Orienteering Honor

```Orienteering Honor
Name:___________________________
1. What is a topographic map?
a. What are some types of features on it?
b. Name three uses for it.
i. _______________
ii. _______________
iii. _______________
2. Identify 20 signs and symbols used on a topographic map.
(Draw each with colored pencils with a label telling what it describes.)
i. __________________
xi. __________________
ii. __________________
xii. __________________
iii. __________________
xiii. __________________
iv. __________________
xiv. __________________
v. __________________
xv. __________________
vi. __________________
xvi. __________________
vii. __________________
xvii. __________________
viii. __________________
xviii. __________________
ix. __________________
xix. __________________
x. __________________
xx. __________________
3. Identify the parts of the compass by pointing them out to an instructor.
4. Define the following terms and understand what they mean:
a.
Elevation b. Azimuth c.
Back azimuth d. Contour interval e.
Magnetic North f.
Declination g. Scale h. Measuring i.
True North j.
Distance k. Ground forms –
5. How to shoot a magnetic azimuth.
6. How to march on a magnetic azimuth.
7. Know two methods to correct for declination and when correction is
necessary.
i. ________________________
ii. ________________________
8. Be able to orient yourself and a map by:
a. Inspection
b. By compass
9. What is resection and its use:
10. Successfully use a map and compass by following a two-mile (3 kilometers)
cross-country orienteering course with at least five given compass readings
or control points.
i. ○
ii. ○
iii. ○
iv. ○
v. ○
1. What is a topographic map?
a. What are some types of features on it?
 show elevation with the contour lines
 show any important landmarks, such as rivers, lakes, and roads.
 They will often also show railroad tracks and major power lines (and
their towers).
b. Name three uses for it.
Examples of uses:



Where you are.
How to get where he/she wants to go.
What the terrain is like in a given area (steepness, for example).

Where a river comes from and goes to.

The route a hiking trail follows.


The distance between two points.



The location of campsites.
Elevation of a mountaintop.
Latitude and longitude of any point on the map.
What areas may be susceptible to avalanches or flooding.
2. Identify 20 signs and symbols used on a topographic map.
http://mapserver.mytopo.com/mapserver/topographic_symbols/USGS_top.
html
i. __________________
vi. __________________
ii. __________________
vii. __________________
iii. __________________
viii. __________________
iv. __________________
ix. __________________
v. __________________
x. __________________
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
3. Identify the parts of the compass by pointing them out to an instructor.
4. Define the following terms and understand what they mean:
a.
Elevation -The height of a point in relation to sea level.
b.
Azimuth -
c.
Back azimuth -
d.
Contour interval -
e.
Magnetic North -
f.
Declination -
g.
Scale -
h.
Measuring -
i.
True North -True North is the direction from any point on the Earth's surface to the Geographic North Pole.
The azimuth is a compass bearing expressed in degrees. There are 360&deg; in a circle, and North is, by convention, 0&deg;
(or 360&deg;). East is 90&deg;, South is 180&deg;, and West is 270&deg;. While azimuth expresses the compass bearing in the direction of interest,
the compass bearing in exactly the opposite direction. In other words, azimuth is the direction to which you
are going, and back azimuth is the direction from which you are coming. The back azimuth can be calculated by adding or subtracting 180&deg;
from the azimuth
The elevation change between adjacent contour lines on a topographic map. If you travel from one
contour line to another, your change in elevation will equal the contour interval.
Magnetic North is the direction a compass will point, which is towards the North Magnetic Pole. The
North Magnetic Pole is not the same place as the Geographic North Pole. The North Magnetic Pole is the point on the Earth's surface
where the Earth's magnetic field points directly downwards.
The angular difference between magnetic north and true north (defined in reference to the Geographic North
Pole), at any particular location on the Earth's surface, is called the magnetic declination. In other words, it's how far off a compass is from
True North, or the correction that must be applied to a compass reading.
An important property of a map is the scale. It can be indicated by a scale bar and/or a ratio 1:n. This enables the map
user to measure a distance on the map and determine the distance on the ground. These days maps are usually produced under the metric
system which makes it easy to perform this task. Maps are usually produced at standard scale factors of (say) 1:10,000 or 1:50,000 or
1:100,000 and all you need to do is take a measurement on the map (in mm) and multiply that figure by the scale factor to determine the
distance on the ground.
The act of determining distance on a map and Converting it to distance on the ground. In order to do this
translation, you must know the map's scale (see above). Measuring can be done with a ruler
j.
Distance -Distance is the measure of length, or how far apart two points are away from each other.
k.
Ground forms –Features of the surface of the earth. Mountains, valleys, hills, plains.
5. How to shoot a magnetic azimuth.
Using the Centerhold Technique
Centerhold technique
First, open the compass to its fullest so that the cover forms a straightedge with the base. Move the lens (rear sight) to the rearmost
position, allowing the dial to float freely. Next, place your thumb through the thumb loop, form a steady base with your third and fourth
fingers, and extend your index finger along the side of the compass. Place the thumb of the other hand between the lens (rear sight) and
the bezel ring; extend the index finger along the remaining side of the compass, and the remaining fingers around the fingers of the other
hand. Pull your elbows firmly into your sides; this will place the compass between your chin and your belt. To measure an azimuth, simply
turn your entire body toward the object, pointing the compass cover directly at the object. Once you are pointing at the object, look down
and read the azimuth from beneath the fixed black index line. This preferred method offers the following advantages over the sighting
technique:
1.
It is faster and easier to use.
2.
It can be used under all conditions of visibility.
3.
It can be used when navigating over any type of terrain.
4.
It can be used without putting down other gear; however, any other gear must be slung back out of the way.
5.
It can be used without removing eyeglasses.
Using the Compass-to-Cheek Technique
Compass-to-cheek technique
The compass-to-cheek technique is used almost exclusively for sighting, and it is the best technique for this purpose.
Fold the cover of the compass containing the sighting wire to a vertical position; then fold the rear sight slightly forward. Look through the
rear-sight slot and align the front-sight hairline with the desired object in the distance. Then glance down at the dial through the eye lens to
6. How to march on a magnetic azimuth.
Although different models of the lensatic compass vary somewhat in the details of their use, the principles are the same.
1.
Hold the compass level in the palm of the hand.
2.
Rotate it until the desired azimuth falls under the fixed black index line (for example, 320&deg;), maintaining the azimuth as
prescribed.
3.
Turn the bezel ring until the luminous line is aligned with the north-seeking arrow. Once the alignment is obtained, the compass
is preset.
4.
To follow an azimuth, assume the centerhold technique and turn your body until the north-seeking arrow is aligned with the
luminous line. Then proceed forward in the direction of the front cover's sighting wire, which is aligned with the fixed black
index line that contains the desired azimuth.
7. Know two methods to correct for declination and when correction is
necessary.
Method #1
(These directions assume your orienting arrow lines up with the North indicator on your compass dial, meaning the compass has not been
A) Obtain the local magnetic declination for the area represented on your map. At the bottom of every USGS map is a diagram that displays
the difference &amp; direction between true north (represented as a star), grid north (abbreviated as “GN”), and magnetic north (abbreviated as
“MN”). Magnetic declination is the number of degrees and direction between true north and magnetic north. Because declination varies over
time, it is advisable to get a reasonably current figure. If your USGS map is more than 15 years old (the declination date appears in the
diagram), here’s an easy-to-use website that gives you only the information you need for your specific area:
http://geomag.nrcan.gc.ca/apps/mdcal-eng.php
If magnetic north is east of true north, the local declination is positive.
If magnetic north is west of true north, the local declination is negative.
B) Draw a line on the map that connects your starting point with the destination (your “map bearing”). Extend the line all the way through
the map border (the “neat line”).
C) Distance yourself from any nearby metal such as keys, belt buckle, desk, car, fence, etc. Place the compass on the map so the needle’s
pivot point is directly over the intersection of your map bearing and neat line.
D) Rotate the dial until compass ring north agrees with map north. Read your map bearing from the compass dial. Make sure the bearing
agrees with your direction of travel – for example, if you intend to travel due east, the bearing is 90 degrees, not 270 degrees.
E) Do this step mentally – don’t turn the compass dial. If the local declination is positive, then subtract the declination amount from the
bearing you just derived. If the local declination is negative, then add the declination amount to the bearing you just derived.
F) Turn the compass dial until the figure you calculated in step E lines up with the index line.
G) Lift the compass off the map, and with the direction of travel arrow pointing directly away from you, rotate your body and the compass all
in one motion until the red magnetic needle overlays the orienting arrow.
H) Sight a landmark along this bearing, and proceed to it. Repeat this step until you reach your destination.
Method #2:
(These directions assume your orienting arrow lines up with the North indicator on your compass dial, meaning the compass has not been
A) Obtain the local magnetic declination for the area represented on your map. At the bottom of every USGS map is a diagram that displays
the difference &amp; direction between true north (represented as a star), grid north (abbreviated as “GN”), and magnetic north (abbreviated as
“MN”). Magnetic declination is the number of degrees and direction between true north and magnetic north. Because declination varies over
time, it is advisable to get a reasonably current figure. If your USGS map is more than 15 years old (the declination date appears in the
diagram), here’s an easy-to-use website that gives you only the information you need:
http://geomag.nrcan.gc.ca/apps/mdcal-eng.php
If magnetic north is east of true north, the local declination is positive
If magnetic north is west of true north, the local declination is negative.
B) Draw a line on the map that connects your starting point with the destination (your “map bearing”).
C) Distance yourself from any nearby metal such as keys, belt buckle, desk, car, fence etc.
D) Place the compass on the map so the baseplate is parallel to the line you drew. Make sure the direction of travel arrow points to your
destination.
E) Rotate the dial until compass ring north agrees with map north. Do not move the compass when you rotate the dial.
F) Remove the compass from the map and, with the direction of travel arrow pointing directly away from you, rotate your body and the
compass all in one motion until the red magnetic needle overlays the orienting arrow.
G) If local declination is positive, then subtract the declination amount (turn the dial clockwise). If local declination is negative, then add the
declination amount (turn the dial counter-clockwise).
H) Again, with the direction of travel arrow pointing directly away from you, rotate your body and compass all in one motion until the red
magnetic needle overlays the orienting arrow. Sight a landmark along this direction of travel and proceed to it. Repeat this step until you
8. Be able to orient yourself and a map by:
a. Inspection (identifiying features around you that are also on the map)
b. By compass (aligning the compass baseplate lines to the map grid
lines)
9. What is resection and its use:
Resection is a method of using a compass and a map to determine your current position.
Uses: 1. To find your location on a map if not previously known.
2. To pinpoint your exact location if you know you are somewhere along a line such as a road, river or trail.
Step:
The first step is to find a feature of the landscape that you can also identify on the map. This could be a mountain peak, an
intersection, a bridge, or even a utility pole (some topographic maps mark where high-voltage lines are, as well as the position
of the poles that hold them up). The closer these two landmarks are to 90&deg; offset from one another, the more accurate the
resection will be. For instance, if the first landmark is at 115&deg;, choose the second one as close to either 205&deg; (115&deg;+90&deg;) or 25&deg;
(115&deg;-90&deg;) as you can. This is not a hard and fast rule, and the prominence of the landmark may well be more important than
the 90&deg; offset. Once you have shot an azimuth to the first landmark, calculate the back azimuth, and plot a line on your map
from the landmark towards (and past) your current position (which should be somewhere on that line). Be sure to correct for
declination when plotting this line. Then shoot the azimuth of the second landmark, and plot it's back azimuth on the map as