Dalton 2015 Think Like a Behavior Analyst Introduction to Functions of Behavior ➔ All behavior has a purpose - it is never random! ➔ Behavior = communication ➔ If we can figure out the pay-off of a behavior, we can change the behavior ➔ There are four functions or reasons behavior occur- attention, escape, access, sensory Attention : The kiddo wants attention- from peers or adults- in any form! Antecedent Strategies What to do before the behavior occurs Consequence Strategies What to do after the behavior occurs ➔ Give attention often, so they won’t need ➔ Ignore! Do not scold, talk to quietly, take for a walk, or provide any type of attention, even negative ➔ Praise or give attention to kiddos doing the correct behavior, or requesting appropriately ➔ State the correct way to gain attention their “attention fix.” Try making conversation, giving praise, games and being silly/fun! ➔ Give a job or let the kiddo be your helper, so you have a reason to shower them with attention ➔ Teach ways they can appropriately request attention ➔ Praise and give attention to all appropriate requests! Escape : The kiddo wants to escape an activity, person, location, sound etc. Antecedent Strategies What to do before the behavior occurs Consequence Strategies What to do after the behavior occurs ➔ Find a way to modify the activity so that ➔ Do not let them leave or escape the environment, activity, etc. because a behavior occurred ➔ Let them know what they need to do or complete before escaping the nonpreferred activity ➔ Praise or give attention to kiddos doing the correct behavior, participating, or finishing an activity ➔ State the correct way to request a break or how to leave a location. Honor this appropriate request after student is calm and following directions ➔ ➔ ➔ ➔ it’s more fun for the kiddo Mix up things that are hard or unpreferred with preferred or favorite activities Implement a structured schedule so it’s possible to predict what is coming. Allow them to take ownership by being able to make their schedule sometimes too! Teach them to ask appropriately for breaks or help less fun activities. Make sure to honor appropriate requests for breaks Provide praise, breaks, and rewards when kiddos are participating! Dalton 2015 Access: The kiddo wants access to an item or activity Antecedent Strategies What to do before the behavior occurs Consequence Strategies What to do after the behavior occurs ➔ Teach them to ask appropriately for preferred items and give the items immediately when they do (if possible). You might have to do this each time at first, but you can eventually begin to teach that there are times when items are available and other times when they are not. ➔ Once they are asking nicely and consistently, teach them to wait for items or let them know when the item or activity is available ➔ Use desired items or activities as rewards for when the kiddos are following directions, participating, etc. ➔ Never give the item when they are acting out. They will quickly learn that they don’t get what they want when they act that way but that they can have what they want if they ask nicely or follow directions. Sensory: The behavior itself is rewarding to the kiddo Antecedent Strategies What to do before the behavior occurs Consequence Strategies What to do after the behavior occurs ➔ If it’s possible for them to engage in the ➔ Give them something to do that makes it impossible for them to engage in the behavior. For example, if they engage in hand flapping, put their hands to work with crayons. It also helps if the competing item satisfies the same sensory satisfaction they get from the behavior, whether that be something visual, auditory, etc. ➔ Block, interrupt, and redirect to another activity behavior during certain times of the day, put it on a schedule for them to do so, and teach them when it is and isn’t okay to engage in the behavior ➔ Praise and give rewards for appropriate behaviors such as: quiet hands, quiet mouth, calm body, etc. ➔ It may be hard at first, but keep thinking “why is this happening?” ➔ The more rewards, the quicker the behavior change ➔ Stay calm and neutral, do not let your frustration show Remember: No kiddo wants to be bad!