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ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHICAL TERM FROM PRE-SOCRATIC TO ENLIGHTENMENT

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 228-247, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_025
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
ARCHITECTURAL PHILOSOPHICAL TERM
FROM PRE-SOCRATIC TO ENLIGHTENMENT
Kadhim Fathel Khalil
Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq
ABSTRACT
The philosophical term is considers as a basic intellectual background of
architecture throughout history, but the architectural theories that touched on this
subject haven’t been diagnosed this term clearly, so I bring this paper to diagnose this
term in philosophical architectural knowledge through the epochs of time, what gives
this paper an importance in the study of architectural theories is disintegrate the
knowledge confusion about this term and thus will be the beginning for more accurately
topics that related to what the philosophical-architecture term is. The problem of the
current research has been represented by the lack of studies with regard to essence of
the philosophical-architectural term and it’s employ in architecture. The objective of
the study was defined in an attempt to discover the philosophical-architecture term and
its mechanism employed in architecture. To achieve this goal the structural approach
in building knowledge about the philosophical-architecture term has been adopted
according to the epochs of time starting from the Pre-Socratic era down to Present era,
that gives a high holistic to this study in the diagnosis of the philosophical- architecture
term. This study is dividing into two main stages, first is covering the Pre-Socratic to
the Enlightenment era, the subsequent study is covering modernism to the present era.
Keywords: Philosophy, Architecture, Term, Geometry, Form, Aesthetic.
Cite this Article: Kadhim Fathel Khalil, Architectural Philosophical Term from PreSocratic to Enlightenment. International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 228-247
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
1. INTRODUCTION
One looks at philosophers and philosophical ideas in the way that they were interpreted and
utilized by architects, independent from whether their reading should be seen as a correct or
even plausible interpretation. Architectural theory is nurtured by philosophical ideas, the
concern and questions that move people at a certain time as much as their visions and
worldviews are mirrored in their architectural design: Architecture provides functional and
technical solution but is also a practical answer to philosophical questions. Yet to account for
philosophy’s role for architecture, one faces a profound difficulty: Architects have often read
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philosophers in ways that scholars find very problematic. Because architectural debates are
embedded in wider reflection of a culture, they are shaped as such by clichés as by ideas that
are current at any time. This attempt illustrates the relationship between western philosophy
and architecture. It discusses philosophy’s contribution to architecture and the way in which
one can reflect philosophically about architecture, the recognition of philosophical architectural
term, through which philosopher’s interpreted architecture, will enable theorists and architects
to be closer to state of philosophical expression of architecture.
It has been said that there is a relationship between philosophy and architecture, but it is
not clear the essence of this link, however, the existentialism of the philosophy based on
conventional linguistic construction, drives towards the realization that this association exists
through -term- so the question came about what the most influential philosophical-architectural
terms overtimes are, or what are the common terms between philosophy and architecture,
which can be called the philosophical-architectural term. In an attempt to find an answer to this
research question, it was necessary to analyze the studies that dealt with philosophy and
architecture, where we found that the study of Śuvaković focused on the notions of “philosophy
of architecture” and “aesthetics of architecture” and the differences between traditional and
contemporary philosophy and aesthetics of architecture [1].While Ahmed took the major
motivating tributary to descend a relation between the modalities of classical philosophy and
theory of aesthetics associated with ancient Greek architecture [2]. Branko topics in his study
include Aristotle's theories of "visual imagination" and their relevance to digital design, the
problem of optical correction as explored by Plato, Hegel's theory of zeitgeist, and Kant's
examinations of space and aesthetics, among others. Focusing primarily on nineteenth- and
twentieth-century philosophy, it provides students with a wider perspective relating to
philosophical problems that come up in contemporary architectural debts [3]. Mitias study is a
critical exploration of the main questions concerning the intersection of philosophy and
architecture. Is architecture art? How does a building mean? What is our experience of the
architectural work? Philosophical reflection focuses here on the aesthetic status, cultural value,
and human significance of architecture [4]. Hendrix examines philosophical structures of Plato
in their structural, spatial, and architectonic implications. It examines elements of Plato's
philosophical systems in relation to other philosophical systems, including those of
Anaximander, Plotinus, Proclus, Nicolas Cusanus, Marsilio Ficino, Georges Bataille, Jacques
Lacan, and Jacques Derrida [5]. Also, Hendrix examines architectural and architectonic forms
as products of philosophical and epistemological structures in selected cultures and time
periods of Western civilization, beginning in Egypt and Greece and culminating in twentiethcentury Europe and America, and analyzes architecture as a text of its culture. Relations
between architectural forms and philosophical structures are explored in Architecture, like all
forms of artistic expression, is interwoven with the beliefs and the structures of knowledge of
its culture [6].
Previous studies that have been analyzed, despite their accuracy and comprehensiveness,
have left gaps in knowledge in terms of how they deal with the relationship of philosophy to
architecture. Where we find that most of them confirm the obvious relationship, without
addressing the problem of what this relationship, which is a whole descriptive style. So, we can
say Knowledge is ambiguous about essence which stand behind the relationship between
philosophy and architecture, and therefore, regard to essence of the philosophical-architectural
term. The problem of the current research has been represented by the lack of studies with
regard to essence of the philosophical-architectural term and it’s employ in architecture. In
light of problem statement, the objective of the study was defined in an attempt to discover the
philosophical-architecture term in architecture.
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2 PHILOSOPHY
First of all, it is necessary to identify philosophy, where according to Oxford English
Dictionary
Philosophy:
Philosophy
is
the
study
of
general
and
fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind,
and language [7].[8].The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods
include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation
[9].Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it?
[10].The term is the agreement of some people to name the thing in the name of what is
transmitted from the first subject, and to remove the word from the linguistic meaning to
another, for the occasion between them [11]. While the terminology of a subject according to
Collins English Dictionary is the set of special words and expressions used in connection with
it. And according to vocabulary dictionary Terminology is vocabulary associated with a certain
field of study, profession, or activity. Know the terminology is an important part of being able
to work in a given profession. The body of terms used with a particular technical application
in a subject of study, profession, etc. Scientific terminology is a special words
or expressions used in relation to a particular subject or activity [12][13].
3 PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE
Philosophy lies at the heart of the relationship between architecture and theory. The
philosopher is someone who is always on the road, and yet who can never reach to an ultimate
destination. A person engaged in philosophy always goes after various illusions and finds
material for questioning in her environment, leading to continuous reproduction. The architect,
on the other hand, engages in intellectual production, by coming up with ideas and concepts
through the design process. She works on the problems in the environment, and feels an
excitement with the development of different routes to thought. Philosophy is also a part of the
act of design. Architecture, in contrast, can evolve into a space for the philosopher to develop
thought. The intellectual initiatives, which a thinker brings to architects, clarify the concepts
by helping locate the architect within the wider framework of architectural thought. That is
why architects and philosophers, who had hitherto contributed immensely to world literature,
are members of disciplines, which have now virtually amalgamated in each other [14][15]. In
Architectural Forms and Philosophical Structures examines architectural and architectonic
forms as products of philosophical and epistemological structures in selected cultures and time
periods, and analyzes architecture as a text of its culture. Relations between architectural forms
and philosophical structures are explored in civilization, beginning in Egypt and Greece and
culminating in twentieth-century Europe and America. Architecture, like all forms of artistic
expression, is interwoven with the beliefs and the structures of knowledge of its culture.While
philosophical approaches might be seen as part and parcel of architecture practice from its most
clearly defined beginnings in Vitruvius’s well-known Ten Books on Architecture (ca 27 BCE),
it is particularly in the last decades of the twentieth century that philosophy took centre stage.
In the late 1980s, architecture positioned itself as meaningful cultural intervention with
reference to many philosophical perspectives on the social and the aesthetic. In essence, one
could argue that philosophy and architecture make natural bedfellows, as they seek to
understand some of the most fundamental concerns of human existence [16]. Philosophy, just
as it does with other phenomena, conceptualises architectonic work each time selecting definite
architectonic object symbolising a supersensory principle of the world. On the other hand,
philosophy takes over from architecture the interrelationships and through them it articulates
its own domain of problems. Moreover, on the basis of architectonic metaphor, it constructs a
notional framework enabling presenting the world as an entity. Presence of architectonic value
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is apparent in metaphysics, the knowledge presenting principal understanding of existence as
an entity. Let us have a look at the architecture and metaphysics interrelatedness with its
transformations in the context of three key concepts for philosophical tradition and European
culture. Firstly, the moment metaphysics was born, i.e. when Plato discovered the order of
ideas superseding sensory world, secondly, identification by I. Kant a crisis of metaphysics –
reformulation of traditional metaphysics, thirdly, M. Heidegger’s transgression beyond
metaphysics [17]. Architecture does not mean only constructing buildings. It is also a symbol
for human activity and culture. Understand the idea of architectural structure and introducing
the universal architectural knowledge can be attained by probing the concepts related to
architecture with the disciplines attached to these concepts and how these relationships have
been established. Analyzing the relationship between architecture and philosophy assuming the
constructions of renaissance, 17th and 18th century and contribute to universal architectural
knowledge by this way [18].
4 METHODOLOGY
The methodology of research is based on the chronological observation of Western philosophy
throughout history, which has been classified into eight eras: Pre-Socratic era, Socratic era,
Hellenistic era, Roman era, Medieval era, Renaissance era, Reason era, and Enlightenment era,
In preparation for the survey and careful research on the term for each of these periods, as
shown in the research annexes. So, Method of analysis is based on a series of steps to achieve
the goal of defining the architectural term in philosophy for each era and includes: I. the
Temporal survey of all philosophers from the pre-Socratic era to the pre-Modern era. II.
Identify philosophers who mentioned terms related to architecture in each era. III. Identify the
philosophy-architecture terms for each era.
5 PRE-SOCRATIC ERA
The Pre-Socratics introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human
beings in it. They sought natural explanations for phenomena. These philosophers asked
questions about "the essence of things". Pre-Socratic philosophy actually refers more to a brand
of philosophy, dominated by an interest in the Natural world, mathematics, form, etc. [19].
Thales of Miletus used geometry to calculate the heights of pyramids and the distance of ships
from the shore. He is the first known individual to use deductive reasoning applied to geometry.
Thales understood similar triangles and right triangles, while Anaximander of Miletus
imagined a world both "natural", in the sense of a thing changing and growing organically, and
"artificial", in the sense of having been created. His model for this thought be specifically
architectural. One in which architectural structure and natural structure had not yet become
distinct [20][21].
In the Pythagorean tradition, astronomy is interpreted as magnitudes in motion, geometry
as magnitudes at rest, arithmetic as numbers absolute, and music as numbers applied. Linking
between architecture and music and linking magnitudes at rest, with numbers applied, and
Heraclitus of Ephesus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis. The
implication of Heraclitus writings, with particular importance for architecture, is that fire gives
the appearance of stability. Afire, just as a building, may appear to have a continuous and
singular existence. This existence, however, is marked by continual change, while Protagoras
of Abdera best describes the basis for his civilization art and architecture when he stated. Of
all thing the measure is man. Greek culture emphasized the beauty of the human body. And
created idealized male and female [22][32][24].
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6 SOCRATIC ERA
Socrates developed a system of critical reasoning in order to work out how to live properly and
to tell the difference between right and wrong. In the Socratic era, philosophers distinguished
architecture from building, attributing the former to mental traits, and the latter to the divine or
natural. It was only with Socratic irony that the name craftsman could become representative
of a religious deity. The presence of some degree of formalism ale Platonism continues to be
an important trait in distinguishing one architectural style from another, and thus in
distinguishing the philosophy of a style [25].Socrates of Athens thinks If building were a
natural thing, it would be executed by nature no differently than it would be by architecture,
and nature would be constrained to use the same rules to give it perfection: just as the very
abodes of the gods were devised by poets with the skill of architects, arrayed with arches and
columns, which is how they described the royal palace of sun of Love, transporting architecture
to heaven, as well as Criteria of Athens criticized for analogizing self-knowledge with forms
of productive knowledge auch as architecture. Critias claims that some forms of specialized
knowledge lack products. Critias says that its use is considerable, since its product is an
excellent one, namely. Similarly with architecture, which produces building, and with the other
crafts [26][27].
The objects of our perception are not, according to Democritus of Abdera, the things
themselves, but "images" given off by surrounding bodies in the form of atoms, and projected
onto the sense organs. The image seen by eye is not an exact likeness of the thing itself, but
distorted by the intervening air, and Speusippus thinks Figure and One together manifest the
point from which is derived all other geometrical shapes. The geometrical entities can interact
with Multiplicity to form Soul, which is defined as the form of dimensionality, the very essence
of existing in space. From the Soul come the forms of the souls and bodies that form our world
[28][29]. Eudoxus of Cnidus introduced the idea of non-quantified mathematical magnitude to
describe and work with continuous geometrical entities such as lines, angles, areas and
volumes, while Aristotle presents the four causes drawing on the example of causal roles in the
architecture of a temple. For example, the architect’s idea of the temple, as realized through
craftsmanship of the workers whom the architect commands, represents the efficient cause of
the temple-whereas the architect’s vision of or plan for the temple provides the formal cause
[30][31].
7. HELLENISTIC ERA
Hellenistic philosophers, focused upon the life of the individual, independently of the society
as a whole, describing in detail the kinds of character and action that might enable a person to
live well despite the prevailing political realities. In Hellenistic art "to represent nature as it
really is. In architecture, however, naturalism is not a term usually encountered; there is no
stylistic equivalent to its use in art, and its philosophical meaning is only implied in relation to
terms like 'natural' or 'naturalistic'. An architecture is only termed 'natural', and therefore is seen
as subscribing to a kind of naturalism, it is this synergy of the self and the un self to produce
naturalistic architecture that intrigues [32]. Chrysippus regarded bodies, surfaces, lines, places,
the void and time as all being infinitely divisible. Chrysippus was negating the law of excluded
middle with respect to the equal and unequal, and thus he may have anticipated an important
principle of modern infinitesimal calculus, namely, the limit and the process of convergence
towards a limit [33].
8. ROMAN ERA
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Roman philosophy focused on objective inquiry, asking unbiased questions that favor no
particular outcome. It is often seen as humanity's first attempt to provide rational explanations
for the workings of the world. Their use of logical analysis led to the rise of the scientific
method. The scientific method is an approach to conducting research in which a problem is
stated, data or pieces of information are gathered, a hypothesis or intelligent guess is made
from these data, and this hypothesis is then tested through experiments [34]. Cicero says now
carry your mind to the form and figure of human being or even of the other living creatures:
you will discover that the body has no part added to its structure that is superfluous, and that
its whole shape has the perfection of a work of art and not of accident. Cicero believes that the
body-building connection finally is not one of analogy or metaphor but rather of identity: both
the build building and living body are equally part of nature and must abide by nature's general
rules of morphogenesis, while Seneca the Younger believes that architecture, like philosophy,
showed the intellect at its highest. He thus used and criticized a classical authority and an
authoritative classicist at one [35].
In architecture all of a buildings architectural elements, no matter their individual beauty,
are used to draw the eye to appreciate a building in its entirety. Architecture is a leading idea
in Plotinus's account of beauty for Plotinus the beauty of the sensuous realm is hardly the most
important kind of beauty. Yet he has something valuable to say about it, and for Proclus
mathematics and geometry are the means by which the motion of bodies can be applied toward
the dialectical movement of understanding toward nous [36].
9. MEDIVAL ERA
The principles that underlie the medieval thinkers work are: The use of logic, dialectic, and
analysis to discover the truth, known as ratio. Respect for the insights of ancient philosophers.
The obligation to co-ordinate the insights of philosophy with theological teaching and
revelation. Medieval philosophers provided significant contributions to aesthetic theory during
the middle ages. Certain topics, such as proportion, light, and symbolism, played important
roles in medieval aesthetics, and they will be given prominence in this article. Proportion was
particularly important for architecture [37]. Boethius said that the idea of numbers seen as the
origin and point of return of all things, that is to say, fundamentally, a certain idea of the
universe based on the power of number. The form of the markers, square or circular, could vary
with the time-period, as could their color. The majority of the numbers concerned are the plane
numbers according to the theory of Boethius, but there is also, in each field, a number that is
solid a pyramid to be precise, as well as Al-Kindi authored works on a number of important
mathematical subjects, including arithmetic, geometry, the harmony of numbers, lines and
multiplication with numbers, relative quantities, measuring proportion. In geometry he wrote
on the theory of parallels [38][39]. Architecture in classification of sciencesnof al-Farabi is a
language and style of philosophical works, and Peter Abelard saw what the analogy between
the Music and architecture obviated any obligation to be faithful to surfaces, which in the case
of the Temple would have been impossible, or to a specific plan, rather, it was essential to
follow the ideal consonances of the Temple in shaping the interior spaces of the cathedral
[40][41].
The writings of Robert Grossteste provide a basis for a model by which architectural
geometries can be catechism for them in their intelligible geometrical structures. Robert
Grosseteste, was interested in discovering the nature of light. The effects of light in
architecture, and he frequently associated light with their theories of color, Albert the Great
chose rather to use the Aristotelian concepts of matter and form to explain how all things
combine color or, more generally, the resplendence of light, with proportion and so are
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beautiful. The beautiful is the resplendence of a substantial that or accidental form over
proportioned and bounded parts of matter. A well-proportioned, colored body provides an
obvious example of beauty [42][43]. Roger Bacon attempts to explain the operation of the eye
and combined an extra mission theory of vision with an intromission theory, that is, vision was
the product of both an act of perception on the part of the perceiver, and the light emanating
from the object to the eye, and Thomas Aquinas focused his comments mostly on the notion of
beauty. Thomas’ definition of beauty is as follows: beauty is that which gives pleasure when
seen [44][45].
For Gersonides the world was created by an architecture God. God produces the forms
eternally through hid eternal act of self-intellection, these constitute the intelligible order of the
universe. God is like an architect who design in his mind the ideal house for its inhabitants and
then actually brings the house into being. The plan is eternal, its instantiation occurs at an
instant while Nicholas of Cusa recognize the creative dimension of mental, mathematical,
geometrical and conceptual structures of the human intellect. Cusa explicitly refers to the art
of building. The concept of lineaments, independent power of the mind, which, is very different
from the surmises of reason that are attached to perceptible material objects. Cusa argues that
the original constructive principle of the human mind makes assimilations of forms as they are
in and of themselves. For example, a geometrical circle conceived within the human mind is
immutable and perfect, acting as a measure of truth for a materialized circle in a patterned floor,
and Marsilio Ficino compare the architecture of the building to the design of forms in nature.
Ficino proposed. (If anyone asked in what way the form of the body can be like the form and
Reason of the Soul and Mind, let him consider, I ask, the building of the architect), expressing
the core idea of Renaissance Humanism, that the human mind corresponds to the workings of
nature [46][47][48].
10. RENAISSANE ERA
The renaissance represents a movement away from Christianity and medieval Scholasticism
and towards Humanism, with an increasing focus on the temporal and personal over merely
seeing this world as a gateway to the Christian afterlife. Renaissance art was driven by the new
notion of "Humanism," a philosophy which had been the foundation for many of the
achievements. Renaissance comment on architectures makes explicit the relationship between
fiction and taste in architecture, which they believed was highly undesirable. Building was too
important a matter in the lives and economies of people [49]. Petrus Ramus shows the
splendour of geometry in its application because the architects, painters and sculptors of the
16th century emphasized that their art was based on drawing that is also on measurement.
Ramus concern on proportionality and symmetry as with Vitruvius, and John Calvin is
arguably the most significant architects of the Reformation. "If Luther sounded the trumpet for
reform, Calvin orchestrated the score by which the Reformation became a part of Western
civilization, while Giordano Bruno call the attribution of a new morality to the heavens, the
universal architecture. Which will be completely achieved by means of his comprehensive
philosophy [50][51][52].
11. REASON ERA
The Age of Reason saw a continuation of the move away from theology and faith-based
arguments, and marks the shaking off of medieval approaches to philosophy. The advances in
science, the growth of religious tolerance and the rise of philosophical liberalism also led to a
revival in Political Philosophy in general.The most fundamental concept of theis era were faith
in nature and belief in human progress. Nature was seen as a complex of interacting laws
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governing the universe. The individual human being, as part of that system, was designed to
act rationally [53]. Galileo believed that nature was inherently mathematical, that mathematics
was the key to understanding the reality behind the appearance of natural phenomena. Galileo
disproved harmonious proportion that derive from the perfect Forms of the divine Idea are
universally applicable, he shows that, proportions necessary vary according to the size and
material of natural bodies. There can be no doubt that this theory and this type of reasoning
revolutionized architectural thinking and practice, while rational architects, following the
philosophy of René Descartes emphasized geometric forms and ideal proportions. Descartes
used an architectural metaphor for knowledge – To build a great tower needs very firm
foundations, when Blaise Pascal’s Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle described a convenient
tabular presentation for binomial coefficients, now called Pascal's triangle. Pascal wrote a
significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry, known as-Pascal's Theorem [54][55].
According to Pierre Nicole, reason, and pleasure, should be taken as the criterion of beauty.
Nicole wrote, ( there is nothing so bad as to be to no one’s taste, and nothing so perfect as to
be to everyone’s taste). Unlike in music there were no natural beauties in architecture
dependent on mathematical harmony and that it was therefore up to man to establish rules. The
beauty of architecture was this seen as independent of transcendental givens in a far more
radical way that in literature or music, and Baruch Spinoza’s philosophy consists of generative
concepts persistently expressing architectural and spatial connotations. Its social actors, and its
associated ecology. God is not a craftsman or an architect. Baruch Spinoza refuses any form of
negativity in the construction of an ethics of joy for which the body attempts to continuously
compose harmonious relationships with its environment [56][57]. Samuel von Pufendorf drew
an analogy to a building designed in disregard of the (Rules of Architecture) or which had
suffered from (some great Fault) that had (been curd and made up after a strange and unseemly
manner). The architecture was an important and essential part of the rituals. Issac Newton
claimed that geometry is founded upon mechanic, whereas one would expect mechanics to be
defined as an application of geometry to the science of motion [58][59].
12. ENLIGHTENMENT ERA
The Enlightenment advocated freedom, democracy and reason as the primary values of society.
It started from the standpoint that men's minds should be freed from ignorance, from
superstition and from the arbitrary powers of the State, in order to allow mankind to achieve
progress and perfection. The period was marked by a further decline in the influence of the
church, governmental consolidation and greater rights for the common people. Aesthetics
flourishes in the period because of its strong affinities with the tendencies of the age.
“Aesthetics” is derived from the Greek word for “senses”, because for Baumgarten a science
of the beautiful would be a science of the sensible, a science of sensible cognition. Given the
intimate connection between beauty and human sensibility [60]. Gottfried Leibniz is the
geometrician who knows the best way to construct a problem, the architect who makes the best
use of use means and his location. The criterion is so to speak an aesthetic one note in the sense
of a radically different criteria from the moral, while Giambattista Vico proposed that the
human imagination, not the circumstances of environment or innovations of technology,
shaped culture, thought, and human institutions. Vico has lain dormant in architecture thinking.
This was ironic, for Vico in his own day was “an architect’s philosophy [61].
Shaftesbury argues that beauty is a matter of harmonious proportion or “numbers.” The
“beauties of the human soul,” then, are “the harmony and numbers of an inward kind”. Yet
terms like “design” and “form” can be either nouns or verbs. That is, we can speak either of
the form of an object or the act of forming the object. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Architecture is
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seen as contributing substantially to taste, with the virtuoso judging and educating the artist
and his work, and According to Samuel Clarke, the ideas of space and time are the two “first
and most obvious simple Ideas that every man has in his mind”. Clarke believed that space is
necessarily infinite because “to set bounds to space, is to suppose it bounded by something
which itself takes up space” or else that “it is bounded by nothing, and then the idea of that
nothing will still be space,” and both suppositions are contradictory [62]. The absolute beauty
of architecture provides, for Hutcheson, further evidence that the basis of beauty is in unify
amidst mrieoc And Francia Hutcheson makes it clear that architecture serves here merely to
exemplify what is universal to all of the fine arts, when David Hume drew a sharp distinction
between `relations of ideas' and 'matters of fact'. The first—exemplified by mathematics, and
presumably also by its offspring, systems of proportion—were certain, and discoverable by
pure thought. But they had no necessary relation to the external world: 'Though there never
were a circle or a triangle in nature [63][64].
Alexander Baumgarten aesthetics came to mean the study of good and bad taste, and was
related to the judgment of what was beautiful. Good taste was the ability to judge what was
beautiful by intuition and not through analysis by the intellect. Baumgarten hoped to develop
nevertheless a science of aesthetics, the deduction of principles of both natural and artistic
beauty based on a sense of good taste, and Immanuel Kant believes he can show that aesthetic
judgment is not fundamentally different from ordinary theoretical cognition of nature, and he
believes he can show that aesthetic judgment has a deep similarity to moral judgment. For these
two reasons, Kant claims he can demonstrate that the physical and moral universes – and the
philosophies and forms of thought that present them – are not only compatible, but unified
[65][66].
Moses Mendelssohn sets out from the assumption that the human spirit has learned to
imitate beauty, “the self-empowered mistress of all our sentiments,” in works of art, while, as
well Edmund Burke investigated some aspects of human perception that would become
relevant to the discourse of art and architecture. Burke tries to isolate the psychological causes
of emotions that produce the effects of the sublime and the beautiful. His new epistemology
would draw a correspondence between the notion of taste and absolute judgment. Burke
determine the sources of the sublime and the beautiful. For Burke, taste is a refined form of
judgment that is initiated in sensory perception, while Thomas Jefferson wrote that
“architecture is my delight, and putting up and pulling down, one of my favorite amusements”.
As an architect Jefferson created structures of beauty and functionality [67][68][69].
13. TEMPORAL LIMITS
The fact in this subject lies in the difficulty of identifying the relevant case horizontally, i.e.
identifying the case within a certain period of time. So, the study, in this approach, will depend
on temporal survey, whereas, Spatial-temporal reasoning is the ability to visualize spatial
patterns and mentally manipulate them over a time-ordered sequence of spatial
transformations. This ability is important for generating and conceptualizing solutions to multistep problems that arise in areas such as architecture, engineering, science, mathematics and
art. Table1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8.
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Table 1: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the pre-Socratic era.
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-15
1-16
Total
1. Pre-Socratic
Thales of Miletus.
c. 624 – 546 BCE
Pherecydes of Syros
c. 620 - c. 550 BCE
Anaximander of Miletus
c. 610 – 546 BCE
Anaximander of Miletus
c. 610 – 546 BCE
Pythagoras of Samos
c.580 – c. 500 BCE
Xenophanes of Colophon
c. 570 – 480 BCE
Epicharmus of Kos
c. 530 – 450 BCE
Heraclitus of Ephesus
c. 535 – c. 475 BCE
Parmenides of Elea
c. 515 – 450 BCE
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae
c. 500 – 428 BCE
Empedocles
492 - 432 BCE
Zeno of Elea
c. 490 – 430 BCE
Protagoras of Abdera
c. 481 – 420 BCE
Antiphon
480 - 411 BCE
Middle of the 5th century
Hippias
BCE
Gorgias.
c. 483 – 375 BCE
1- Pre-Socratic
5/16
31%
It can be seen from (table 1) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the pre-Socratic era is five philosophers out of 16, which
means the percentage is 31%.The most words used by philosophers in Pre-Socratic era are
Geometry, Number, Human body and Form.
Table 2: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Socratic era.
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2. Socratic
Socrates of Athens
c. 470 – 399 BCE
Critias of Athens
c. 460 - 413
Prodicus of Ceos
c. 465 BC – c. 395 BCE
First half of the 5th century
Leucippus of Miletus
BCE
Thrasymachus of Miletus
c. 459 - c. 400 BCE
Democritus of Abdera
c. 450 – 370 BCE
Diagoras of Melos
c. 450 – 415 BCE
Archelaus
Melissus of Samos.
Cratylus.
Ion of Chios.
Echecrates.
Timaeus of Locri.
Antisthenes
c. 444 – 365 BCE
Aristippus of Cyrene
c. 440 – 366 BCE
Alcidamas
c. 435 – c. 350 BCE
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Architectural Philosophical Term from Pre-Socratic to Enlightenment.
2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
2-23
2-24
2-25
2-26
Total
Lycophron
c. 430 – c. 350 BCE
Diogenes of Apollonia
c. 425 BCE – c 350 BCE
Hippo
c. 425 – c 350 BCE
Xenophon
c. 427 – 355 BCE
Plato
c. 427 – 347 BCE
Speusippus
c. 408 – 339 BCE
Eudoxus of Cnidus
c. 408 – 355 BCE
Diogenes of Sinope
c. 399 – 323 BCE
Xenocrates
c. 396 – 314 BCE
Aristotle
c. 384 – 322 BCE
2- Socratic (classic) 10/26
38%
It can be seen from (table 2) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Socratic (Classic) era is ten philosophers out of 26, which
means the percentage is 38%. The most words used by philosophers in Socratic (Classic) era
are Nature, Form, Geometry, Proportion, Beauty and Number.
Table 3: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Hellenistic era.
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
Total
3. Hellenistic
Theophrastus
c. 371 BCE–c. 287 BCE
Pyrrho of Elis
c. 360 – 270 BCE
Strato of Lampsacus
c. 340 BCE–c. 268 BCE
Epicurus
c. 341 – 270 BCE
Zeno of Citium
c. 333 – 264 BCE
Timon
c. 320 – 230 BCE
Chrysippus of Soli
c. 280 – 207 BCE
Carneades
c. 214 – 129 BCE
3- Hellenistic
1/8
13%
It can be seen from (table 3) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Hellenistic era is one philosopher out of 8, which means
the percentage is 13%. The most words used by philosophers in Hellenistic era are Line,
Surface, Body, and Number.
Table 4: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Romanic era.
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4. Romanic
Lucretius
c. 99 – 55 BCE
Cicero
c. 106 BCE – 43 BCE
Philo
c. 20 BCE – 40 CE
Seneca the Younger
c. 4 BCE – 65 CE
Epictetus
c. 55 – 135
Marcus Aurelius
121–180
during the 2nd and possibly
Sextus Empiricus
the 3rd centuries CE
Plotinus
c. 205 – 270
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4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
Total
Porphyry
Iamblichus of Syria
Augustine of Hippo
Proclus
4- Romanic
5/12
c. 232 – 304
c. 245 – 325
c. 354 – 430
c. 412 – 485
42%
It can be seen from (table 4) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Romanic era is five philosopher out of 12, which means
the percentage is 42%. The most words used by philosophers in Hellenistic era are Form of
human being, Art, Beauty, Geometry and Mathematic.
Table 5: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Medievalism era.
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-29
5-30
5-31
5-32
5-33
5. Medievalism
Boethius
c. 480–524
John Philoponus
c. 490–570
Al-Kindi
c. 801 – 873
John the Scot
c. 815 – 877
al-Faràbi
c. 870 – 950
Saadia Gaon
c. 882 – 942
al-Razi
c. 865 – 925
Ibn Sina
c. 980 – 1037
Ibn Gabirol
c. 1021–1058
Anselm
c. 1034–1109
al-Ghazali
c. 1058–1111
Peter Abelard
c. 1079–1142
Abraham ibn Daud
c. 1110–1180
Peter Lombard
c. 1100–1160
Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
c. 1126- 1198
Maimonides
c. 1135–1204
St Francis of Assisi
c. 1182–1226
Robert Grosseteste
c. 1175–1253
Albert the Great
c. 1193–1280
Roger Bacon
c. 1214–1294
Thomas Aquinas
c. 1221–1274
Bonaventure
c. 1225–1274
Siger
c. 1240 – c. 1280
Boetius of Dacia.
Ramon Llull
c. 1232–1315
Meister Eckhart
c. 1260–1328
Duns Scotus
c. 1266–1308
Marsilius of Padua
c. 1270–1342
William of Ockham
c. 1288–1348
Gersonides
c. 1288–1344
Jean Buridan
c. 1300–1358
John Wycliffe
c. 1320–1384
Nicole Oresme
c. 1320-5 – 1382
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Architectural Philosophical Term from Pre-Socratic to Enlightenment.
5-34
5-35
5-36
5-37
5-38
Total
c. 1340 – c. 1411
1401–1464
1407–1457
1433-1499
1463–1494
13/38
34%
Hasdai Crescas
Nicholas of Cusa
Lorenzo Valla
Marsilio Ficino
Pico della Mirandola
5- Medievalism
It can be seen from (table 5) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Medievalism era is thirteen philosopher out of 38, which
means the percentage is 34%. The most words used by philosophers in Medievalism era are
Number, Geometry, Music, Color, Nature, Perception, Beauty (Pleasure), Mathematic,
Architect, Order and Design.
Table 6: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Renaissance era.
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
Total
6. Renaissance
Desiderius Erasmus
Niccolò Machiavelli
Sir Thomas More
Martin Luther
Petrus Ramus
John Calvin
Michel de Montaigne
Pierre Charron
Giordano Bruno
Francisco Suarez
6- Renaissance
4/10
1466–1536
1469–1527
1478–1535
1483–1546
1515–1572
1509–1564
1533–1592
1541–1603
1548–1600
1548–1617
40%
It can be seen from (table 6) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Renaissance era is four philosopher out of 10, which
means the percentage is 40%. The most words used by philosophers in Medievalism era are
Building, Architecture, Geometry, Measure, and Proportion.
Table 7: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Reason era.
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7. Reason
Herbert of Cherbury.
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
Hugo Grotius
Marin Mersenne
Robert Filmer
Pierre Gassendi
René Descartes
Baltasar Gracián
Thomas Hobbes
Antoine Arnauld
Henry More
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240
1561–1626
1564–1642
1583–1645
1588–1648
1588–1653
1592–1655
1596–1650
1601–1658
1588–1679
1612–1694
1614–1687
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7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
7-19
7-20
7-21
7-22
7-23
7-24
7-25
7-26
7-27
7-28
7-29
7-30
7-31
7-32
Total
Jacques Rohault.
Ralph Cudworth
Blaise Pascal
Margaret Cavendish
Arnold Geulincx
Pierre Nicole
Geraud Cordemoy
Robert Boyle
Anne Conway,
Richard Cumberland
Baruch Spinoza
Samuel von Pufendorf
John Locke
Joseph Glanvill
Nicolas Malebranche
Isaac Newton
Simon Foucher
Pierre Bayle
Damaris Masham
John Toland
7- Reason
1617–1672
1617–1688
1623–1662
1623–1673
1624–1669
(1625–1695)
1626-1684
1627–1691
1631–1679
1631–1718
1632–1677
1632–1694
1632–1704
1636–1680
1638–1715
1643–1727
1644–1696
1647–1706
1659–1708
1670–1722
10/32
31%
It can be seen from (table 7) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Reason era is ten philosopher out of 32, which means
the percentage is 31%. The most words used by philosophers in Reason era are Fashion,
Architecture, Mathematic, Beauty, Aesthetic, Craftsman, and Architect.
Table 8: Illustrates the chronological survey of philosophers in the Enlightenment era.
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-16
8-17
8. Enlightenment
Gottfried Leibniz
John Norris
Jean Meslier
Giambattista Vico
Bernard Mandeville
Anthony Ashley-Cooper
Samuel Clarke
Catherine Cockburn
Christian Wolff
George Berkeley
Charles de Secondat
Joseph Butler
Francis Hutcheson
John Gay
David Hartley
Julien La Mettrie
Voltaire
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241
1646–1716
1657–1711
1664-1729
1668–1744
1670–1733
1671–1713
1675–1729
1679–1749
1679–1754
1685–1753
1689–1755
1692–1752
1694–1746
1699–1745
1705–1757
1709–1751
1694–1778
[email protected]
Architectural Philosophical Term from Pre-Socratic to Enlightenment.
8-18
8-19
8-20
8-21
8-22
8-23
8-24
8-25
8-26
8-27
8-28
8-29
8-30
8-31
8-32
8-33
8-34
8-35
8-36
8-37
8-38
8-39
8-40
8-41
Total
Thomas Reid
David Hume
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Denis Diderot
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Claude Adrien Helvétius
Etienne de Condillac
Jean d'Alembert
Baron d'Holbach
Adam Smith
Richard Price
Immanuel Kant
Moses Mendelssohn
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Edmund Burke
William Paley
Thomas Jefferson
Jeremy Bentham
Sylvain Maréchal
Dugald Stewart
William Godwin
Mary Wollstonecraft
Friedrich Schiller
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
8- Enlightenment
15/41
1710–1796
1711–1776
1712–1778
1713–1784
1714-1762
1715–1771
1715-1780
1717–1783
1723–1789
1723–1790
1723–1791
1724–1804
1729–1786
1729–1781
1729–1797
1743–1805
1743–1826
1748–1832
1750–1803
1753–1828
1756–1836
1759–1797
1759–1805
1762–1814
37%
It can be seen from (table 8) that the number of philosophers who talk about terms related
in some way to the architecture in the Enlightenment era is fifteen philosopher out of 41, which
means the percentage is 37%. The most words used by philosophers in Enlightenment era are
Geometry, Aesthetic, Harmony, Proportion, Number, Form, Mathematic and art.
14 RESULTS
The number of philosophers is different in each era and they are between 8 philosophers in the
Hellenistic era to the 41 philosophers in the Enlightenment era, and the number of philosophers
who talk about term related to architecture is also different and they are from 1 philosopher in
the Hellenistic era to the 15 philosophers in the Enlightenment era. Following are the number
and percentage of philosophers talked about terms related to architecture in each era separately
out of the number of philosophers in each era.
 Pre-Socratic
5/16
31%
 Socratic (classic) 10/26
38%
 Hellenistic
1/8
13%
 Romanic
5/12
42%
 Medievalism
13/38
34%
 Renaissance
4/10
40%
 Reason
10/32
31%
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
Enlightenment
15/41
37%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Figure 9: Percentage of philosophers who talk about term related to architecture in each era.
Number of philosophers who talked about terms related to Architecture in all eras is 63
philosophers, they are divided in all era. The following are the numbers and percentage of
philosophers who talk about terms related to architecture in each era out of total number of the
philosopher only who talked about architecture.
 Pre-Socratic
5/63
7.9 %
 Socratic (classic) 10/63
15.9%
 Hellenistic
1/63
1.6%
 Romanic
5/63
7.9 %
 Medievalism
13/63
20.6%
 Renaissance
4/63
6.4%
 Reason
10/63
15.9%
 Enlightenment
15/63
23.8%
Pre-Socratic
8%
24%
Socratic
16%
2%
8%
16%
Hellenistic
Romanic
Medievalism
Renaissance
6%
20%
Reason
Figure 10: The percentage of philosophers who talk about term related to architecture in all era
together.
15. CONCLUSIONS
The research concludes that whenever the philosophers interested in architectural terms is
increase the quality of architecture is also increased in that era, where it is noted that it reached
the highest level in the Roman era, which represents the base of classical architecture. The
percentage of philosophers interested in architecture begins in the Pre-Socratic era which is 8%
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Architectural Philosophical Term from Pre-Socratic to Enlightenment.
and increased to reach to the peak in the Enlightenment era which is 23%, concluded from this
that philosophers interest in architecture is increasing with time.There is a lot of terms related
to architecture repeated by philosophers such as proportion, aesthetic and geometry in all eras
but the most repeated term is geometry. Geometry is the term which related philosophy to
architecture.
Eras
1- Pre-Socratic:
2- Socratic (classic):
3- Hellenistic:
4- Romanic:
5- Medievalism:
6- Renaissance:
7- Reason:
8- Enlightenment:
Terms used by philosophers
Geometry
Human body
Aesthetic
Geometry
Line
Surface
Aesthetic
Geometry
Geometry
Aesthetic
Architecture
Geometry
Aesthetic
Architecture
Geometry
Aesthetic
Form
Proportion
Number
Form
Architect
Proportion
Mathematic
Proportion
So, the process of proving the philosophical term of architecture is not merely a technical
process, but a dialectical answer to it. Where philosophy leads to knowledge and knowledge of
the higher arts, including architecture, because philosophy is the entrance to knowledge about
what. It is the basis of all knowledge and science. Therefore, architecture as a Semitic shroud
is not something autonomous, whatever the architect tried to do. The existence of the
philosophical term consciously or unconsciously ensures the presence of the philosopher in
architectural work.
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