
comorbidity
The presence of two or more disorders in
an individual at the same time.
52.
compensatory
behaviors
In eating disorders, those behaviors
intended to avoid gaining weight from
ingesting food. Examples are purging,
forced vomiting, use of laxatives, or
excessive exercising.
53.
competency
Ability of legal defendants to participate in
their own defense and understand the
charges and the roles of the trial
participants.
66.
delusion of grandeur
A person's unfounded belief that he
or she is a great inventor, historical
figure, or other specially empowered
person.
54.
compulsions
Repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming
behaviors or thoughts a person feels driven
to perform to reduce anxiety.
67.
delusion of
persecution
A person's unfounded belief that one
is being plotted or discriminated
against, or deliberately victimized.
55.
conduct
disorder
Pattern of extreme disobedience in children,
including theft, vandalism, lying, running
away from home, and early drug use. May
be precursor of antisocial personality
disorder.
68.
dementia
Gradual-onset deterioration of brain
functioning, involving memory loss,
inability to recognize objects or
faces, and problems in planning and
abstract reasoning.
56.
conversion
disorder
A somatoform disorder in which the person
reports sensory or motor function
impairment (such as blindness or paralysis),
even though there is no detectable
neurological explanation for the deficits.
69.
dementia of the
Alzheimer's type
57.
course
The pattern of development and change of
a disorder over time.
Gradual onset of cognitive deficits
caused by Alzheimer's disease,
principally identified by person's
inability to recall newly or previously
learned material. The most common
form of dementia.
70.
dependent
personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized
by a person's pervasive and
excessive need to be taken care of, a
condition that leads to submissive
and clinging behavior and fears of
separation.
58.
course
modifiers
Patterns of development in a disorder that
help predict its future course. These include
recurrence, time sequences, and seasonal
patterns.
59.
criminal
commitment
Legal procedure by which a person who is
found not guilty of a crime by reason of
insanity is confined in a psychiatric hospital.
71.
depersonalization
A disorder marked by a persistent and
recurring feeling of being detached from
one's own mental processes or body; the
loss of one's sense of their own reality.
Examples: feeling like you are in a
dream; sensation of floating above or
beside your body and observing
yourself act.
82.
dissociation
The disconnection from full awareness of
identity, memory, and/or consciousness of
external circumstances. Occurs along a
continuum from normal everyday experiences
to severely dysfunctional disorders.
83.
dissociative
amnesia
Inability to recall personal information, usually
of a stressful nature, that is too extensive to be
explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
84.
dissociative
disorders
A group of disorders in which the primary
symptoms are a disturbance in the normally
integrative functions of identity, memory, and
consciousness.
85.
dissociative
fugue
A dissociative disorder with amnesia in which
person leaves familiar surroundings; sudden,
unexpected travel away from home and
inability to recall one's past, sometimes with
assumption of new identity.
72.
(depressive)
cognitive triad
Thinking errors in depressed people that
are negatively focused in three areas:
themselves, their immediate world, and
their future.
73.
derailment
A thinking disturbance in schizophrenia
involving rapid shifts from one topic of
conversation to another. Also called
loose associations.
74.
derealization
The loss of one's sense of reality of the
outside world. Examples: things may
seem to change size or shape; people
may seem mechanical.
86.
dissociative
identity
disorder
Process of determining whether a
presenting problem meets the
established criteria for a specific
psychological disorder.
Two or more identities (host + subpersonalities)
which regularly take control of the person's
behavior. Also called multiple personality
disorder.
87.
distal cause
In studying the causes of behavior, all causes
other than physiological processes in the
brain. Compare to proximal cause.
88.
double
depression
Severe mood disorder typified by major
depressive episodes superimposed over a
background of dysthymic disorder.
89.
Down
syndrome
A type of mental retardation caused by a
chromosomal aberration (chromosome 21) and
involving characteristic physical appearance.
90.
Durham
Rule (1954)
A legal test for insanity by which an accused
person is not responsible if the criminal
behavior is judged attributable to mental
disease or defect.
91.
duty to
protect
The principle that therapists must break
confidentiality and notify the potential victim
whom a client has specifically threatened.
92.
dysfunction
Thoughts, feelings, or behavior that is
maladaptive or interferes with healthy daily
functioning, positive growth, and fulfillment of
potential.
75.
diagnosis
76.
Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual,
Fourth Edition
(DSM-IV-TR)
Current version of the official
classification system for psychological
and mental disorders, published by the
American Psychiatric Association.
77.
diathesis-stress
model
Hypothesis that both an inherited
tendency (vulnerability) and specific
stressful conditions are required to
produce a disorder.
78.
dimensional
classification
A system of organizing the attributes of
psychological disorders as occurring on
a continuum or spectrum (such as a
scale of mild to severe), rather than
present or absent. Can specify a cutting
point and resemble a categorical
system.
79.
disease (medical)
model of
dependence
The view that drug dependence is
caused by a physiological disorder. This
implies the user is a blameless victim of
an illness.
93.
dyslexia
80.
disorder of
written
expression
Condition in which one's writing
performance is significantly below age
norms.
Learning disability involving marked
impairment in the ability to recognize words
and to comprehend what they read.
94.
dyspareunia
disorganized
speech
Style of talking often seen in people with
schizophrenia, involving incoherence
and a lack of typical logic patterns.
A sexual pain disorder in which severe pain
accompanies sexual activity but is not
traceable to any medical cause.
81.
95.
dysthymic
disorder
Mood disorder involving persistently
depressed mood, with low self-¬esteem,
withdrawal, pessimism or despair, present
for at least 2 years, with no absence of
symptoms for more than 2 months.
107.
expressed
emotion
(EE)
The hostility, criticism, disapproval, and overinvolvement demonstrated by some families
toward a family member with a psychological
disorder; this can often contribute to the
person's relapse.
96.
eccentricity
An unusual pattern of behavior
(idiosyncrasy, oddity) that others might find
strange, but does not meet any other criteria
of abnormality. Psychological disorders, by
comparison, are usually based on
dysfunction and distress.
108.
expressive
language
disorder
An individual's problems in spoken
communication, as measured by significantly
low scores on standardized tests of expressive
language relative to nonverbal intelligence
test scores. Symptoms may include a markedly
limited vocabulary or errors in verb tense.
97.
echolalia
A symptom of autism or schizophrenia in
which a person responds to statements by
repeating the other person's words.
109.
factitious
disorder
98.
(ego) defense
mechanisms
Common patterns of behavior -- often
adaptive coping styles when they occur in
moderation -- observed in response to
potentially threatening situations. In
psychodynamic theory, they are proposed to
be unconscious processes to reduce anxiety.
Disorder in which the individual's physical or
psychological symptoms are intentionally
faked, under voluntary control and are
adopted in order to assume the role of a sick
person. Compare to malingering. Called
factitious disorder by proxy or Munchausen
syndrome when a parent produces a physical
illness in a child.
110.
fear
A family pattern in which members are overinvolved with each other's affairs and overconcerned about each other's welfare.
The central nervous system's physiological and
emotional response consisting of an immediate
alarm reaction to present danger.
111.
female
orgasmic
disorder
A sexual dysfunction in which a woman rarely
has an orgasm or repeatedly experiences a
very delayed one following a normal sexual
excitement phase.
112.
female
sexual
arousal
disorder
Recurrent inability in some women to attain or
maintain adequate lubrication or genital
swelling during sexual activity.
113.
fetishism
Paraphilia involving long-term, recurring,
intense sexually arousing urges, fantasies, or
behavior involving the use of nonliving,
unusual objects, often to the exclusion of all
other stimuli.
114.
flat affect
Apparently emotionless demeanor (including
toneless speech and vacant gaze) when a
reaction would be expected. See also:
inappropriate affect.
115.
Forensic
psychology
The specialty of psychology concerned with
connections between psychological practice
and the judicial system.
116.
frotteurism
Paraphilia in which the person gains sexual
gratification by rubbing against nonconsenting victims in crowds from which they
cannot escape.
117.
gender
dysphoria
Persistent unease and unhappiness with one's
given gender.
99.
enmeshment
100.
epidemiology
The scientific study of the prevalence,
distribution, and consequences of disorders
in a given population.
101.
episodic
course
Pattern of a disorder alternating between
recovery and recurrence.
102.
etiology
All the factors that contribute to the
development of a disorder.
103.
exhibitionism
A paraphilia in which persons have repeated
sexually arousing urges or fantasies about
exposing their genitals to unsuspecting
strangers and may act upon these urges.
104.
expectancy
effect
People's response to a substance on the
basis of their beliefs about it, even if it
contains no active ingredient. This
phenomenon demonstrates that cognitive as
well as physiological factors are involved in
drug reaction and dependence.
105.
106.
expert
witness
Person who because of special training and
credentials is allowed to offer opinion
testimony in legal trials.
exposure and
response
(ritual)
prevention
(ERP)
The most widely used and accepted
treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder,
in which the affected individual is prevented
from engaging in compulsive ritual activity
and instead faces the anxiety provoked by
the stimulus, leading eventually to extinction
of the conditioned response (anxiety).
118.
119.
120.
gender identity
disorder
Psychological dissatisfaction with one's
biological gender. A disturbance in one's
identity as a male or female. The primary
goal is not sexual arousal but rather
strong wishes to be a member of the
opposite sex.
generalized
anxiety
disorder (GAD)
Anxiety disorder characterized by intense,
uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and
continuous worry about numerous events
and activities, accompanied by physical
symptoms of tenseness, irritability, and
restlessness.
genetic
paradigm
The approach to human behavior that
focuses on both heritability of traits and
complex interactions between genes and
environment.
Guilty But
Mentally Ill
(GBMI)
An alternative to the verdict Not Guilty by
Reason of Insanity which allows for both
punishment and treatment.
122.
hallucination
Psychotic symptom of perceptual
disturbance in which things are seen or
heard or otherwise sensed although they
are not real or actually present.
123.
histrionic
personality
disorder
A personality disorder involving a
pervasive pattern of vain, dramatic,
extravagant, attention-seeking behavior.
Seductive without taking responsibility;
needs immediate gratification and
constant reassurance.
human genome
project
The recently-completed comprehensive
map of all human genes.
125.
hypoactive
sexual desire
disorder
Apparent lack of interest in sex and hence
a low level of sexual activity.
126.
hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder in which the
person, misinterpreting rather ordinary
physical sensa¬tions, is preoccupied with
fears of having a serious disease.
127.
hypomania
An extremely happy or irritable mood
accompanied by symptoms like increased
energy and decreased need for sleep, but
without the significant functional
impairment associated with mania.
128.
inappropriate
affect
Emotional displays that do not match the
situation. See flat affect.
129.
incidence
The number of new cases of a disorder
occurring in a population during a
specific period of time (compare with
prevalence).
121.
124.
130.
incoherence
In schizophrenia, an aspect of disorganized
thinking wherein verbal expression is marked
by disconnectedness, fragmented thoughts,
and jumbled phrases.
131.
informed
consent
Ethical requirement whereby research subjects
agree to participate in a research study only
after they receive full disclosure about the
nature of the study and their own role in it.
132.
insanity
Legal rather than psychological or medical
concept which denotes a degree of abnormal
condition which removes the individual's legal
responsibility for their criminal actions. The
criteria have changed over time and can vary
from state to state.
133.
intoxication
A temporary drug-induced state in which
people display symptoms such as impaired
judgment, mood changes, irritability, slurred
speech, and loss of coordination.
134.
irresistible
impulse
A term, originated in an 1834 Ohio court
ruling, concerning criminal responsibility that
determined that an insanity defense can be
established by proving that the accused had
an uncontrollable urge to perform the act.
Sometimes referred to as the "fit of passion"
test. Not widely accepted.
135.
learned
helplessness
theory of
depression
Seligman's theory that people become
anxious and depressed when they make an
attribution that they have no control over the
stress in their lives (whether in reality they do
or not).
136.
learning
disorders
A developmental disorder marked by
reading, mathematics, or written expression
performance substantially below levels
expected relative to the person's age, IQ, and
education.
137.
least
restrictive
alternative
The legal principle according to which a
hospitalized patient must be treated in a
setting that imposes as few restrictions as
possible on his or her freedom.
138.
loose
associations
Deficits in logical continuity of speech, with
rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to
another. A characteristic of schizophrenia
also called derailment.
139.
major
depressive
disorder,
(single or
recurrent
episode)
Mood disorder involving one (single episode)
or more (separated by at least two months)
depressive episodes. Includes feelings of
worthlessness, disturbances in sleep and
appetite, loss of interest in activities,
diminished concentration, and the inability to
experience pleasure - persisting at least 2
weeks.
140.
male
erectile
disorder
Recurring inability in some men to attain or
maintain adequate ¬penile erection until
completion of sexual activity.
141.
male
orgasmic
disorder
Recurring delay in or absence of orgasm in
some men following a normal sexual
excitement phase, relative to age and current
stimulation.
malingering
Deliberate faking of a physical or
psychological disorder motivated by tangible
gain or removal from a responsibility.
Compare to factitious disorder.
142.
143.
mania
Mood disorder involving euphoric mood,
frenzied activity, inflated self-esteem,
grandiosity, endless energy, decreased need
for sleep, pressured speech, flight of ideas,
agitation, or self-destructive behavior.
144.
mental
hygiene
movement
Mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the
mentally disturbed by informing the public of
their mistreatment.
145.
mental
illness
Term formerly used to mean psychological or
mental disorder but less preferred because it
implies that the causes of the disorder can be
found in a medical disease process.
146.
mental
retardation
Significantly below average intellectual
functioning (IQ<70) paired with deficits in
adaptive functioning such as self-care or
occupational activities, appearing prior to age
18.
milieu
therapy
Humanistic approach to institutional treatment
based on the principle that patients recover
best in a climate that builds self-respect,
individual responsibility, and meaningful
activity.
148.
mixed
manic
episode
Symptoms of both mania and depression
within the same week.
149.
M'Naghten
Rule
A widely used legal test for insanity based
upon an 1843 British court decision that holds
a defendant to be insane at the time of
committing a crime if the person did not know
what he or she was doing or did not know
right from wrong.
147.
150.
mood
disorders
A varied group of disorders that include major
depressive disorder and bipolar disorders.
151.
moral
therapy
19th-century psychosocial approach to
treatment that involved treating patients with
moral guidance and humane respect in normal
environments.
152.
moral weakness
model of chemical
dependence
View that substance abusers should
be blamed because their behavior
results from lack of self-control,
character, or moral strength.
153.
multiaxial
classification
Categorization system used in DSMIV-TR, in which the individual is
assessed on 5 types of information in
order to provide a more complete
picture of the disorder and its context.
154.
multicultural
perspective
The view that each culture within a
larger society has a particular set of
values and beliefs, as well as special
external factors, that help account for
the behavior and functioning of its
members.
155.
narcissistic
personality
disorder
A personality disorder involving a
pervasive pattern of fantasies of
brilliance or beauty, belief of being
entitled to special privileges.
Arrogant, and expect to be admired
and recognized as superior while
envying others who are successful.
156.
negative symptoms
Behavioral deficits or less outgoing
symptoms, such as flat affect and
poverty of speech, displayed by some
people with schizophrenia.
157.
neologism
An example of disorganized speech in
schizophrenia referring to a word
made up by the speaker, usually
meaningless to a listener.
158.
neuroleptic drugs
A type of antipsychotic medications,
dopamine antagonists, that diminish
delusions, hallucinations, and
aggressive behavior in psychotic
patients but that may also cause
serious side effects similar to the
symptoms of neurological disorders.
159.
neuropsychological
testing
Assessment of brain and nervous
system functioning by testing an
individual's cognitive, perceptual, and
motor performances.
160.
obsessions
Persistent and recurrent intrusive
thoughts, images, or impulses that a
person experiences as disturbing and
inappropriate but has difficulty
suppressing and causes anxiety.
161.
obsessivecompulsive
disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder involving
unwanted, persistent, intrusive
thoughts and impulses accompanied
by repetitive actions or rituals
intended to suppress them.
162.
obsessivecompulsive
personality
disorder
A personality disorder featuring a pervasive
pattern of preoccupation with orderliness,
perfectionism, and interpersonal control at the
expense of flexibility and efficiency.
163.
opponentprocess
theory
Explanation of drug tolerance and
dependence: When a person experiences
positive feelings these will be followed
shortly by negative feelings, and vice versa.
Eventually, the motivation for drug taking
shifts from a desire for the euphoric high to a
need to relieve the increasingly unpleasant
feelings that follow drug use. A vicious cycle
develops: The drug that makes a person feel
terrible is the one thing that can eliminate the
pain.
164.
165.
166.
167.
oppositional
defiant
disorder
An externalizing disorder of children marked
by high levels of disobedience to authority,
arguing repeatedly with adults, but lacking the
extremes of conduct disorder.
pain
disorder
A somatoform disorder in which the person
complains of severe and prolonged pain that
is not fully explainable by organic pathology
and is thus assumed to be caused or
intensified by psychological factors.
panic attack
paradigm
Abrupt experience of intense fear or
discomfort in the absence of danger
accompanied by a number of physical
symptoms, such as dizziness or heart
palpitations.
A set of basic assumptions (a model) that
outlines the universe of scientific inquiry
specifying both the concepts regarded as
legitimate and the methods to be used in
collecting and interpreting data.
168.
paranoia
A person's irrational beliefs that he or she is
especially important (delusions of grandeur)
or that other people are seeking to do him or
her harm.
169.
paranoid
personality
disorder
A personality disorder involving pervasive
distrust and suspiciousness of others such that
their motives are interpreted as malevolent.
170.
paraphilias
Sexual disorders in which sexual arousal
occurs almost exclusively in the context of
inappropriate objects or individuals.
171.
Parkinson's
disease
Degenerative brain disorder principally
affecting motor performance (e.g., tremors,
stooped posture) associated with reduction in
dopamine.
172.
pedophilia
A paraphilia involving strong sexual attraction
toward children and may carry out these
urges or fantasies.
173.
personality
disorders
Enduring maladaptive traits, inflexible and
pervasive across a broad range of
personal and social situations that cause
significant social impairment. Subjective
distress may or may not be present.
174.
personality
tests
(inventories)
Self-report questionnaires that assess
personal traits by asking respondents to
identify descriptions that apply to them.
175.
personality
trait
Enduring tendency to behave in particular
predisposed ways across situations.
176.
pervasive
developmental
disorders
Wide-ranging, severe, and long-lasting
dysfunctions in social interactions that
appear before the age of 18.
177.
phobia
A persistent and unreasonable fear of a
particular object, activity, or situation.
178.
phobic
avoidance
Extreme keeping away from feared objects
or situations displayed by people with
phobias.
179.
placebo effect
Behavior change resulting from the
person's expectation of change rather than
from the experimental manipulation itself.
180.
positive
symptoms
Behavioral excesses or overt symptoms,
such as delusions and hallucinations,
displayed by some people with
schizophrenia.
181.
posttraumatic
stress disorder
(PTSD)
Anxiety disorder that follows exposure to a
severe helplessness- or fear-inducing
threat. The victim reexperiences the trauma,
avoids stimuli associated with it, and
develops a numbing of responsiveness and
an increased vigilance and arousal.
182.
precipitating
cause
A life event or incident that triggers a
disorder. See also reinforcing cause.
183.
presenting
problem
Original complaint reported by the client
to the therapist. The actual treated problem
may sometimes be a modification derived
from the presenting problem.
184.
prevalence
Number of people displaying a disorder in
the total population at any given time
(compare with incidence).
185.
privileged
communication
The communication between parties in a
confidential relationship that is protected
by statute, which a spouse, doctor, lawyer,
pastor, psychologist, or psychiatrist thus
cannot be forced to disclose, except under
special circumstances.
186.
prognosis
Predicted future development of a disorder
over time.
187.
projective tests
Personality tests that present ambiguous
stimuli to clients on the assumption that
their responses will reveal their
unconscious conflicts.
188.
proximal cause
Ultimately all behaviors are made
possible by electrical and chemical
activity in specific neurons of the brain.
This is referred to as the proximal cause
of behavior. Compare with distal causes.
189.
190.
psychiatric social
worker
A mental health professional who is
qualified to conduct psychotherapy
upon earning a master's degree or
doctorate in social work.
psychiatrist
Person who has earned an M.D. degree
and has specialized in psychiatry during
residency training. Trained to investigate
primarily the biological nature and
causes of psychiatric disorders, and to
diagnose and treat them.
191.
psychoactive
substances
Substances, such as certain drugs, that
alter mood or behavior.
192.
psychoanalytic
(psychodynamic)
paradigm
Comprehensive theory originally
advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks
to account for the development and
structure of personality, as well as the
origin of abnormal behavior, based
primarily on inferred conscious and
unconscious mental forces.
193.
194.
psychoeducation
psychologist,
clinical
The component of treatment that helps
people learn about symptoms, expected
time course, triggers for symptoms, and
treatment strategies.
A mental health professional who has
earned a Ph.D. degree in psychology or
a Psy.D. and whose training has included
an internship in a mental hospital or
clinic.
198.
psychophysiological
assessment
Measurement of changes in the
nervous system reflecting
psychological or emotional events
such as anxiety, stress, and sexual
arousal.
199.
psychosis
Group of severe psychological
disorders, including schizophrenia,
featuring delusions and
hallucinations. The affected person is
said to be "out of touch with reality."
200.
psychotherapy
A diverse system of treatments in
which words and the relationship
between a client and therapist are
used in order to help the client
overcome psychological difficulties.
201.
psychotic
depressive episode
Condition in which psychotic
symptoms such as delusions and
hallucinations accompany depressive
episodes.
202.
rapid cycling
Temporal course of a bipolar
disorder when transitions between
mania and depression are frequent,
occurring four or more times in one
year.
203.
reciprocal geneenvironment model
Hypothesis that people with a
genetic predisposition for a disorder
may also have a genetic tendency to
create environmental risk factors that
promote the disorder.
204.
reinforcing cause
In studying causes of abnormal
behavior, a condition that tends to
maintain maladaptive behavior that is
already occurring. See also
precipitating cause.
205.
relapse prevention
Extending therapeutic progress by
teaching the client how to cope with
future troubling situations.
195.
psychomotor
retardation
Extremely slow physical movements.
Also, deficits in motor activity and
coordination development.
206.
repression
In psychoanalytic theory, a process
that forces unwanted material from
the conscious to the unconscious.
196.
psychopath
Non-DSM category similar to antisocial
personality disorder but with less
emphasis on overt behavior; indicators
include superficial charm and lack of
remorse.
207.
Rett's disorder
Progressive neurological
developmental disorder featuring
constant hand-wringing, mental
retardation, and impaired motor skills.
208.
Rorschach test
197.
psychopathology
Scientific study of psychological and
mental disorders.
A projective test, in which a person
reacts to inkblots, designed to reveal
the inner personality of the person.
209.
schema
An underlying mental structure for
organizing information about the
world which is activated when the
person encounters similar situations.
Plural: schemata
210.
schizoaffective
disorder
Psychotic disorder featuring symptoms
of both schizophrenia and major mood
disorder.
222.
sexual
sadism
Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is
associated with inflicting pain or humiliation.
211.
schizoid
personality
disorder
A personality disorder featuring a
pervasive pattern of Indifference to
social contact. Socially isolated;
indifferent to praise or criticism; limited
range of emotions; do not experience
much pleasure.
223.
shared
psychotic
disorder
(folie à
deux)
One of the psychotic disorders in which an
individual develops a delusion similar to that
of a person with whom he or she shares a
close relationship.
224.
social
phobia
Anxiety disorder marked by extreme,
enduring, irrational fear (and consequent
avoidance) of situations in which a person
might be exposed to the evaluation of others
and fear of acting in a humiliating or
embarrassing way.
225.
somatization
disorder
Somatoform disorder in which the person
continually seeks medical help for recurrent
and multiple physical symptoms that have no
discoverable physical cause, despite a
complicated medical history that is
dramatically presented.
226.
somatoform
disorders
A varied group of disorders in which
symptoms suggest a physical problem but
have no known physiological cause; believed
to be linked to psychological conflicts and
unmet needs but not voluntarily
acknowledged.
227.
specific
phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by an
irrational fear (and consequent avoidance) of
a specific object or situation (such as heights,
small closed places, or spiders), that
markedly interferes with daily life functioning.
228.
specifiers in
mood
disorders
Developmental disorder characterized
by the individual's consistent failure to
speak in specific social situations despite
speaking in other situations.
Patterns of characteristics that sometimes
accompany major depressive or manic
episodes and may help predict their course
and prognosis. These include psychotic,
melancholic, atypical, catatonic, chronic, and
with postpartum onset.
229.
Process by which some individuals may
abuse substances in attempting to use
them to relieve other problems such as
anxiety, pain, or sleeplessness.
spectator
role
A state of mind that some people experience
during sex in which they focus on their sexual
performance to such an extent that their
performance and their enjoyment is reduced.
230.
structured
interview
A method in clinical assessment consisting of
an interview in which the questions are set
out in a prescribed fashion for the
interviewer; assists professionals in making
diagnostic decisions based on standardized
criteria.
231.
substance
abuse
Maladaptive pattern of psychoactive
substance use leading to significant distress
or impairment in social and occupational
roles, and use in hazardous situations.
212.
schizophrenia
Severe psychotic disorder that may
involve characteristic disturbances in
thinking (delusions), perception
(hallucinations), speech, emotions, and
behavior.
213.
schizophreniform
disorder
Psychotic disorder involving the
symptoms of schizophrenia but lasting
less than 6 months.
214.
schizotypal
personality
disorder
A personality disorder involving a
pervasive pattern of cognitive
distortions, odd beliefs about the world,
and peculiarities of appearance and
behavior that are disconcerting to
others. Emotionally detached and
isolated, but desire social contact.
seasonal
affective
disorder (SAD)
Mood disorder involving a cycling of
depressive episodes corresponding to
the seasons of the year, typically with
depression occurring during the winter.
secondary gain
The benefit (reinforcers) a person
achieves beyond primary gain by the
display of somatoform symptoms. These
may include attention, sympathy, and
avoidance of unwanted responsibilities.
215.
216.
217.
218.
selective mutism
self-medication
219.
separation
anxiety disorder
Excessive enduring anxiety in some
children that harm will come to them or
their parents while they are apart.
220.
sexual aversion
disorder
Extreme and persistent dislike of sexual
contact; fear or disgust at the thought or
sex or similar activities.
sexual
masochism
Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is
associated with experiencing pain or
humiliation.
221.
232.
233.
substance
dependence
substance
intoxication
Maladaptive pattern of psychoactive
substance use characterized by the need
for increased amounts to achieve the
desired effect, negative physical effects
when the substance is withdrawn,
unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and
substantial effort expended to seek it or
recover from its effects.
Physiological reactions, such as impaired
judgment and motor ability as well as
mood changes, resulting from the ingestion
of psychoactive substances.
substancerelated
disorders
Range of problems associated with the use
and abuse of drugs such as alcohol,
cocaine, heroin, and other substances
people use to alter the way they think, feel,
and behave.
subthreshold
(subclinical)
symptoms
Presence of symptoms of a disorder that
are clinically significant but do not meet
full diagnostic criteria
236.
suicidal
ideation
Serious thoughts about committing suicide.
237.
supernatural
model
Explanation of human behavior and its
dysfunction that posits important roles for
spirits, demons, grace, sin, etc.
234.
235.
238.
syndrome
A cluster of symptoms that usually occur
together.
239.
systematic
desensitization
Behavioral therapy technique to diminish
excessive fears, involving gradual
exposure to the feared stimulus paired with
a positive coping experience, usually
relaxation.
240.
tangentiality
Characteristic of the loose cognitive and
verbal associations seen in schizophrenia
in which the person fails to answer
questions and moves the conversation to
unrelated topics.
241.
tic disorder
Disruption in early development involving
involuntary motor movements or
vocalizations.
242.
token
economy
program
Behavior modification system in which
individuals earn items they can exchange
for desired rewards by displaying
appropriate behaviors.
243.
tolerance
(substance)
Need for increased amounts of a
substance to achieve the desired effect,
and a diminished effect with continued use
of the same amount.
244.
Tourette's
disorder
Developmental disorder featuring multiple
dysfunctional motor and vocal tics.
245.
transvestic
fetishism
Paraphilia in which individuals, usually males,
are sexually aroused or receive gratification
by wearing clothing of the opposite sex.
246.
unconscious
Part of the psychic makeup that is outside the
awareness of the person. The deeply hidden
mass of memories, experiences, and impulses
that is viewed in Freudian theory as the
source of much behavior.
247.
unipolar
depression
Depression without a history of mania.
248.
vaginismus
Recurring involuntary muscle spasms in the
outer third of the vagina that interfere with
sexual intercourse.
249.
vascular
dementia
Progressive brain disorder involving loss of
cognitive functioning, caused by blockage of
blood flow to the brain that appears
concurrently with other neurological signs
and symptoms.
250.
voyeurism
Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is derived
from observing unsuspecting individuals
undressing or naked.
251.
vulnerability
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a
disorder.
252.
withdrawal
(substance)
A symptom of substance dependence or
addiction. Severely negative physiological
reaction to removal of a psychoactive
substance, which can only be alleviated by
the same or a similar substance.
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