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THE NUSANTARA ETHNIC GROUPS FROM HISTORICAL AND GENOMIC PERSPECTIVES

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 287–301, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_030
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
THE NUSANTARA ETHNIC GROUPS FROM
HISTORICAL AND GENOMIC PERSPECTIVES
Norazmi Anas
Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch,
Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia
Engku Ahmad Zaki Engku Alwi
Faculty of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak
Campus, 21300, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Zuriani Yaacob
Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pahang Branch, Raub Campus,
27600 Raub, Pahang, Malaysia
Anaztasia Natasha Muhamad Ramlan
Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Melaka Branch, Alor Gajah
Campus, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
Amal Hayati Ishak
Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor, Malaysia
Siti Khadijah Ab. Manan
Academy of Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Malays are a distinctive nation native as well as among the oldest ethnic group in
the world encompassing the land of Nusantara, Madagascar and the Pacific Islands.
The Malay civilization is associated with the Southeast Asian region known as the
Malay Archipelago, the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago, the Nusantara, the Malay
Realm and the Land of Java. It also includes the islands of Indonesia, Malaya, the
islands of Borneo, Philippines, Singapore which consisting two communities namely
Proto-Malay (aboriginal Malay) and Deutero-Malay (new Malay). Therefore, this
study attempts to shed some light on the origins of the Malay community from the
historical point of view and its relation to modern genomic field. The findings indicate
that there is a significant relationship between the history of Malay origins and the
modern genomic field that was done through the mitochondrial DNA analysis. This is
followed by the Nusantara that serves as the major genetic reservoir of the world
Malay group. Thus, it is apparent that the genomic study of the Malay ethnic group is
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287
[email protected]
Norazmi Anas, Engku Ahmad Zaki Engku Alwi, Zuriani Yaacob, Anaztasia Natasha Muhamad
Ramlan, Amal Hayati Ishak and Siti Khadijah Ab. Manan
not solely focused on the origins of the nation alone, but to enhance the health level of
the race through disease analyses, medical practice and research. Subsequently, this
will lead to the production of pharmaceutical products which is indeed beneficial in
addressing local health needs.
Key words: Malay, Nusantara, History, Origin & Genomic
Cite this Article: Norazmi Anas, Engku Ahmad Zaki Engku Alwi, Zuriani Yaacob,
Anaztasia Natasha Muhamad Ramlan, Amal Hayati Ishak and Siti Khadijah Ab.
Manan, The Nusantara Ethnic Groups from Historical and Genomic Perspectives,
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10(4), 2019, pp. 287–301.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
1. INTRODUCTION
Studies on the origin of Malays and its genomics were pioneered by two public universities in
Malaysia namely Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
which addressing main objectives (Anas et al., 2018):

The origins and variations of the Malays based on geographical factor, genetic reservoir,
genetic flow as well as the influence of foreign nations such as Arabs on the population of the
Malays.

The comparison of diseases diagnosed among Malays in relation to other major races in
Malaysia i.e. Chinese and Indian, followed by other races in Southeast Asia.

The comparison of profile and relationship between Malay population with indigenous people
in Malaysia, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries.

The medicine suitability with certain illnesses which subsequently leads to the production of
pharmaceutical products to treat diseases among Malays.

Recent research and studies on the genome of Malay race such as HVP, SSMP, 1000
Genomes Project and GGB2020.

The concerns of Malays and other communities on the issues pertaining human genetic
research.
2. HISTORY OF MALAY CIVILIZATION
The Malay civilization is associated with the Southeast Asian region known as the Malay
Archipelago, the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago, the Nusantara, the Malay Realm and the
Land of Java (Azam, 1991; Bellwood, 2007) covering the islands of Indonesia, Malaya, the
islands of Borneo, Philippines and Singapore (Fee, 2001). It also includes the islands of
Indonesia, Malaya, the islands of Borneo, Philippines, Singapore which consisting two
communities namely Proto-Malay (aboriginal Malay) and Deutero-Malay (new Malay)
(Ghazali, 2014). The Land of Java refers to the area inhabited by the Malays based on the
landscape and how the Arabs used to address the Malay community in the Archipelago (Wan
Kamal Nadzif, 2013). Zaharah (2015 & 2016) highlights that the Malay race consists of
various ethnic groups such as Melayu Asli (Orang Asli), Melayu Siam, Melayu Champa,
Melayu Mon-Pyu, Melayu Jawa, Melayu Iban, Melayu Dayak, Melayu Melanau, Melayu
Dusun, Melayu Kadazan, Melayu Rawa, Melayu Bugis, Melayu Minang, Melayu Acheh,
Melayu Filipina, Melayu Nusantara, Melayu Madagaskar and Malay community from
Polynesia. Meanwhile, Halim-Fikri (2015) further states that Malays in Malaysia are broken
into 10 sub-ethnics i.e. Kelantan, Minang, Jawa, Bugis, Banjar, Acheh, Kedah, Champa,
Pattani and Rawa (refer Fig 1).
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Figure 1 Ethnics and Sub-ethnics in Malaysia (Halim-Fikri, 2015)
The Malays are characterized by distinctive features on the basis of norms, cultures,
language and religion (Shaharir, 2000) and are also associated with certain values embraced
by the people (Shamsul, 1999, Martin, 2014; Skoot, 2014). It is in accordance with Article
160(2) of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia which states that the Malays are Muslims,
these people commonly use Malay language to communicate with each other and they are
devoted to Malay customs. Conversely speaking, prior to the arrival of Islam to the Malay
World, the Malay community was influenced by two main beliefs namely primitive beliefs of
ancestors (animism and dynamism) and Hindu-Buddha (Ramawan (Ed.), 2012). Animism is a
kind of religious belief that souls and spirits can dominate mankind, while dynamism is the
spirit of nature in power over humans. Nonetheless, Hindu-Buddha has made religious beliefs
in the Malay World become more formal and organized involving the worship of deities
through its religious ceremonies.
In spite of that, the advent of Islam to the Malay World has changed the administrative,
socio-cultural, legal and educational landscape commencing from Parameswara's conversion
to Islam which has been documented in the history of Malacca Malay Sultanate. Hairuddin &
Che Asiah (2008) also emphasize that a king of the country must be a Muslim as he is
considered as the head of the religion as stipulated in the Constitution of Malaysia Article
3(2), Article 3(3) and Article 3(5). In Article 3(1), it is crystal that Islam is the official religion
in Malaysia and thus, it shows that Malays and Islam in this country define a very close,
intersecting and inseparable connection (Mohd Muzhafar et al., 2015). In addition, the Malays
are a distinct group rather than a sub race. It is the largest nation and one of the oldest ethnic
groups in the world (Zaharah, 2015 & 2016) as shown in Fig 2 below.
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Figure 2 Malay ethnic groups in the Archipelago, Madagascar and Pacific Islands
The study of the Malay origin is based on the theory presented by Edward Sapir, who
used a paradigm of density in order to prove the origin of a nation i.e. a region with a
population density or a certain community who likely to be the first settlers in that place
(Mohamed Anwar, 2011). Besides, the origin of Malay people i.e. Proto-Malay and DeuteroMalay as mentioned by Ghazali (2014) refers to the early history of migration to the Malay
Archipelago involving two phases as proposed by Robert Heine van Geldern, a Jewish
researcher at Austrian museum (Mohamed Anwar, 2011). These include:

Phase 1 (Proto-Malay): The migration of Orang Asli ancestors that occured 2,500 years ago
which involved ethnicities such as Seman (Negrito), Temiar (Senoi), Jakun, Sakai and others
who were considered as the ancestors of Mon, Khmer and other ethnic groups in Thailand,
Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar based on the stone tools found.

Phase 2 (Deutero-Malay): The migration of the Malay ancestors roughly 1,500 years ago
based on the Jewish book, Book of Deuteronomy from a place called Dong Son, a small
village on the banks of Ma River of northern Vietnam. Bronze and metal items such as
decorated gongs or drums, axes, vessels, weapons, ceramics and beads to name a few were
found as evidence.

Robert Heine van Geldern stressed that Deutero-Malay once lived in fertile coastal areas and
valleys and they expelled the Proto-Malay into forest and mountainous areas. Such
speculation or theory of Robert Heine van Geldern was not agreed upon by Zaharah (2015 &
2016) who then stated that the recent findings show that there is no evidence indicating the
existence of the Deutero-Malay colonizing Southeast Asia. In addition, the ethnic affiliation in
the Malay World has produced four Malay types i.e. Melayu Teras, Melayu Tulen, Melayu
Jati and Melayu Sungguh. On the other hand, the international relationship between the
earliest Malays and Aryans from the Middle East has been associated with the same practice
done during prophetic times (Ainoon et al., 2003; Muzaffar & Suzana, 2013).
3. MALAY GENOME
Generally, it is believed that the origin of Malays was from the Middle East due to
comparative study results which show a complete genomic database of mitochondrial DNA
and this is in accordance to Fernandes et al. (2012) who stated that the Arabian Peninsula was
considered as the „first staging post' in the propagation of modern humans to the rest of the
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world. The mitochondrial DNA is one of the markers used in most studies of human origins
and offspring besides Chromosome Y (CCG, 2006). Furthermore, Yaapar (2014) and
Zainuddin (2015 & 2016) reported that the Out of Taiwan Theory as proposed by Bellwood
(2007) has indicated that the Malays came from Taiwan and China where it involved a
migration from Taiwan to China and subsequently to Southeast Asia.
A study by Macaulay et al. (2005a & 2005b) also found that sequencing of mitochondrial
DNA has proven that Peninsular Malaysia was originated from the earliest modern human
groups that moved out from the African continent through India to Southeast Asia and finally
to Australasia. This is supported by Edinur et al. (2009), Chambers & Edinur (2013), Gani et
al. (2015), Manaf et al. (2015) and Norhalifah et al. (2016) who conducted similar studies on
Malay sub-ethnic groups such as Kelantan, Bugis, Banjar, Jawa, Acheh, Minang, Mendeleng,
Rawa, Champa and Pattani where the findings show that Malays have nearly 60,000 years of
mitochondrial DNA which is highly similar to the ones owned by the aborigines.
Apart from that, the study conducted by Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) PanAsian SNP Consortium (2009) which utilized the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms marker
(SNPs) has indicated that the Southeast Asia is a major source of population genetic reservoir
in East Asia such as China and Taiwan with evidence of 50% haplotype found in the
populations. Orang Asli Semang and Malays are among earlier populations as compared to
the populations in East Asia i.e. China and Taiwan as a result of phylogenetic analysis using
the SNPs marker. Therefore, human movement from south to north is seen as contradictory to
the earlier theory proposed by Bellwood (2007). Nevertheless, it is in line with the theory of
Out of Sundaland developed by Stephen Oppenheimer (Izham, 2013; Yaapar, 2014; USM,
2015).
Historically, the studies of Malay Genome Project (MGP) from a modern medical
perspective have begun in the 1970s which involved the three main races in Malaysia namely
Malay, Chinese and Indian. The comparison of these three populations is important as
Malaysia is a country of various races and ethnicities. Tan (1978) listed the biochemical data
of the three largest populations in Malaysia and Singapore namely Malay, Chinese and Indian,
while Ainoon et al. (2003) and Muzaffar & Suzana (2013) stated that Malays in Southeast
Asia have Arab influence based on DNA variations found in the DNA mutation of the study
sample. However, Wong et al. (2004) explored and compared the people's fear in Singapore
concerning donation of blood specimens for genetic research involving three ethnic groups in
the country i.e. Malay-Muslim, Chinese and Indian. The main concerns of the respondents
were genetic confidentiality, illness diagnosis and genetic abuse for cloning purpose. Not only
that, Malay-Muslim respondents also expressed their doubts towards unknown people
involved in the study and thus felt hesitant to get involved with the study. Jorde & Wooding
(2004) noted that new genetic studies have a direct contact with variations and ethnic
diversity in human populations based on geographical structure and genetic flow patterns (see
Fig 3).
On the other hand, a study conducted on three major races in Malaysia on cervical cancer
has found that Malays were at lower risk at 12.6% compared to Chinese at 33.6%. The
cervical cancer is the most common second cancer after breast cancer (Othman, 2004). In
addition, Zainuddin (2004), Zainuddin & Goodwin (2004) and Eng (2014) examined the
profile of modern Malay populations and indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia using
mitochondrial DNA which has proven these two ethnics are different based on haplogroups
comparison. The findings have been supported by Bekaert et al. (2006) and Manaf et al.
(2015) who compared the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome in the populations of
Peninsular Malaysia.
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Ramlan, Amal Hayati Ishak and Siti Khadijah Ab. Manan
Figure 3 Population Equation Network (Jorde & Wooding, 2004)
In another study conducted by Edinur et al. (2009), they investigated the Human
Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on six Malay ethnics i.e. Kelantan, Minangkabau, Jawa, Bugis,
Banjar and Rawa. The study has found that Malay sub-ethnics have a close connection with
other Asian populations derived from Java and Sumatra except Melayu Kelantan. It is parallel
to Juhari et al. (2014) and Loo & Gan (2014) who studied Melayu Kelantan from genetic and
historical perspectives and they found that the genetics of the people are associated with
Semang natives. This is supported by Norhalifah et al. (2016) who stated that Semang natives
were an early nation in Peninsular Malaysia known as Negrito based on several scientific
evidence such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome,
blood group, human platlet, antigen, human leukocyte antigen, human neutrophil antigen and
killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor.
The genetic origin has a high correlation with ethnic and linguistic groups in Asia based
on 73 Asian genetic populations which have been mapped i.e. South and East Asia (A*STAR,
2009; Bernama, 2009; HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, 2009; Kangwanpong et al., 2013).
Furthermore, Teo et al. (2009) revealed that the Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP)
that created haplotype mapping on the Malay, China and India as the source of the genetic
database of the Southeast Asian populations.
In Malaysia, the Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project represented by
1Malaysia Human Genome Variation Consortium was launched in 2010 led by Prof. Dr.
Zilfalil bin Alwi. It was participated by 52 researchers from 11 universities and institutions in
Malaysia (Atif et al., 2010; The Malaysian Insider, 2013; Halim-Fikri et al., 2015). The
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Human Variome Project (HVP) is a genetic project undertaken to identify genetic diseases
caused by genetic variations. The project had involved researchers around the world in
various fields through the genotype data and phenotype of human population sharing sessions
(Oetting et al., 2013).
The HVP has begun since 2006 which emphasizes the outcome basis of the patients
through a collection of genetic variations which later evolved in 2012 due to modern
technology development. The project had involved 900 consortium members from 72
countries. Officially, 16 countries have developed the HVP node and database of six major
diseases and over 140 genetic diseases. It is a plausible achievement in the production of
medicines, especially for human genetic diseases (Cotton, 2014). Not only that, HVP
launched a research in 2015 on Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and β-thalassaemia through Global
Globin 2020 (GG2020) project in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia,
Belgium, Brunei, China, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Italy, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, Nigeria,
South Africa, Venezuela, Vietnam, Portugal, Philippines and Netherlands (HVP, 2015).
Hatin et al. (2011 & 2014) focused on the genetic structure of the Malay sub-ethnic
populations in Peninsular Malaysia i.e. Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and
Melayu Bugis. The respondents were analyzed based on their genotype data that was then
compiled with other 11 population genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and
natives in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the findings of three sub-ethnic studies i.e.
Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis have a very close genetic link with the
Malay population in Indonesia yet it has no similarities at all with Melayu Kelantan.
In addition, Lim et al. (2012) studied Genetic Algorithms (GA) as a unit selection in
Malay speech synthesis system based on biological principles such as selection, reproduction,
crossover, and mutation. Another study by Nadiah et al. (2012) found that mtDNA 10398
polymorphism is seen as a potential risk marker for breast cancer among Malays and Zainal et
al. (2012) examined the mutation in the GJB2 gene among Malays and associated it with nonsyndromic hearing loss. Chan (2013) in his study assessed the effects of five polymorphic
variants in chromosomes (SNPs) using prostate cancer risk (CaP) among male respondents in
Singapore encompassing Malay, Chinese and Indian.
Maran et al. (2013) in their study identified different gene polymorphisms between Malay,
Chinese and Indian and the genes that protect the Malays from infectious Helicobacter pylori
(H. pylori) have also been analyzed. Tayebi et al. (2013) focused on coronary artery disease
and lipid levels among the population in Singapore and the comparison among three major
ethnics was made. Furthermore, Wong et al. (2013) and Cheng et al. (2014) reviewed the
sequencing of hundred Malay ethnics of South Asia and Oceania through the Singapore
Sequencing Malay Project (SSMP) using the SNPs marker to complete the 1000 Genomes
Project (1KGP). MOS (2014) on the other hand stated that the Malay race is at greater risk of
developing eye cancer than Chinese and Indians because the Malays have DNA variants that
may trigger cancer as compared to other races in Malaysia.
One of the Malay Genome Project (MGP) in Malaysia was pioneered by Universiti
Teknologi MARA (UiTM) under the supervision of Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute
(iPROMISE). The project entitled Personal Genome Sequencing: Sequencing of the Malay
genome to understand the local genetic variation was led by Prof. Dr. Mohd. Zaki Salleh
(iPROMISE, n.d). This MGP is indeed beneficial to the Malays particularly as the knowledge
about DNA and drug suitability will ensure the accuracy of drug type and dosage are given to
patients. Not only that, it also reduces the probable time limit of the drug, reduces the risk of
side effects of medication and more likely reduces economic burden (Salleh et al., 2013 &
2016; Wong et al., 2013).
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Ramlan, Amal Hayati Ishak and Siti Khadijah Ab. Manan
In addition, the potential and performance of an individual can be identified especially
among athletes and this is done through doping gene, drug suitability, optimum diet plan,
reduced risk of injury, drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training
programmes for certain sports (Salleh et al., 2016). Overall, MGP is able to identify diseases,
ensure suitability of certain drugs with certain diseases and promote preventive measures to
reduce the risk of diseases such as cancer, mental, cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome.
Furthermore, the study conducted by Hamzah et al. (2014) aimed to predict the level of
dose adjustment through tacrolimus levels towards patients undergoing kidney transplant
procedures involving Malay, Chinese and Indian. On the other hand, Nurhayati et al. (2014)
employed the Alu insertion loci (ACE & TPA25) in order to examine genetic variation in
Melayu Minang i.e. one of the Malay sub-ethnic groups that originally migrated from West
Sumatra to Negeri Sembilan since the 17th century. Deng et al. (2015) also studied the genetic
structure of four other Malay ethnic groups based on geographical factor i.e. Peninsular
Malaysian Malay, Singaporean Malay, Indonesian Malay and Sri Lankan Malay. The results
of the study showed that the samples of the study had different descendants namely
Austronesian (17% - 62%), Proto-Malay (15% -31%), East Asian (4% -16%) and South Asian
(3% -34%). Reyhaneh & Arman Amani (2015) examined the nucleotide variations in
cytochrome B mitochondrial genes in Malay population. This is followed by Gani et al.
(2015) who studied blood types based on genetics in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in
Peninsular Malaysia, namely Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Melayu Kelantan which has
produced data sets for the study of origins and health care.
Table 1: Study on Malay Ethnic Groups from Historical & Genomics Perspectives
NO
TITLE
AUTHOR
YEAR
1
Tanda-tanda Genetik biokimia dalam tiga bangsa terbesar di Tan
Semenanjung Malaysia dan Singapura: Suatu penyusunan data
2
Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in
Malaysian Malays
3
Concerns over participation in genetic research among Malay- Wong et al.
Muslims, Chinese and Indians in Singapore: a focus group
study
2004
4
The analysis of human mitochondrial DNA in peninsular
Malaysia
2004
5
Mitochondrial DNA profiling of modern Malay and Orang Asli Zainuddin
populations in peninsular Malaysia
& Goodwin
6
Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis Macaulay et al. 2005a
of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes
7
8
Tracing Modern Human Origins
A comparison of mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity in
Malay populations
Macaulay et al. 2005b
Bekaert at al. 2006
9
Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago
Bellwood
2007
10
Malays more prone to eye cancer
MOS
2007
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1978
Ainoon et al.
Zainuddin
2003
2004
[email protected]
The Nusantara Ethnic Groups from Historical and Genomic Perspectives
11
Genetic ancestry highly correlated with ethnic and linguistic A*STAR
groups in Asia: 73 Southeast Asian and East Asian populations
genetically mapped
2009
12
HLA polymorphism in six Malay subethnic groups in Malaysia Edinur et al.
2009
13
Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia
HUGO PanAsian SNP
Consortium
Singapore Genome Variation Project: a haplotype map of three Teo et al.
Southeast Asian populations
2009
15
Human Variome Project and Launching of it‟s Malaysian
Node: Towards A New Horizon of Genetics in Malaysia
Atif et al.
2010
16
Asal-Usul Orang Melayu: Menulis Semula Sejarahnya
2011
17
The Arabian cradle: mitochondrial relicts of the first steps
along the southern route out of Africa
Mohamed
Anwar
Fernandes et
al.
18
Application of Genetic Algorithm in unit selection for Malay
speech synthesis system
Lim et al.
2012
19
Association of mitochondrial DNA 10398 polymorphism in
invasive breast cancer in Malay population of peninsular
Malaysia
Nadiah et al.
2012
20
Mutation detection in GJB2 gene among Malays with nonsyndromic hearing loss
Zainal et al.
2012
21
Genetic relationships between Malays and Maori
22
8q24 and 17q prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a
multiethnic Asian cohort
Chambers & 2012
Edinur
Chan et al.
2013
23
Pakar Genetik Perjelas Asal-Usul Manusia dari Melayu Proto Izham
24
Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia
25
Towards understanding the low prevalence of Helicobacter
pylori in Malays: Genetic variants among Helicobacter pylori‐ Maran et al.
negative ethnic Malays in the north‐eastern region of
Peninsular Malaysia and Han Chinese and South Indians
14
2009
2012
2013
Kangwanpong 2013
et al.
2013
26
Getting ready for the Human Phenome Project: the 2012 forum Oetting et al.
of the Human Variome Project
2013
27
Systematic pharmacogenomics analysis of a Malay whole
genome: proof of concept for personalized medicine
Salleh et al.
2013
28
Association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs6903956 on
chromosome 6p24. 1 with coronary artery disease and lipid
Tayebi et al.
2013
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Norazmi Anas, Engku Ahmad Zaki Engku Alwi, Zuriani Yaacob, Anaztasia Natasha Muhamad
Ramlan, Amal Hayati Ishak and Siti Khadijah Ab. Manan
levels in different ethnic groups of the Singaporean population
29
Deep whole-genome sequencing of 100 southeast Asian
Malays
Wong et al.
2013
30
Bangsa Melayu dan orang Jawi menurut kitab Turath Arab
Wan Kamal
Nadzif
2013
31
Assessing single nucleotide variant detection and genotype
calling on whole-genome sequenced individuals
Cheng et al.
2014
32
Human variome project–current overview
Cotton
2014
33
Complete mitochondrial DNA genome variation in Peninsular Eng
Malaysia
34
Pharmacogenotyping of CYP3A5 in predicting dose-adjusted Hamzah et al. 2014
trough levels of tacrolimus among Malaysian kidney-transplant
patients
35
A genome wide pattern of population structure and admixture Hatin et al.
in peninsular Malaysia Malays
2014
36
Genetic, historical and linguistic perspectives on the origin of Loo & Gan
the Kelantanese Malays.
2014
37
Peri Nama, Asal Usul dan Identiti Melayu: Ke arah Pencerahan Yaapar
yang Dinantikan
2014
38
A whole genome analyses of genetic variants in two Kelantan Juhari et al.
Malay individuals
2014
39
ACE and TPA25 Alu insertion polymorphisms in Minang
Malays subethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia
Nurhayati et al. 2014
40
Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four
geographical Malay populations
Deng et al.
41
The first Malay database toward the ethnic-specific target
molecular variation
Halim-Fikri et 2015
al.
42
Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Gani et al.
Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia
2015
43
Human neutrophil antigen profiles in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Manaf et al.
Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia
2015
44
Nucleotide variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene Reyhaneh & 2015
in the Malay population
Arman Amani
45
Genetik mengkaji keturunan Manusia
Yahya et al.
2015
46
Global Globin 2020 Challenge GG2020 Challenge Progress
Report – 2015
HVP
2015
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296
2014
2015
[email protected]
The Nusantara Ethnic Groups from Historical and Genomic Perspectives
47
Asal Usul Melayu Dalam Pelbagai Perspektif Kajian Terkini
Zaharah
2015
48
Genetic and Dental Profiles of Orang Asli of Peninsular
Malaysia
Zainuddin
2015
49
The genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia
50
Merungkai genom keseluruhan manusia: apakah
kepentingannya?
Norhalifah et 2016
al.
Salleh
2016
51
Asal Usul Melayu Dalam Pelbagai Perspektif Kajian Terkini
Zaharah
2016
4. CONCLUSION
In historical perspective, the study concludes that the Malay origins are very significant with
the genomic elements of the nation itself which does not only benefit the researchers but also
to improve the health quality of the Malays particularly with the technological evolution in
modern medicine. Therefore, further studies have to be done so that new findings are possible
to provide high impact results in the effort to produce a better Malay race that is ethical,
highly skilled and knowledgeable.
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