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This research proposal is my original work and has never been presented in any other university
or college for an award of degree, diploma or certificate.
Signed………………………………………….. Date…………………………..
This research proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as the university
Signed…………………………………………. Date……………………………
MS: ………………………………………………………………
I thank the Almighty God for leading me this far. I would also like to give thanks to all the
people that have given me their continuous support, guidance, encouragement and time
throughout the period of conducting this research project. First, I am grateful to my supervisor,
for her support, supervision and valuable guidance in my research project.
Secondly, am grateful to my family for their continuous support, encouragement, committing
their resources towards my education up to this very point. Through their sacrifices and
opportunities, I have managed to come this far.
Finally, I salute the entire Islamic University of Uganda fraternity for providing a conducive
environment for me to thrive academically and for providing me with the resources I needed to
see me through the completion of my diploma. I will forever treasure the help of the lecturers,
members of staff, and my fellow classmates for enabling me learn and grow more.
This research proposal is dedicated to my dear parents for laying the strong foundation for not
only my studies but my life as well.
The main purpose of this research proposal is to establish the contribution of records
management on organizational performance of the public sector in Uganda. As indicated in
chapter one, this study will determine the relationship of records management on organizational
performance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, to find out the role of records management in
Ministry of Internal Affairs and to examine the other factors that affect organizational
performance at Ministry of Internal Affairs. Literature will be reviewed in according to the study
objectives in chapter two. The study will employ a cross sectional research design and a
population constituting 75 respondents as shown in chapter three. Multiple correlation analysis
was performed with a unique model to examine the significance of relationship amongst the
various independent variables and the dependent variable. It was established that there was very
strong and significant relationship between records management and organizational performance
(r = 0.864; p < 0.01). The raw data obtained from organizational reports of the firm under study
were analyzed using Ms Excel spreadsheets after which regression analysis was performed with
the aid of SPSS. Finally, the study recommended that Organizations put an emphasis on their
ideals, developed by the leadership and adopted by members of the group, that ministries should
strive to equip their employees with multivariate skills through training and ensure that employee
work assignment is based on skill of the individual and that the ministry invests in the latest,
most efficient, user friendly systems that have been tested in the industry to ensure increased
organizational performance.
1.3.1 General Objective11
1.3.1 Objectives of the Study.11
1.5.2 TIME SCOPE12
2.1 Introduction14
2.2 Concept of Records Management14
2.3.1 Administrative value17
2.3.2 Financial value17
2.3.3 Information value18
3.0 Introduction24
3.1 Study Design24
3.2 Area of Study24
3.3 Study Population25
3.4 Sample Size and Selection Method25
3.4.1 Sample Size25
3.4.2 Sampling Methods25
3.5 Data Sources26
3.5.1 Primary source26
3.5.2 Secondary Source27
3.6 Data Collection Methods27
3.6.1 Survey Methods (Use of Questionnaires)27
3.6.2 Interviewing28
3.7 Data collection instruments28
3.8 Reliability and Validity of the data collection instruments29
3.8.1 Reliability29
3.7.2 Validity29
3.8 Research Procedure30
3.9 Data Management.30
3.9.1 Data Processing30
3.9.2 Data Analysis31
This chapter focuses on the basic information of the research. It has information about the
background of the study statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study,
research questions, and justification of the study, scope of the study and significance of the
Record keeping is a fundamental activity of public administration. Without records there can be
no rule of law and no accountability. Public servants must have information to carry out their
work, and records represent a particular and crucial source of information (Ngoepe, 2004).
Records provide a reliable, legally verifiable source of evidence of decisions and actions. They
document compliance or non-compliance with laws, rules, and procedures. Governments can no
longer justify taking action with little or no reference to past performance or future goals. Nor
can they justify parallel or duplicate services when they can combine services and reduce costs.
Client service, quality performance of tasks, and measurable outcomes are increasingly
important responsibilities, and these aspirations all depend on accessible and usable records.
Yet, in many countries around the world, record keeping systems are unable to cope with the
growing mass of unmanaged records. This is particularly true in countries with limited financial
or administrative resources or where records and archives managers lack training or professional
development opportunities. Administrators find it ever more difficult to retrieve the information
they need to formulate, implement, and monitor policy and to manage key personnel and
financial resources. This situation impedes the capacity to carry out economic and administrative
reform programs aimed at achieving efficiency, accountability, and enhanced services to citizens
(Shephard, 2006)
Moreover, the decline, and in some cases total collapse, of record keeping systems makes it virtually
impossible to determine. Every organization, private or public, ultimately aims maximize profits,
minimize losses and reduce records. In the conduct of their businesses and in order to achieve these
three aims, organizations more often than not depend on records for their operations. In many cases,
records form the basis upon which opinion is developed and many forward looking organizations
make reference to records as they make decisions. To this end, records have been part of
organizational history and are perhaps as old as humanity is. Van der Waldt et al (2002) are of the
opinion that information is a useful resource to both private and governmental sectors and as such
records have to be managed efficiently. A similar opinion is held by Dearstyne (1985) when he
connects the administration of public affairs with proper management of records. If one can keep and
retrieve documents efficiently, then he or she can aptly manage the affairs of the organization.
Ngoepe (2004) is even more candid — for him, sound records is the foundation of nay government
since a government has to fulfill its obligation of accountability to its citizenry as well as ensure the
protection of the rights bestowed upon citizens.
The Department of Immigration, as a public sector organization, serves to facilitate the entry, stay,
residency and exit of both Ugandans and foreign nationals. In doing this, the organization is central
in actualizing the fundamental human rights such as that of association and movement. In the course
of its functions, the Department of Immigration handles a considerable number of records ranging
close to two million in terms of the files available in the Registry. In the processing of the various
documents issued in the Department, a number of public records are generated, stored in the various
forms for future reference. Such records range from administrative instructions, declarations on
nationality and the attendant allegiances paid to the country; records on parentage which is crucial in
the determination of nationality.
The Immigration Department is a security arm of the Government as well as a service provider,
charged with the responsibility of controlling entry and exit of persons seeking to live temporarily or
permanently. In discharging its functions, the department contributes towards security, national
development and poverty reduction. In light of this, it was important to conduct a study to examine
how records management in the Department of Immigration has impacted organizational
The effectiveness and efficiency of the public service especially in the ministry of internal affairs
depends upon the availability of and access to information held in records.
The loss of control of records has been rampant in the public sector and has consequences in to the
public. In the ministry of Internal affairs for example, it has been reported that it takes a long time to
access records because of inadequate information systems, lack of appropriate use of technology as
well as challenges to do with the human resources establishment and functions yet all aspects of
public service depend upon well-kept and well-managed records. Records are vital to virtually every
aspect of the governance process and therefore practices like document retention schedules,
monitoring records programs and retiring of inactive records are some of the ways to improve the
current status quo.
It is from this therefore that the researcher seeks to find out the contribution of records management
towards organizational performance in the public sector in Uganda.
1.3.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study will be to investigate the contribution of records management
to the organizational performance of public entities in Uganda using Ministry of Internal Affairs
as a case study.
1.3.1 Objectives of the Study.
1. To examine the role of records management in Ministry of Internal Affairs.
2. To assess the other factors that affect the organizational performance in Ministry of Internal
3. To find out the relationship between records management and organizational performance at
Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The study will be guided by the following questions:
1. What is the role records management in Ministry of Internal Affairs?
2. What other factors affect organizational performance in Ministry of Internal Affairs?
3. What is the relationship between records management and organizational performance at
Ministry of Internal Affairs?
The research will be carried out at Ministry of Internal Affairs; this is located at along Jinja Road
The study will be conducted basing on information in the period of January 2019 to May 2019
since it’s more current and relevant to the purpose of the study.
The research will be based on two variables these are records management (independent
variable) and organizational performance which will be the dependent variable.
This study will be significant to the public sector, general public, students and the government as
it will offer valuable contributions from both a theoretical and practical perspective.
Theoretically, it will contribute to the general understanding of records management practices
and their effect on organizational performance.
The study findings will be of benefit to the policy makers in the public sector who are tasked
with the formulation of polices.
Having grasped the essentials of records management in service delivery, the policy makers
will issue policies that are relevant to the efficient and effective way of relating the two
variables. Further, the study findings will go a long way in appraising the current academic
state of affairs.
The proposed theoretical model and indeed the conceptual framework will be evaluated in
the face of the study findings. The body of literature so generated will form a basis for further
evaluation and research.
 Limited relevant information - there may be difficulties in accessing relevant research
information considering the confidentiality and sensitivity of the sought information in
the ministry, by using different data collecting methods like interviewing, sampling and
questionnaire. More so the researcher will use document sourcing to accumulate more
relevant information.
The researcher expects to face financial constraints in issuing the questionnaires and
making follow up, this will be due to high cost of typing and printing. Therefore it will be
important to plan and save prior to the field study.
Insufficient data; the researcher may face a problem of lack of substantive knowledge
about the subject of study by the respondents during collection of data. This may arise
due to the lack of commitment and willingness in responding the questions due to the fear
of sharing inside information that could threaten their job security.
2.1 Introduction
This chapter critically reviews the available literature on records management and organizational
performance. It begins by reviewing organizational theories related to records management, then
an overview of the empirical studies and literature on the records management and
organizational performance.
2.2 Concept of Records Management
Thurston (2005) and Iwhiwhu (2005) underscore that reliable, timely and accessible records should
make available information about administrative actions, such as resources received, committed or
spent resources, which facilitate and simplify accountability. Properly managed records are filed
according to the filing plan or system. Retrieval is a matter of minutes, instead of hours. This is
because records are easily identified by the file/reference number on the filing plan and then retrieved
from the filing cabinets/shelves as there will be no misfiling if properly managed.
Properly managed e-records with no capturing errors can simply be searched on the e-records
management system. This can be done by punching the reference number, subject, keyword or any
other options of the record required as programmed and created by the system, on the keyboard and
then accessing the e-document on the screen. For example, when the doctor is treating a follow-up
patient s/he will need medical records to check the medical history of the patient before commencing
with the follow-up treatment or any new consultation.
In the context of Botswana for example, the Botswana National Archives Act 1978 amended in 2007
requires government ministries to develop regulations for effective records management functions in
the public service. As earlier noted in the literature reviewed, Botswana National Archives Act is
mandated to provide guidance on the management and preservation of public records. How-ever,
Ngoepe and Keakopa (2011) have noted that Botswana National Archives Act still faces challenges
in satisfying its role in the management of public records especially more so in the development of
policies and procedures. Kalusopa (2011:228) also noted that there has been very little effort to
extend these services to public service organizations.
The management of public records in Zimbabwe seem to be an ongoing struggle as witnessed by
several studies which have been conducted on Zimbabwe. Ngulube (2000) revealed that public
records in Zimbabwe are mishandled and abused due to lack of ethics. In the same study, it was
observed that public registry personnel smoke and eat in their offices. Guided by such observations,
the current study deemed it essential to investigate why such improper practices were prevailing
when records surveys are done to ensure acceptable records management practices prevail in public
institutions. Using the case of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe, Maboreke (2007) established that
the records management situation in most public registries was chaotic.
It has been established that lack of records management regulatory framework has negative
implications for public service delivery. According to Kemoni (2007) without a re-cords
management policy for instance, it is difficult to establish efficient records management systems that
supports decision-making. Kemoni (2007) further posits that the absence of a records management
policy has the ability to obstruct the role of public service providers. Thus the lack of a records
management procedures manual would have implications such as records management personnel not
having the necessary guidelines for managing records during the continuum of activities that would
make the management of records throughout their life-cycle easier.
According to Sanderson and Ward (2003:1) the importance of records management is
increasingly being recognised in organisations. It is therefore the responsibility of records
managers to ensure that they gain the attention of decision-makers in their organisations. Gaining
recognition is all about convincing management of the role of records management as enabling
unit in an organisation. Employees require information in order to carry out their official duties
and responsibilities efficiently and effectively in a transparent manner. Records represent major
sources of information and are almost the only reliable and legally verifiable source of data that
can serve as evidence of decisions, actions and transactions in an organisation (Wamukoya,
2000:24). According to Northwest Territories (2002:1), the role of records management is to
ensure that members of staff involved in different operations have the information they need,
when necessary.
Among their other purposes, records also act as raw materials for research in various disciplines,
including scientific research, which is an important ingredient of socioeconomic development.
Furthermore, records can be used as an information resource for strategic planning purposes. The
service provided by records management is therefore of vital importance to both employees (end
users) and organisational success. As outlined earlier, the primary function of records
management is to facilitate the free flow of records throughout the entire organisation. Most
importantly, it remains the function of records management to ensure that an organisation’s
records are safe for future reference (De Wet and Du Toit, 2000:75). According to Palmer
(2000:65), the role of a records management system is that it acts as a control system that
reinforces other control systems such as internal and external auditing. The records themselves
can serve to detect fraud and recover the loss. Since corruption creates an environment that
allows opportunities to commit fraud, once fraud is detected, records can provide a trail for
investigators to track the root of corruption. However, for records to be useful in this capacity,
they must be accessible.
According to Hare and McLeod (1979:8), organisations kept records for the following reasons:
• Information retrieval
• Evidence of organisation’s activities
• Compliance with regulations
In support of Hare and McLeod, Cowling (2003:2), further identified four main reasons
motivating organisations to preserve records permanently as:
• Administrative value
• Financial value
• Information value
2.3.1 Administrative value
n the conduct of their business activity, organisations and individuals often need to consult
records of their previous activities and decisions, for example, to provide background
information, establish the existence of a precedent or to substantiate or refute a claim or
allegation. Records in this case are of utmost importance for an organisation’s administrative
2.3.2 Financial value
An organisation needs long-term documentary evidence of the way in which funds were
obtained, allocated, controlled and expended (budget). This includes budget records, which
provide evidence of how income and expenditure were planned, and various accounting records
documenting financial transactions.
2.3.3 Information value
Archives and records management departments are generally recognised as the primary source of
materials for information and research into the history of society. They form a unique and
indispensable record for researchers such as historians, scientists, geographers, sociologists,
statisticians etc. To summarize, it may be appropriate to indicate that records exist in order to
remind organisations of their previous activities. Hounsome (2001:1) noted that while records
management may seem boring to many, it is hard to under-estimate the role played by records
management in organisations. The records are the corporate memory of the organisation,
evidence of what was done and why it was done. They provide information for different
organisational purposes, such as:
• Decision-making
• Financial accountability
• Performance measurement
• Strategic planning
• Research
Organizations have an important role in our daily lives and therefore, successful organizations
represent a key ingredient for developing nations. Thus, many economists consider organizations
and institutions similar to an engine in determining the economic, social and political progress.
Precisely for this reason, in the last 22 years, there were 6 Nobel prizes awarded to researchers
who have focused on the analysis of organizations and institutions. Continuous performance is
the focus and progress.
Thus, organizational performance is one of the most important variables in the management
research and arguably the most important indicator of the organizational performance. Although
the concept of organizational performance is very common in the academic literature, its
definition is difficult because of its many meanings. For this reason, there isn’t a universally
accepted definition of this concept. In the '50s organizational performance was defined as the
extent to which organizations, viewed as a social system fulfilled their objectives (Georgopoulos
& Tannenbaum, 1957: p. 535). Performance evaluation during this time was focused on work,
people and organizational structure. Later in the 60s and 70s, organizations have begun to
explore new ways to evaluate their performance so performance was defined as an organization's
ability to exploit its environment for accessing and using the limited resources (Yuchtman &
Seashore, 1967: p. 379).
According to Rondinelli (2009), decentralization entails the transfer of authority and
responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or
quasiindependent government organizations or the private sector. The transfer can be through
deconcentration, delegation, devolution or privatization or deregulation and involves a
combination of dimensions of fiscal, administrative, political and economic powers and
functions. Similar views are shared by Steiner (2005),Rondinelli and Cheema (2007) and Phillip
(2009) who hold that services whose delivery and financing is often decentralized include, but
are not limited to, education, health, water, sanitation, public transport and infrastructure, roads
maintenance, fire, housing and social welfare. These are services should have little interjurisdictional spillover effect, hence contributing to high performance of the public sector
enterprises as a result of proper utilize the available resources given and maximize profits made
for expansion (Robinson, 2007).
Information and Communications Technology
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is pivotal to modern government and
fundamental to the strategies for public service reform. The creation of new information and
communication systems are seen as an essential component in the creation of accountability and
it increases performance of public sector enterprises (Phillip, 2009). When fundamental
decisions have been reached, information about those decisions and their outcomes must flow to
all those to whom the decision-maker is accountable (Heeks, 2008). Without such an information
flow, and without the information system to carry that flow, there can be no accountability
because there can be no knowledge of the decision.
Communication is important in both its approaches, i.e., vertical, which involves top-down and
crossdepartmental and external communications. In the top-down case a form of explicit
communication is a requirement implied by the necessity for individual components to access
remote resources according to the global design, while in the bottom-up case, communication is
optional in so far as the impact of the propagation of the information throughout the system on
the emergent behaviour is more like a positive side effect of the design rather than an expected
feature required in the specification (Haubner, 2003). The manner in which an organization
conveys its messages is very crucial to its performance.
Saunders (2007) believed that successful functioning of organizational structures and effective
operation of planning control systems is dependent on the quality and ability of staff employed.
Strategic plans should include information on the acquisition, development, use and reward of
human assets. Plans need to take into account the current state of development of the Public
sector enterprise function and the strategic direction in which its state might change.
Multiskilling provides employees with a variety of skills and should be developed extensively.
Training is beneficial and generates more than the equivalent cost in payback. To further the
goals of value-based management, all employees need broad and continuous education and
training. Education, training and professional development should be skill, process oriented and
Motivation is one of the factors which affect individual performance. It is what makes people put
effort and energy into what they do. It is also seen as a goal directed behaviour that addresses
issues that energize and direct behaviour towards the goal (Armstrong 1996). These issues can be
referred to as motivating factors, which give rise to good feelings and raise performance by
influencing the ‘will to work well’. Individuals at work should be induced to keep on working
well. It has been observed that managers ought to be aware of the issues that boost employee
According to Mnjama (2004), most countries in Africa experienced major problems in the
management of records which included untidiness in the record storage areas, misplacement of
file, and lack of file control tools. The study also indicated other problems were lack of retention
and disposal schedules and lack of proper supervision of staff. Ngoepe (2008) indicates that there
are various risks associated with the poor management of records. Lack of proper records
management in organizations would lead to Loss of assets, Litigation risks, Loss of legal rights
and failure to comply with legislation, Time wastage in retrieval of records and location of
misplaced documents as well as Compliance risks.
Many organizations are faced by numerous challenges in managing records that include;
traditional records practices, the exponential growth of information, knowing what to keep, lack
of disposal procedures, improper policies and procedures and unskilled personnel. To overcome
these factors, organizations should; extend record management practices, conduct appraisal
regularly, identify records to retain, proper disposition, implementation of records management
policies and training in records management (Cox, 2000).
In summary, this chapter gives an overview of related literature in records management. It covers
the contextual overview of records management and provision of public service delivery. It gives
an overview of what has already been researched in the field of study and the opinions and
findings from other researchers and scholars in the field. It discusses the purpose of records
management in the public sector, records management models, records management, service
delivery model, records management policies and its element such as record access and
3.0 Introduction
This chapter outlines the manner in which the study will be conducted. The key components are
the research design, population, sample size and sampling technique, research instruments,
validity and reliability, procedure and data analysis.
3.1 Study Design
The study will be a cross sectional design where data is collected from a cross the population at
one point in time. The study will utilize a descriptive research design with an aim of establishing
how establishing the contribution of records management to the organizational performance of
Ministry of Internal Affairs. According to Maxwell (2005), a research design is a detailed outline
of how an investigation took place, this includes how the data will be collected, what instruments
will be employed, how they will be used and the intended means for analyzing the data collected.
The researcher intends to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. A case study is a research
strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. The
study centrally focused on Ministry of Internal Affairs as a case study and also use an analytical
research design to establish the relationship between records management and organizational
performance of Ministry of Internal Affairs.
3.2 Area of Study
This research study will be carried out at Ministry of Internal Affairs Head offices located along
Jinja Road in Kampala.
3.3 Study Population
Obtained from an official in the human resource office at Ministry of Internal Affairs, a total of
100 employees will be included in the study. This will include 80 respondents from the
immigrations department, 20 respondents from the records department, and 10 respondents from
other departments of Ministry of Internal Affairs. The researcher believes that these categories of
clients have sufficient knowledge about records management and organizational performance of
Ministry of Internal Affairs. The total number of respondents will be 52 as determined below.
3.4 Sample Size and Selection Method
3.4.1 Sample Size
A total of 100 employees will be selected for the study and the researcher used a mathematical
formula of Taro Yamane (1970:886-87) to determine the sample size as illustrated.
Where N is the total population of respondents and “e” is the confidence level. A total population
of 60 employees will be used at a confidence level of 95% or error of 0.05 and the sample size
will be;
= 80 respondents
1 + 100(0.05)²
Therefore, out of 100 employees only 80 respondents will be sampled.
3.4.2 Sampling Methods
These are procedures applied by researchers to extract a sample from a population. The
researcher will utilize random and purposive sampling as explained below;
Random Sampling
Random Sampling is a type of probability sampling where each and every element of the
population has an equal chance of being selected. Random sampling will be used for the other
class of underwriters. Each element will be selected randomly there by reducing bias and
population selected had an equal chance of being selected.
Purposive Sampling
This is a non-probability sampling technique that is used to obtain a sample selected based on the
characteristics of a population and the objective of the study. Purposive sampling is also known
as judgmental or subjective sampling. The researcher will use this method to focus on particular
characteristics of the population of interest.
3.5 Data Sources
Data will be both primary and secondary. Primary data will be collected by the use of
questionnaires and secondary data will be got from previous reports, journals and internet.
3.5.1 Primary source
Primary data is data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience. Primary Data will
be collected by the use of questionnaires because they provide first hand testimonies or direct
evidence. These will be designed using Likkert scale and will be distributed to staff in order to
get their views about the records management and organizational performance at Ministry of
Internal Affairs.
3.5.2 Secondary Source
Secondary data refers to data that is collected routinely as part of the day-to-day operations of an
organization. This comprises of a review of textbooks, journals, Newspaper articles, internet and
earlier researches that carry information on records management policies and organizational
performance in the public sector.
3.6 Data Collection Methods
The study will employ both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data is data observed
from firsthand experience. It will be collected by the use of structured questionnaires issued to
the staff of Ministry of Internal Affairs. Secondary data is data that has already been gathered by
someone else. It will be obtained from Ministry of Internal Affairs’ official records, annual
reports, journals, Newspaper articles and Internet.
3.6.1 Survey Methods (Use of Questionnaires)
The study will utilize the use of questionnaires as a survey method of data collection.
Questionnaire is a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the
purposes of a survey or statistical study. Questionnaires will be used because they cost efficient,
practical, easily scaled, yield quick results and most importantly, People are more truthful while
responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that
their responses are anonymous. The questionnaire will be structured and semi-structured in
nature. These will be forwarded to respondents (sales, risk and underwriting officials). These
will include immigration officials, records and archives officers. Designed using a likkert scale,
the self-administered questionnaires approach is preferred because respondents have more time
to complete the survey and control the pace at which they do so, making it easier and more
convenient for them to respond.
3.6.2 Interviewing
Interviewing is a method of data collection which involves direct face to face contacts with the
respondents from different departments. The researcher will use interview guides because of the
need to critically find out exactly what is happening, Enables the researcher to establish rapport
with potential participants and therefore gain their cooperation, and allows the researcher to
clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow‐up information. Interviews will
be carried out on managers and high level employees.
3.7 Data collection instruments
These can be described as a devices used to collect the data and these include questionnaires and
interview guide as explained below;
A questionnaire is a data collection instrument consistent of a series of questions and other
prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. The questionnaires will
be structured and semi-structured so as save time and enable respondents to give relevant
choice since different options will be given. The questionnaire will be structured and semistructured in nature. These will be utilized because a large number of people can be reached
relatively easily and economically. A standard questionnaire provides quantifiable answers
for a research topic. With the help of SPSS, these answers are relatively easy to analyze.
Interview guide; An interview guide will be also drafted with a set of questions that the
researcher asked respondents during an interview and this will be open ended in nature. The
researcher will personally record the provided responses as per study respondents during the
process of carrying out an interview. It will be used because the interviewer has more freedom to
modify the wording and order of questions. This tool will be used to collect information from
respondents selected from head of departments at Ministry of Internal Affairs.
3.8 Reliability and Validity of the data collection instruments
3.8.1 Reliability
Reliability is seen as the degree to which a test is free from measurement errors, since the more
measurement errors occur the less reliable the test (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003; McMillan &
Schumacher, 2001, 2006; Moss, 1994; Neuman, 2003). A constant composite reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha) of 0.6 or above, for all the constructs considered adequate for this
study. The acceptable reliability co-efficient will be 0.6 and above obtained by the use of SPSS.
The researcher will determine reliability of the questionnaire through carrying out a Pilot study
test using 10 underwriters before the time of the study. A pilot study will be carried out to know
whether the data instruments will be able to establish the required data and it only covered two
people selected from the study area. The Researcher will be given information that will be
expected out of respondents as she considered the data instruments reliable in the collection of
valid information
3.7.2 Validity
Validity can be seen as the core of any form of assessment that is trustworthy and accurate
(Bond, 2003, p. 179). To certify the validity of the questionnaire and interview guide; research
experts will be involved. After the questionnaires and interview guide are drafted, they will be
submitted to two experts to ensure to make sure the methods used are not only ethical, and costeffective, but also a method that truly measures the idea or construct in question. This will be
based on alpha coefficient value of 0.7 and more which will be obtained by the use of SPSS.
Thus, after the expert judgments, the compilation of the responses from raters will be computed
to determine the content validity index (CVI). If the coefficient computed is from 0.7 and above,
the instruments shall be considered to be valid but if it is less, the instruments shall be considered
to be invalid so new ones shall be made.
3.8 Research Procedure
The researcher will attain an introductory letter from Islamic University Of Uganda and
thereafter present it to the Human resource office at Ministry of Internal Affairs, where this study
will be based. With the Authorization of the human resource manager, the research
questionnaires will be administered to the intended respondents. Sequential data collection will
be conducted, after analyzing data collected using a questionnaire. An interview guide will be
designed with research supervisors’ guidance to capture some information that is not covered by
3.9 Data Management.
3.9.1 Data Processing
The researcher begins by the proposal, define the problem, review literature, formulate
research questions, select the appropriate research methodology, and construct data
collection instruments. The researcher then will obtain a letter of introduction from the
University which will then be presented to the human resource office, Ministry of Internal
Affairs. Appointment dates will then be got for the interviews. Questionnaires will be
distributed at random and collected after three weeks. Analysis and presentation of data
from the field will be interpreted in chapter four and recommendations put forward as per
the researcher. A report will then be compiled and submitted.
3.9.2 Data Analysis
The descriptive and inferential statistics will be used in analysis of relationships, differences,
trends and comparisons. The relationship between records management and organizational
performance will be established using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Qualitative responses will be logically analyzed, transcribed, sorted, summarized and classified
into major themes. The qualitative data then will be presented in tabular form, graphical and
narrative forms. Qualitative data from interviews will be analyzed as the study progresses
following a logical analysis, a method highly recommended for qualitative research (Brown and
Lloyd 2001).
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