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Notes Organization of the Body

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Organization of the Body
Unit 1
● Anatomy and Physiology is the study of the human body
● Anatomy -- concerned with the structure of the part (of the body)
○ e.g. the stomach is a J-shaped, pouch-like organ, the stomach
wall has thick folds, which disappear as the stomach expands to
increase its capacity.
● Physiology-- concerned with the function of the part (of the body)
○ e.g. the stomach temporarily stores food, secretes digestive
juices, and passes on partially digested food to the small
intestine.
Atom
Molecule (atoms join to form)
Macromolecules (molecules join to form)
Organelles--tiny structures in cells that
perform cellular function
Cell
Tissue--composed of similar types of cells
and perform a specific function
Organ--composed of several types of tissue
and performs a particular function within an
organ system
Organ System--organs work together to
provide a specific need for the body.
Organism
Anatomical terms: Used to describe location of body parts, regions of
the body and imaginary planes.
Anterior: front
Posterior: back
Anatomical terms are only useful if everyone has the same position of
the body in mind.
All anatomical terms have a reference point called the anatomical
position--standing erect, with face forward, arms at sides, and palms
and toes directed forward.
Superior: above or toward head
Inferior: below or toward feet
Medial: divide body through nose. Then closer to that
imaginary midline
Lateral: divide body through nose. Then farther away from
imaginary midline
Proximal: part is closer to point of attachment (trunk)
Distal: part is farther from point of attachment (trunk)
Superficial (external): part located near the surface
Deep (internal): part located away from the surface
Central: part situated at the center of the body or an
organ.
Peripheral: part is situated away from the center of the
body or an organ.
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The windpipe is anterior to the
trachea.
The heart is posterior to the rib
cage.
The face is superior to the neck.
The navel is inferior to the chin.
The bridge of the nose is medial to
the eyes.
The eyes are lateral to the nose.
The elbow is proximal to the hand.
The hand is distal to the elbow.
The skin is superficial to the
muscles.
The intestines are deep to the
spine.
The central nervous system is
located along the main axis of the
body.
The peripheral nervous system is
located outside the central nervous
system.
Regions of the body
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