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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

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A Comparative Analysis of Full-Time and Part-Time Employees of their Organizational
Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
Abstract
The study aims to understand the behaviour of employees in the BPO industry which compares
the organizational commitment and their organizational citizenship behaviour with the help of
socio demographic factors. It is due to the fact that the BPO industry is one of fastest growing
industries in the country. It is due to this that the researcher of the study investigated the
organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour of the call center agents. The
method of sampling would be non-purposive. A sample of 50 Filipino BPO employees will
answer a survey scale. The study will determine the organizational citizenship behaviour among
Filipino employees in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. The study may also verify
the difference and relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour and commitment in
full-time and part-time employees.
Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Full-Time Employees, Organizational Citizenship
Behaviour, Part-Time Employees, BPO
Introduction
Organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour are topics of
interest in the industrial field although it has been a fact that there has been a lack of studies done
in the country of the Philippines. The BPO industry is known to be the new mainstream in the
Philippines. According to Baraka, Baraka & El-Gamily (2013), Philippines is known to be one of
the top countries when it comes to the BPO industry including India, China, Malaysia, and
Poland. In the year 2015, the news had stated that Philippines has surpassed India as the call
center capital of the world (The Philippine Star 2015; as cited in Anicker, M. & Garcia, D.
2016). In addition to this, during the year 2015 over one million Filipinos are estimated to be
employed by a BPO with projections that the employees can produce up to 24 billion dollars by
2016 (IBPAP, 2015). Philippines is now considered a fast growing country wherein the United
States companies are being attracted to it due to the fact that the Philippines has a cheap labor
1
cost (Jennings, The Street, 2015).
Psychologists, around the world have been interested in the organizational citizenship
behaviour for the reason that there has always been a conflict on whether or not it should be
rewarded. There have been little disagreements over definitional issues on whether or not
organizational citizenship behaviour is an extra role that an employee plays part in and whether
or not this phenomenon in the industry should be rewarded (Fox et. al, 2012). On the other hand,
organizational commitment and Job satisfaction are usually studied factors in the organization
(Bodla & Danish, 2009; Bodla & Naeem, 2009; Parker et al., 2005; Allen & Meyer, 1990).
which are the causes of an employee's performance. Organizational commitment has been
measured in the public sector, although, there is a lack of studies in the Philippines concerning
this variables. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) had suggested a difference in commitment levels that
may be the result of individual differences. Thus, commitment towards the organization depends
on individuals and the value they give towards the organization and its offerings. In example,
career opportunities offered by organizations, such as career development or training for
continuous development, it these things are valued by individuals (as well as enhance their future
career prospects) their levels of commitments will enhance as well. (Matheiu & Zajac, 1990; as
cited in Eslami & Gharakhani, 2012).
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Organizational Commitment
The BPO industry is known to be the new mainstream in the Philippines. According to
Baraka, Baraka & El-Gamily (2013), Philippines is known to be one of the top countries when it
comes to the BPO industry including India, China, Malaysia, and Poland. In the year 2015, the
news had stated that Philippines has surpassed India as the call center capital of the world (The
Philippine Star 2015; as cited in Anicker, M. & Garcia, D. 2016).
According to Michael O' Malley (2000) it is stated in his book that, commitment
is derived from the Latin root which means 'to connect'. On the other hand, it is stated in the
Webster's Dictionary as 'the state or an instance of being responsible or emotionally impelled'.
Thus, people who are committed feel a type of connection which motivates people to maintain a
connection. We can therefore relate this to a relationship where there is commitment. How one
form commitment does: First, a person gets psychologically attached or emotionally bonded.
Both would feel understood, cared for, secure, and loved. The relationship would then become
emotionally gratifying. Second, the relationship needs a long-term focus, which would make
both parties to make sacrifices, to be altruistic. Third, there would be a high level of
predictability and dependability to the relationship. Both would have an idea of what their
partner would do and can count on the other to be available when needed. Fourth, to preserve a
relationship, both parties must make accommodating, and constructive responses when one has
been violated by the other.
Organizational commitment have taken different forms: the first form talked about is the
nature of commitment which defines the relationship between an employee and the organization
3
which can vary. The second form involves efforts to figure out among entities to which an
employee becomes committed (Meyer & Allen; 1997 as cited in Suma & Lesha, 2013). Meyer
and Allen (1990) proposed a three–component model of organizational commitment. It was
suggested that organizational commitment is the effect of all affective component, which refers
to the employee's' attachment to, what they identify with, and the involvement in, the
organization; the continuance component, refers to the commitment based on the expenses that
the employee associates with leaving an organization; and normative component, refers to
employees’ feelings of responsibility to remain with the organization (Suma & Leisha, 2013).
The term affective commitment (AC) were later coined by Meyer and Allen (1984) which would
describe an employee's attachment to an organization due to a belief and identification with the
goals of an organization. Organizational commitment has been a variable of interest and has its
own right with a variety of definitions that have been proposed (Mowday et al., 1982; Meyer et
al., 1998; as cited in Eslami & Gharakhani, 2012). Nevertheless, commitment is much more
different from motivation, for the reason that commitment influences behaviour independently
such as motives and attitudes which may then lead to persistence and a course of action even if it
so happens to have a conflict with motives (Meyer et. al., 2004; Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001; as
cited in Eslami & Gharakhani, 2012).
Regarding the impacts of employee engagement on organizational commitment,
Schaufeli and Salanova (2007) had studied work engagement and had found that when the level
of engagement increases the level of organizational commitment also increases which then
enhances the job satisfaction, thus producing higher performance that reveals a greater
demonstration of personal ideas, less absenteeism and lower turnover rates; also, this resulted in
4
improved health and security with proactive behaviour and learning motivations. Saks (2006)
had conducted a study that was considered important. 102 participants who were working a
variety of jobs and are in different organizations in Canada to test a model of antecedents and
consequences of a job engagement and organizational engagement. Results found that employee
engagement had represented a big role in the relationship between (job characteristics, perceived
organizational support, perceived supervisor support, rewards and recognition, procedural
justice, and distributive justice) and the consequences of such engagement (job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, intention to quit, and organizational citizenship and behaviour)
(Schaufeli and Salanova, 2007; Saks, 2006; as cited in Albdour & Altarawneh, 2014).
The interest and attention of organizational commitment literature was due to the idea
that there is a concept which is a significant part of an employee's psychological condition
because an employee, who demonstrates high organizational commitment, are thought to also
display behaviour like high job performance, and citizenship activities, which would later benefit
the organization. Organizational commitment defined, “The strength of an individual's
identification with, and involvement in a particular organization may be characterized by a
strong belief in and an acceptance of the organization's goals and values, willingness to exert
more effort on behalf of the organization and a strong desire to maintain an employee’s
membership in the organization” (Mowday, Porter, and steer, 1982; as cited in Albdour &
Altarawneh, 2014).
According to (Coopey, 1995) Organizational commitment is the agreement between
individuals of the organization and the organization itself. This is viewed as an important
element of an employee's psychological contract, which could be understood in the motivational
5
process of the social exchange theory and of course, reciprocity. There is considerable interest to
psychologists when it comes to these matters due to the fact that there is strong evidence that
there is in fact likes between commitment and favorable organizational outcomes. This form of
psychological contract is made by an employee in response to the benefits and rewards that are
provided by the organization (Angle and Perry 1983; as cited in Eslami & Gharakhani, 2012).
Organizational commitment plays an important role in terms of healthcare services due to
the fact that employees are the ones who play a big role in this industry. Employee commitment
is what increases the productivity of the organization thus making a hospital function more
effectively. (Bishwajit, M. Khumyu, A. & Boonyanuruk P, 2016).
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
It had been proposed that in order for an organization to achieve its affective
organizational operation there would have to be three kinds of behaviours necessary: employee
willingness to remain with the organization, employee action that surpasses their job description,
and employee proactive behaviour beyond job responsibility. The first two are roles of the
employee which is necessary, whereas, the third goes beyond which includes cooperation among
colleagues, self-improvement and creating a positive organizational image (Smith et. al, 1983;
and Katz, 1964 as cited in Chiang and Hsieh, 2012). Organization Citizenship Behaviour as a
discretionary individual behaviour is not formally recognized by the reward system of an
organization. Despite the fact that there were some definitional inconsistencies, the employees
performing organization citizenship behaviours is commonly considered to be “going the extra”
mile. (Organ, 1988 as cited in Lomoya, Pingol and Teng-Calleja, 2015).
6
The effort to define organizational citizenship behaviour has seen a long period of
controversy, with little agreement over the parameters, conceptualization and evaluation of the
construct. There have been little disagreements over definitional issues on whether or not
organizational citizenship behaviour is an extra role and whether or not this is rewarded (Fox et.
al, 2012).
OCB is another topic in the field of organizational behaviour that has received attention
due to the fact that it is said to play an important role in an organization's functioning which is
also similar to job satisfaction. (Moorman & Harland, 2002; Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine, &
Bachrach, 2000; as cited in Lamoya, Pingol, Teng-Calleja, 2015).In sorting 30 behaviours at
work, (Podsakoff et al; 2000, as cited in Lamoya, Pingol, Teng- Calleja, 2015) there had been
seven general themes in organizational citizenship behaviours which are: Helping behaviour,
sportsmanship, organizational loyalty, organizational compliance, individual initiative, civic
virtue, and self-development. Another approach that was used in classifying organizational
citizenship behaviours which were suggested another approach in classifying OCBs was
suggested by (Williams and Anderson, 1991 as cited in Lamoya, Pingol, Teng-Calleja) is
identifying the target of the particular organizational citizenship behaviour. This approach is
where the organizational citizenship behaviours are categorized as Organizational Citizenship
behaviour- Organization (OCBO), which is the behaviour that would benefit the organization as
a whole and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour-Individuals (OCBI) which refers to the
behaviour that directly benefits particular individuals in the organization.
A.The Three Component Model (TCM)
Meyer and Allen (1984, 1991, Allen & Meyer, 1990) developed the three component
7
model in order to combine other original commitment conceptualizations. Meyer and Allen
(1991) later argued that the three components of commitment would develop and have different
possible future effects for job behaviour.
Affective commitment is the emotional attachment an employee has towards an
organization. When there is a high level of affective commitment there is joy in the relationship
between the organization and the employee which would make them likely to stay. Continuance
commitment on the other hand, is when the employee feels that leaving the organization would
have a lot of consequences. For example, the employee would have felt that leaving the
organization would lead to a long time of unemployment. Normative commitment is when the
employee feels that it is the employee's responsibility to stay or staying would be the right thing
to do.
B. Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory as studied in social psychology is a concept that concerns social
changes as a process of interaction between employees and the organization. This theory is
usually used in the industrial setting to explain and analyze commercial transactions (Social
Work Degree Guide, 2017). According to Cropanzano and Mitchell (2005), it is the most
influential paradigms in organizational behaviour. Work is a give and take relationship between
an organization and an employee. When employees want to quit but decide to stay in the
organization. There is a possibility that they have determined the fact that despite the negative
thoughts they have on the organization, the benefits still outweigh the risks. The employees that
have decided to leave, on the other hand have most probably decided that there aren’t many
8
benefits that can make them stay.
1. What is the difference between the organizational commitment of a full-time and parttime employee in terms of:
A. Affective Commitment
B. Continuance Commitment
C. Normative Commitment
2.
What is the difference between the organizational citizenship behaviour towards their
organization and their co-workers?
Methods
Research Design
The study focuses on gathering statistical data which then generalized the data across a
group of employees from different companies in order determine the effect of organizational
commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour on full time and part time employees that
have been working in a BPO company, thus, the research design used would be Quantitative.
Quantitative design had been used for this study. Quantitative methods focuses on objective
measurements and statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data which had been
collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys or by using existing statistical data using
computational techniques. Quantitative research gathers these numerical data and then
generalizes it across groups of people. a group of employees from different companies in order to
determine the effect of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour on
full time and part time employees that have been working in a BPO (Babbie, E.R, 2010).
9
Participants
Respondents of the study were selected by purposive sampling as a data gathering
procedure. Purposive sampling is also known as judgement, selective or subjective sampling
which is a technique where a researcher relies on a criterion of qualifications when choosing the
respondents for this study (Purposive Sampling, 2016). Respondents were selected in a random
manner and not by company. Also, part of the criterion would be the fact that the participant had
to be within the age range of 20-49 years old, working in BPO industries located in the National
Capital Region of the Philippines for the convenience of the respondents as well as the
researcher.
Procedure
In collecting the data, the researcher sent out an email to about 200 respondents although
only 78 had replied and agreed to participate in the study. The participants’ age ranges from 20
to 49 years old. The marital status of the participants was considered as it may had been one of
the reasons that would affect the commitment of an employee. Before sending the respondents a
copy of the survey questionnaire, the researcher made sure that the informed consent was
explained thoroughly. The researcher made sure that the respondents understood that the data
gathered would be held with utmost confidentiality. Respondents who have participated in this
study were asked to answer a survey questionnaire via email.
Instruments
The instruments used for this study would be the Organizational Commitment Checklist
derived from Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N. J. (1990) which was used to measure the organizational
10
commitment of the respondents. In measuring the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour on the
other hand, the instrument used would be the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Checklist
(42-Item) by Fox, S. & Spector, P. E. The OCB-C is designed to assess the frequency of
organizational citizenship behaviour of the employees. The OCB-C was designed to minimize
overlap with the scale of counterproductive work behaviour which was a limitation noted in prior
scales.
Data Analysis
The researcher separated the test results into two groups, namely, full-time and part-time
employees. The data was then computed for the average of each scale, the organizational
citizenship behaviour checklist were categorized into two which would be organizational
citizenship behaviour towards the organization and the organizational citizenship towards the coworkers. The organizational commitment on the other hand were categorized into three
subcategories namely, affective, continuance, and, normative commitment. Once the average for
each group were computed, the results of both the groups were then computed and compared
using the t-test.
Results
Part-Time Employees
Affective
Commitment
2.66
Organizational Commitment
Continuance
Commitment
2.64
Organizational Citizenship
Behaviour
Normative
Commitment
2.93
Fig. 1 Full-Time Employees
Organizational
Commitment
Full-time
11
Part-time
P-value
OCB-O
2.19
OCB-P
2.23
3.04
2.93
2.09
2.66
2.64
2.93
0.436
Fig. 2 Computed Value for Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship
Behaviour of Full-Time Employees
Part-Time Employees
Affective
Commitment
2.66
Organizational Commitment
Continuance
Commitment
2.64
Organizational Citizenship
Behaviour
Normative
Commitment
2.93
OCB-O
2.19
OCB-P
2.23
Fig. 3 Part-Time Employees
Organizational
Citizenship Behaviour
Full-time
2.83
2.93
Parttime
2.19
2.23
P-value
0.013
Fig 4. Computed Value for Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship
Behaviour of Part-Time Employees
Discussion
There is no significant difference in the organizational commitment of the full-time and
part-time employees perhaps this would be due to the fact that there were more full-time
respondents rather than part-time employees, as stated earlier, a total of 200 emails were sent to
potential respondents and only 78 respondents had participated and have agreed to join the study
it is a fact that only 7 of 71 respondents had confirmed that they are part time employees while
the 71 respondents had confirmed to be full time employees. Thus, affecting the results of the
study. The organizational citizenship behaviour result, on the other hand, had a significant
12
difference, perhaps this may be due to the benefits the company offers as well as the culture.
According to Son (2016), when employees hit a wall but still decide to stay, it is obvious that
despite the fact that the employee does not like the company, they stay and it may be because the
benefits still outweigh the risks of quitting their jobs. Commitment may not have an affect
towards Citizenship behaviour as seen in the results where the citizenship was higher than the
commitment of the employees whether they are part time or full time employee. Another factor
would be the fact that the survey questionnaire was done online and not physically which may be
added to the reason that the results were affected immensely.
Conclusions
The researcher therefore concludes, that there is no significant difference between the
organizational commitment between the full-time and part-time employees for the reason that,
the result of the p-value would be 0.43. In order to accept the null the result must be a total of
0.5, thus, concluding that the organizational commitment between the full-time and part-time
employees are not significant.
The organizational citizenship behaviour p-value resulted in a 0.13 thus, concluding that
despite the demography and tenure there is a significant difference between the two. The null had
been accepted due to the fact that, to accept the null the result needs to be a 0.5.
Recommendations
Organizational commitment is what an employee has as an agreement between the
employees themselves as well as the organization itself. This is an important element of an
employee’s psychological contract, this could be understood a motivational process.
13
Organizational citizenship behaviour, on the other hand, still has little disagreements over the
definitional issues on how this phenomena is an extra role and whether or not this is rewarded by
the organization. This is another field of organizational behaviour that receive attention because
it is said that this plays an important role in how an organization functions.
However, the recommendation of this study would be that the study be conducted with an
equal number of full time and part time employees for the reason that this might have an effect
on the results. Also, it is recommended that there would be more studies about full-time and parttime employees be conducted in the Philippines. Another recommendation would be that there
would be other scales used to measure organizational commitment as well as organizational
citizenship behaviour. It is recommended that this study be done in another age range as well as
for the number of years, the employee has been in the company might affect the result for the
reason that a person with tenure may have different organizational commitment as well as
organizational citizenship behaviour compared to that of who has just started working in the
organization.
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