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Exceeding the Standards V&S

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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling, Level IV
Care has been taken to verify the accuracy of information presented in this book. However, the authors, editors, and
publisher cannot accept responsibility for Web, e-mail, newsgroup, or chat room subject matter or content, or for
consequences from application of the information in this book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, with
respect to its content.
Trademarks: Some of the product names and company names included in this book have been used for identification
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The authors, editors, and publisher disclaim any affiliation, association, or connection with, or sponsorship or
endorsement by, such owners.
Cover Image Credits: Scene, Fotosearch; Celtic art, Rolin Graphics, Inc.
ISBN 978-0-82194-325-0
© 2009 by EMC Publishing, LLC
875 Montreal Way
St. Paul, MN 55102
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.emcp.com
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be adapted, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written
permission from the publisher. Teachers using Mirrors & Windows: Connecting with Literature, Level IV may
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Printed in the United States of America
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Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Unit 1: Word Study Skills and Context Clues
Lesson 1: Word Study Notebook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Lesson 2: Word Study Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lesson 3: PAVE—Predict, Associate, Verify, Evaluate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Lesson 4: Context Clues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Lesson 5: More About Context Clues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Time Out for Test Practice: Using Context Clues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Unit 2: Reference Material and Clarifying Meaning
Lesson 6: Reference Materials for Vocabulary Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Lesson 7: Words with Multiple Meanings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Lesson 8: Review of Synonyms and Antonyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Lesson 9: Connotation and Denotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Time Out for Test Practice: Connotation, Denotation and
Word Meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Unit 3: Spelling
Lesson 10: Spelling Correctly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Lesson 11: Spelling Patterns I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Lesson 12: Spelling Patterns II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Lesson 13: Spell-Check Software and What It Fails to Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Time Out for Test Practice: Spelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Unit 4: Word Parts and Word Origins
Lesson 14: Morphemes—The Building Blocks of Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Lesson 15: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Lesson 16: More About Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Lesson 17: More About Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Lesson 18: Word Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Lesson 19: Root Families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Lesson 20: Greek and Latin Roots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Lesson 21: Using Word Parts to Unlock Meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Lesson 22: The Evolution of Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Time Out for Test Practice: Prefixes, Suffixes, and Root Families . . . . . 53
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Unit 5: Borrowed Words and Informal Language
Lesson 23: Spanish Words in English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Lesson 24: English Words from French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Lesson 25: English Words from German. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Lesson 26: Register, Slang, and Colloquialisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Lesson 27: Idioms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Time Out for Test Practice: Borrowed Words in English; Idioms
and Colloquialisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Unit 6: Testing Vocabulary and Choosing Words
Lesson 28: Vocabulary Questions on Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Lesson 29: Writing and Word Choice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Lesson 30: Literal and Figurative Meanings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Lesson 31: Figurative Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Lesson 32: Expanding Your Word Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Time Out for Test Practice: Using Word Attack Skills on
Standardized Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Answer Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
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Introduction
The Exceeding the Standards resource books provide in-depth language arts instruction to enrich
students’ skills development beyond the level of meeting the standards. Exceeding the Standards:
Vocabulary & Spelling offers meaningful ways to incorporate word study into the language arts
classroom.
Vocabulary & Spelling presents thirty-two lessons, designed to be used weekly, that cover a broad
range of topics from etymology to context clues to spelling patterns. These lessons are aligned with
the units of the Mirrors & Windows: Connecting with Literature program and may be used alone or as
supplements to the Vocabulary & Spelling workshops in the Student Edition. Each lesson incorporates
words from selections in the corresponding unit of the textbook. By using these lessons in
conjunction with the literature program, you will help your students become better readers, writers,
speakers, and spellers.
Each lesson in Vocabulary & Spelling includes the following components:
• A Word of the Week, selected from the corresponding textbook unit, highlights a word that
students may find particularly meaningful or interesting.
• Grammar instruction on one or more topics is followed by a Try It Yourself section that allows
students to practice what they are learning.
• Just For Fun activities encourage students to play with words, reminding them that language can be
fun and interesting.
• Tip boxes in the margin throughout the lesson clarify definitions, offer additional information, and
give helpful suggestions.
• A Time Out for Test Practice at the end of each unit provides students with the opportunity to
assess what they have learned and to practice test-taking skills by answering sample standardized
test questions in a multiple-choice format.
It is essential that vocabulary instruction include a variety of strategies to develop students’
word-study skills. Lessons in Vocabulary & Spelling provide many different ways of exploring and
studying words, word parts, semantic families, and spelling patterns and rules. Activating students’
prior knowledge of words and of essential concepts related to words helps students make associations
between new terms and words they already know.
The activities in Vocabulary & Spelling will help you actively engage students in working with
words. As their curiosity about word exploration grows, your students will become increasingly
confident in their ability to attack, learn, and experiment with new words.
Related Program Resources
For more vocabulary and spelling instruction, including charts of common prefixes, suffixes, and
word roots, refer to the Mirrors & Windows Student Edition Language Arts Handbook, Section 2:
Vocabulary & Spelling. Additional vocabulary development activities integrated with the literature
selections are included in the Meeting the Standards unit resource books and in Differentiated
Instruction for English Language Learners.
Teaching Tips
Word study encompasses not only vocabulary and spelling, but also the strategies language users
employ to unlock meanings and internalize spellings. Effective instruction in word study gives students
tools for learning new vocabulary and spelling independently in the long term. The following teaching
tips can help you ensure that your students get the most from the lessons in Vocabulary & Spelling.
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Teach Word Attack Strategies
There are a number of strategies good readers employ when they are confronted with an unfamiliar
word. These strategies include:
• using the context as a clue
• gleaning hints from pictures, charts, graphs, and other text support
• examining word parts: prefixes, suffixes, and roots
• combing through memories for associations with the word
• consulting dictionaries and other reference materials
• asking an authority, such as a teacher or other expert in the field
For many of us, these strategies have become second nature, and we are hardly conscious of using
them. To students, however, they are not so obvious; strategic word decoding takes place mostly
internally and silently, word attack strategies are largely invisible, and uninitiated students may never
witness them in action. Research suggests that students need explicit instruction in these strategies to
become proficient readers and effective writers. The lessons in Vocabulary & Spelling provide such
explicit instruction.
Create a Word-Rich Environment
The essential backdrop to an effective word study program is a classroom where words are clearly
valued. The following are some ideas for creating such a classroom.
• Word Wall Post a variety of vocabulary words and/or words of the week in your classroom to
provide students with repetition and recycling of the terms you want them to internalize. Use it
as the basis of word games such as bingo, Jeopardy, and twenty questions, as well as collaborative
storytelling.
• Class Dictionary Have students keep a class dictionary by taking turns entering words studied in
class, providing definitions, illustrating terms, writing contextual sentences, and searching for realworld uses of the words.
• Classroom Library Provide a broad range of reading materials, giving students time for sustained
silent reading, and modeling avid reading yourself, to build students’ vocabularies.
• Word Processing Language Tools Encourage students to make use of language features built into
word processing programs, such as dictionaries and thesauruses.
• Online Word Games Schedule time for your students to learn new vocabulary with online word
games and other technology tools.
• Language Mentor Share your own interest in words by drawing students’ attention to interesting
words in the news or in pop culture and by modeling how you approach words that are new to you.
Foster Curiosity
The key to incorporating meaningful word study into your language arts classroom is to encourage
dialogue with your students about how words create meaning. Your own curiosity about language
is infectious and will encourage your students to become inquisitive “word detectives” motivated to
solve the mystery of word meanings.
About Spelling “Rules”
Some students benefit from memorizing what are sometimes called spelling rules; others are
frustrated by the number of exceptions to each rule. To reflect the prevalence of exceptions, the term
spelling pattern has been used instead of spelling rule in this resource. In addition to introducing
students to spelling patterns, you can help them become stronger spellers by following the same
teaching tips mentioned above: modeling the use of strategies, creating a word-rich classroom, and
fostering curiosity.
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 1
Word study Notebook
Understand the concept
How large is your vocabulary? Most people your age know or
recognize at least 20,000 words and use approximately 2,000 on a
regular basis. That is only a small sampling of all the words in the
English language, which number between 600,000 and one million.
It’s no wonder, then, that almost everywhere you look, you can find
new and unfamiliar words!
A good way to add some of these new words to your
vocabulary is to keep a word study notebook. Whenever you come
across a new word while reading or listening, you can jot it down
in the notebook, along with its definition and pronunciation. You
might also write down the word’s origins—that is, what language or
other words it came from. (This information can be found in most
dictionaries.) Finally, add an example sentence or drawing to help
you remember the word.
Word: acute
Definition: characterized by sharpness or severity
Pronunciation: \ -kyüt´\
Origins: from Latin acutus, past participle of acuere to
sharpen, from acus, meaning needle
Sentence: When the soccer player injured his knee, he felt
acute pain.
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Word of the Week
visceral (vi‘ [email protected] @l) adj.,
emotional; instinctive
Although her family wanted her
to attend Harvard, Heather had a
visceral feeling that the University
of Minnesota was a better choice
for her.
You probably use facts, logic, and
reasoning to guide you through
many decisions in your life.
However, for other decisions, you
might depend on a gut feeling,
or a visceral sense of what you
want. Visceral is related to the
Latin-derived word viscera¸ which
refers to the inner parts of the
body (especially the stomach and
intestines, or guts).
Many words have more
than one definition. You
may choose which definition or
definitions to include in the entry.
In the definition, include what
part of speech the word is used
as—noun (n.), verb (v.), adjective
(adj.), adverb (adv.), or other.
Some words can be used as more
than one part of speech.
Tip
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To write the pronunciation
of a word, you need to
use special phonetic symbols.
Each symbol stands for a specific
sound.
Tip
5 (the a sound in words like
star)
8 (the sound made by the y in
my)
@ (the schwa, an unclear vowel
sound heard in words like
extra and civil)
4 (the sound made by n and g
together in words like thing)
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Browse through a book, magazine, or newspaper until you find a word
that is unfamiliar. Then, use the space below to create a word study
notebook entry for the word. In the space at the bottom, you may draw
a picture to illustrate the word’s meaning.
Word:
Definition:
Pronunciation:
Origins:
To find out what phonetic symbols
are used in your dictionary, check
the pronunciation key.
Example sentence:
ExErcIsE B
Sometimes you will come
across a word that you
know the meaning of, but have
a hard time remembering how
to spell. Include these words in
a separate section of your word
study notebook. Here are a few
tricky vocabulary words from
selections in Unit 1 to get you
started:
Tip
compromise, 16
endeavour, 19
conscientious, 100
hysterical, 124
tyranny, 130
2
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There are many new and unfamiliar words out there waiting to be
discovered. As you read and listen, collect some of them. Over the next
week, keep track of new words on the lines below. You can use these
words to begin your word study notebook.
Just for Fun
Slang is extremely informal language made up of invented words and
old words that are given new meaning. In your word study notebook,
start a list of slang terms that are popular today. Be sure to give the
definition, pronunciation, and an example sentence for each word, just
as you would with any other word you enter into your notebook.
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 2
Word study skills
Understand the concept
Word of the Week
parsimony (p5r< [email protected] m9‘ n7) n.,
stinginess, simplicity
When reading, you will often encounter words that are new to you. It
can be tempting to skip over them and keep going, but if that’s your
only strategy, you’ll probably end up missing a lot of what you read!
You will better understand and enjoy what you read if you follow these
simple strategies for decoding unfamiliar words.
Jenna’s grandmother, who was
known for her parsimony, had
few modern conveniences in her
apartment—no computer, no
microwave, and certainly no cable
television.
Use context clues
Parsimony generally refers to
being very cautious with money.
Its synonyms include thriftiness,
frugality, tight-fistedness, and
penny-pinching. However, it can
also be used in more positive
ways. For example, if you solve
a puzzle in the least number
of steps, your efforts can be
considered parsimonious.
Most of the time when you encounter an unfamiliar word, you can
figure out what it means by looking at the context, or the words around
it. Read the following passage:
Earthquakes are so common in Southern California that longtime
residents hardly notice when the ground begins to rumble.
Usually, a small tremor is all that occurs. However, after the state
was hit by a series of major seismic disturbances in the late
1980s, many shaken-up Californians started wondering whether
they should move to more solid ground.
You may not know what seismic means, but from clues in the
surrounding text, you can probably guess that “seismic disturbances”
are tremors or shocks caused by an earthquake. In fact, seismic is an
adjective meaning “of, relating to, or caused by an earthquake.”
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Read the following passage. Then, use context clues to estimate the
meaning of the underlined word.
Pregnant women should avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and
taking non-prescription drugs. Any one of these activities can
have a serious negative effect on fetal development.
1. What do you think fetal means?
2. What information in the passage helped you guess the meaning of
the word?
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Just for Fun
Look up the following words in
a dictionary. Then, on your own
paper, draw a picture for each one
that would help a reader better
understand the word’s meaning.
Look for Familiar Word Parts
Examine the unfamiliar word. You may find that it contains a familiar
prefix, suffix, or word root that provides a clue to its meaning. For
example, if you know that kilo is Latin for “one thousand,” you can
figure out the meanings of such words as kilowatt, kilometer, and
kilogram.
Try It Yourself
saber
box kite
narwhal
piccolo
coping saw
ankh
ExErcIsE B
Use your knowledge of word parts to define each of the following words
in your notebook. You may refer to the Word Parts Charts provided by
your teacher.
1. coexist
2. mobilize
3. maladapted
4. tetrachord
5. phonology
Use a Dictionary
A prefix is a word part
found at the beginning
of a word; a suffix is found at
the end. Prefixes and suffixes add
meaning to a base word or root. A
word root is a word part that is
not a prefix or suffix and contains
more of the core meaning of the
word.
Tip
Sometimes, the fastest way to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar
word is to look in the dictionary. However, keep in mind that many
words have more than one meaning. Be ready to combine some of the
other strategies with this one in order to figure out which definition is
the right one.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE c
Read the following sentences. Look up each underlined word in the
dictionary and in your notebook, write down the definition that best fits
the way the word is used in the sentence.
1. We saved the last parcel of the delicious dessert for my sister, who
had been unable to join us for dinner.
2. Among the fishing gear for sale was a brand-new trammel.
3. The audience burst into applause as the singer’s mellifluous voice
filled the auditorium.
4. During our play about the Salem witch trials, I was to wear a
commode.
5. The dog slept through the muzzy afternoon.
4
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 3
PAVE—Predict, Associate, Verify, Evaluate
Understand the concept
PAVE is a good way to help yourself remember the meaning of a new
word. PAVE stands for Predict, Associate, Verify, and Evaluate. When
you encounter an unfamiliar word, first copy down the sentence in
which the word appears. Then follow the steps below:
Predict
Try to predict the word’s meaning based on the context
and on your prior knowledge of the word or its parts. Write
down your prediction.
Associate Write a sentence of your own using the word. This will
allow you to associate the word with another context.
Verify
Check the meaning of the word by using a dictionary or
by asking your teacher. A dictionary may offer multiple
meanings for the same word. If you use a dictionary, select
and write down the most appropriate definition.
Evaluate
Evaluate the sentence you wrote using the word. Does it do
a good job of capturing the meaning of the word? Rewrite
the sentence if necessary. If you wish, draw an image that
will help you remember the word.
Try It Yourself
Use PAVE to learn the underlined words in the sentences below.
1. The judge recused herself from the case when she learned that one
of the people involved was an old friend from college.
Predict:
Associate:
Word of the Week
tangible (tan‘ [email protected] [email protected]) adj.,
capable of being perceived,
especially by touch; real
Without tangible evidence that
would stand up in court, the
police officer knew he couldn’t
arrest the suspect.
Tangible is derived from the Latin
tangere, “to touch.” It refers to
something that you can plainly
see or feel. Similar words are
tangent, the name for a line
that touches a circle in only one
point, and tangential, which
describes something that is related
to a topic, but not of central
importance.
After using PAVE to
discover the meaning of
a new word, try to use that word
in your everyday speech several
times over the next few days. This
will help you remember the word
and add it to your vocabulary.
Tip
Verify:
Evaluate:
2. Children watching Saturday-morning cartoons are hit with a
barrage of advertisements for toys and junk food.
Predict:
Associate:
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Just for Fun
Flip through a dictionary and find
a word you’ve never seen before.
Be sure you understand what it
means; then, write a paragraph
with the word hidden somewhere
in it. Exchange paragraphs with a
partner. Your partner must, first of
all, guess which word you were
“hiding,” and second, use PAVE
to figure out the meaning of the
word.
Verify:
Evaluate:
3. After a full day of hiking, Scott flopped down on the sofa and spent
the rest of the evening in a recumbent position.
Predict:
Associate:
Verify:
Evaluate:
4. We stopped at a roadside café and had an unpretentious meal of
roast beef and gravy.
Predict:
Associate:
Verify:
Evaluate:
5. The rainforest was so thick that the fauna were invisible to the
tourists, who searched in vain for a glimpse of a monkey or toucan.
Predict:
Associate:
Verify:
Evaluate:
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 4
context clues
Understand the concept
When you encounter an unfamiliar word in your reading, you do
not always need to reach for the dictionary. Take a closer look at the
context, or the surrounding text, for clues that can help you guess the
meaning of the word.
Here are some types of context clues you might look for:
restatement clue This type of clue is found when the author restates
an idea, or explains it in a different way. Some words that signal
restatement are that is, in other words, and or. In this example, the
second sentence restates the first one, providing a clue to the meaning
of the word guru. Guru means “expert.”
example
Word of the Week
premonition (pre< [email protected] ni‘ [email protected])
n., a forewarning
The girl had a premonition that
something bad would happen if
she and her friends entered the
abandoned house.
Premonition refers to a sense that
something is going to happen.
Synonyms of premonition include
omen, portent, and suspicion.
Hunch and inkling are similar to
premonition, but these words
have less ominous connotations.
Phil is a gardening guru. In other words, he knows
everything there is to know about gardening.
apposition clue A more direct form of restatement is apposition.
Apposition is renaming something. In this example, the author
provides a definition of a math term, prime number, by renaming it as a
number that can be evenly divided only by itself and one.
example
Seven is a prime number, a number that can be evenly
divided only by itself and one.
cause and effect clue This type of clue requires the reader to make an
assumption based on cause and effect. Some words that signal cause
and effect include if…then, when…then, thus, therefore, because, so, due
to, as a result of, and consequently.
example
The valley was completely inundated due to heavy
rains.
Heavy rainfall tends to cause flooding, especially in lower-lying regions
such as valleys. You can assume that inundated means “flooded” or
“covered.”
There are many types of
context clues. Three kinds
are restatement, cause and
effect, and examples. Not all
context clues involve these three
techniques. Some use other kinds
of details.
Tip
examples Sometimes, an author will give examples to help clarify the
meaning of a difficult word. The author may introduce these examples
with expressions like including, such as, for example, for instance,
especially, or particularly.
example
Conifers, such as pine, spruce, and fir trees, stay green
year-round.
The examples make it clear that conifer is another word for an
evergreen tree.
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Just for Fun
Play a game of Catch Phrase. The
object of this game is to get your
team members to guess the word
or phrase you have been assigned
from the context clues you give
them. You cannot say the word
itself or any word in the phrase,
and you cannot give letters that
appear in the word.
First, divide into two teams. Each
team should brainstorm a list
of twenty common words and
phrases. These can be the names
of everyday objects, literary and
art terms, plants, animals, foods,
people and events from history.
Write each word or phrase on a
small slip of paper. Then someone
from the opposite team will
draw one of the papers and try
to get the members of his or her
own team to guess the word or
phrase. Set a timer for anywhere
from three to five minutes. Then
have teams take turns drawing
and guessing phrases. When the
timer goes off, the team that is not
guessing gets the point. The object
is to guess as quickly as possible
so your team isn’t “up” when time
runs out.
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Try It Yourself
Read the sentences below, using context clues to figure out the meaning
of each underlined word. Identify the context clues and tell how they
helped you figure out the meaning of the word.
example
Kenji was a skillful player of gō, or Japanese chess.
The author uses restatement to define go– as a Japanese game
similar to chess.
1. Fairy tales and myths often incorporate archetypal figures such as
the hero, the fool, and the helper.
2. In Ireland, we were especially intrigued by the ancient cairns,
monuments consisting of piled stones.
3. Tensions between the two students escalated; every day, the
temptation to fight was greater.
4. The meaning of the pictographs remained enigmatic as even the
most respected anthropologists failed to make sense of them.
5. The area around the small stream was densely populated with
amphibians, including frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders.
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 5
More About context clues
Understand the concept
When you come across an unfamiliar word, look for words and phrases
in the text around it that may provide clues to the meaning of the word.
Two common types of context clues are comparison clues and contrast
clues.
comparison clues
Words and phrases including such as, like, also, similarly, just as, and in
the same way signal comparisons and indicate that the unfamiliar word
is like something that might be more familiar to you.
example
The new statute was similar to other laws that
protected workers’ rights.
You may not know what the word statute means, but if you read the
sentence carefully, you will see that it is compared to “other laws.” A
statute is a law.
contrast clues
Some context clues show contrast. Words and phrases such as however,
but, not, except, although, and on the other hand signal that something
contrasts, or differs in meaning, from something else.
example
Word of the Week
conscientious (k5n(t)< sh7
en(t)‘ [email protected]) adj., taking care to
do things well
Mr. Smith, the office manager,
chose Annabelle to lead the sales
team because she had been
conscientious in her work.
Conscientious is a difficult word
to spell (that is, you will have
to be a conscientious speller
in order to get it right). Also, it
can easily be confused with the
words conscience (pronounced
k5n(t)‘ [email protected](t)s), which means
to know the difference between
right and wrong, and conscious
(pronounced k5n‘ [email protected]), which
refers to being awake or aware of
things. Synonyms of conscientious
include careful, thorough,
meticulous, reliable, and diligent.
Everyone in the class was enthusiastic about the field
trip—except for Ross, who was as apathetic as ever.
The word except in this example indicates a contrast between Ross and
the other students in the class. Everyone else is enthusiastic, but Ross is
not. Apathetic means “having or showing no emotion or interest.”
Try It Yourself
Use context clues to predict the meaning of the following words. Write
your predicted definition on the line provided.
1. The article in the newspaper incensed many people, just as it
angered me when I read it.
2. The pianist did not have an inborn talent for music, but had
acquired the skill through hours of practice.
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Just for Fun
Form a group of three. Each group
member should choose a piece
of construction or copy paper of
a different color and cut it into
three strips. Then, from the list of
words below or a list your teacher
provides, choose three unfamiliar
words. Look up your words in the
dictionary. Then, for each word,
write one contextual sentence on
one of your strips of paper, and
underline the unfamiliar word.
One of your sentences should
include a contrast clue, one a
comparison clue, and one a cause
and effect clue. When you are
done, fold your paper and put it in
a central container with sentence
strips from your group members.
Then take turns drawing sentences
out of the container, making sure
to avoid your own color. Use the
context clues in each sentence
to guess the definition of the
underlined word.
4. I felt like an ox blundering around on stage, but my friends told me
I was actually rather graceful.
5. Jane’s evasive answer about where she had been the night before
reminded Jane’s mother of how she used to avoid directly
answering her own mother’s questions.
6. Chang scrutinized the results of the experiment the way many
investors study stock market reports each day.
7. The pandemonium reminded Charley of the chaos around the
stadium when the football team won the state championship.
8. Jennifer expected Aaron to be reluctant to see the romantic
comedy she had picked out, but he said he was looking forward to
it.
9. I thought for sure Amanda would guess that we’d planned a
surprise party for her, but she was oblivious.
Word list
oath
gallant
temperate
bacchanalian
avuncular
charlatan
soporific
noxious
evanescence
fastidious
inauspicious
stigmatize
palatial
odoriferous
preemptory
troglodyte
substantive
10
3. After hearing of the struggles Lois had recently gone through, I
expected her to be morose; but instead, she seemed cheerful and
upbeat.
10. The Midwestern school aimed to be as prestigious as many of the
East Coast boarding schools who send most of their students on to
Harvard and Yale.
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
Time Out for Test Practice
Using context clues
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
Cowboy poetry reaffirms a philosophy of life that maintains the need to be selfreliant above all else. With the open ranges of the West disappearing, this art form
memorializes the strength of purpose that helped cowboys survive in treacherous
times. Cowboy poetry gatherings across the Old West have worked to renew a
burgeoning interest in all things western. The gatherings offer music and poetry, along
with educational programs to encourage the continuance of the cowboy heritage.
Recognizing the importance of youth in their quest to retain the luster of the cowboy
tradition, gathering organizers have tailored activities to attract kids and young adults.
_____ 1. reaffirm
A. cast off; reject
B. mention as an afterthought
C. declare again as valid
D. recite a poem
_____ 6. continuance
A. ability to change
B. quality of enduring
C. forward momentum
D. state of being
_____ 2. self-reliant
A. uncomfortably aware of oneself
as an object of the observation of
others
B. having confidence in and
exercising one’s own powers
C. proud; arrogant
D. able to defend oneself
_____ 7. heritage
A. legacy; tradition
B. collection of buried artifacts
C. annual meeting
D. customary celebration
_____ 3. memorialize
A. learn by heart; commit to memory
B. trivialize; make something seem
unimportant
C. sign up for something or join a
group
D. call to remembrance
_____ 4. treacherous
A. marked by danger or insecurity
B. made with treacle
C. adventurous; full of activity
D. deceiving; able to fool
_____ 5. burgeoning
A. load down or oppress
B. stagnant; unmoving
C. waning; diminishing
D. growing rapidly
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_____ 8. quest
A. investigation of something
suspicious or interesting
B. chance or possibility
C. pursuit of or search for something
D. willingness to proceed
_____ 9. luster
A. beauty or attractiveness
B. shine coming from within
C. something purified ceremoniously
D. period of five years
_____ 10. tailored
A. trimmed by a seamstress
B. brought with
C. for entertainment purposes
D. custom-made
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Use context clues to determine the meaning of each underlined word and
choose the letter of the best definition.
_____ 11. Her diaphanous description of
the day’s events left me with more
questions than answers.
A. candid
B. humorous
C. precise
D. vague
_____ 12. The mother’s imperturbable
manner during the three-yearold’s birthday party helped to keep
the rambunctious children under
control.
A. calm
B. irate
C. callous
D. hyperactive
_____ 13. The hasp on the gate had been
exposed to a great deal of rain over
many years. It was now completely
rusted and would be impossible to
pry open.
A. fastener
B. frame
C. paint
D. design
_____ 14. Her posh apartment was
breathtaking. Each room was
tastefully decorated to create a look
straight out of a magazine.
A. over-the-top
B. fashionable
C. unattractive
D. unique
_____ 15. Brent was bored by the basketball
team’s facile victory—they won by
forty points. He had hoped for a
much more competitive game.
A. difficult
B. easy
C. surprising
D. confusing
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_____ 16. The student malingered with a
sore throat and headache when he
discovered there would be a test on
the reading he’d never finished.
A. fought off
B. suffered through
C. pretended sickness
D. overlooked
_____ 17. The indigence in which the family
lived was overwhelming. The family
of four shared a small one-room
shack with a crumbling roof and dirt
floor.
A. extreme poverty
B. casualness
C. wealth
D. sorrow
_____ 18. The teenager’s penitent expression
uncovered her regret over last night’s
damages.
A. frightened
B. stern
C. carefree
D. apologetic
_____ 19. Toni’s innate sense of direction left
the rest of the hikers feeling confident
that they would find their way back to
camp.
A. confusing
B. instinctive
C. crazy
D. arrogant
_____ 20. The science teacher stated his
supposition to the class; our task was
to test his hypothesis and decide if it
was correct or not.
A. credentials
B. evidence
C. theory
D. verification
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 6
reference Materials for Vocabulary Words
Understand the concept
As discussed in previous lessons, context clues can help you figure
out the meaning of many words. However, sometimes context does
not help. When you encounter unknown words and cannot figure out
their meanings, a dictionary can be useful. If you find yourself using
the same words over and over in your writing and want to freshen it
up, a thesaurus will provide a comprehensive list of synonyms. Other
references for words are also available. For example, many nouns have
entries in encyclopedias, some historical terms are discussed in history
books, and an atlas might be helpful for geographic types of information.
Dictionaries
A dictionary is a book that provides information on words.
Dictionaries show the proper way to spell and pronounce words, as
well as listing their meanings and what part of speech they are. Some
dictionaries also briefly explain the history of each word, which is
known as etymology. All dictionaries do not contain the same amount
of information. Some dictionaries contain more words than others, and
some contain more information about each entry.
The meaning of a word is known as its definition. For many words,
several definitions exist, and all of these are listed in most dictionaries.
You will have to use the context of the word in order to determine
which meaning best applies to it.
Word of the Week
reprimand (re‘ [email protected] mand) n., a
scolding
Although Mark claimed that
all he was doing was heading
home for lunch, he still received a
reprimand from the principal for
breaking school policy.
A reprimand is a rebuke. It
generally implies some degree
of formality. For example, if you
tell your little brother to stop
misbehaving at a city park, it is not
considered a reprimand because
you hold no formal position.
However, if a police officer tells
your little brother to stop, his or
her position of authority qualifies
the order as a reprimand.
Synonyms of reprimand include
warning, scolding, criticism,
admonition, and chastisement.
References that provide
information on words
include dictionaries, thesauruses,
encyclopedias, timelines, and
atlases.
Tip
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Look up the following words a dictionary. Write a brief definition for
each.
1. wallow
2. mortify
3. chasm
Dictionaries explain the
meanings of words.
They also contain information on
spellings and pronunciations, parts
of speech, and the etymology, or
history, of each word.
Tip
4. advocate
5. cliché
Thesauruses
The English language consists of a rich variety of words. When you find
that you are using the same word over and over to convey an idea, it is a
good idea to try to find alternative words, or synonyms. A thesaurus is
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A thesaurus provides
lists of synonyms and
antonyms for many different
words. A thesaurus will give you
choices and help you select just
the most appropriate word.
Tip
the ultimate source for synonyms, and will provide comprehensive lists
of them. A thesaurus will also list the antonyms of a word, or words that
mean the opposite.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Look up each of the following words in a dictionary. In your own
words, write a brief definition on the line given. Then use a thesaurus to
find three synonyms for each word.
1. detrimental
definition
synonyms
2. ament
definition
synonyms
3. synthetic
definition
synonyms
4. mentor
definition
synonyms
5. eloquent
definition
synonyms
6. fiasco
definition
synonyms
7. profound
definition
synonyms
8. exhilaration
definition
synonyms
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 7
Words with Multiple Meanings
Understand the concept
Many words in the English language have more than one meaning.
Some can also be used as different parts of speech. For example, the
word crush is both a noun and a verb.
Lori had a crush on a boy in her class. [n., an intense infatuation]
Please crush the aluminum cans before recycling them. [v., to
squeeze or flatten]
Crush and crush are homonyms, words that are spelled and pronounced
alike but have different meanings. Following are some more common
homonyms.
tire
noun referring to the rubber part of a wheel
verb meaning “to become weary”
monitor
verb meaning “to keep track of”
noun referring to a computer display screen or a
type of lizard
poker
noun referring to a metal rod used for stirring a fire
noun referring to a card game
Try It Yourself
Word of the Week
sear (sir) v., burn; destroy
I was hoping to sear the emblem
into my leather boots with the
branding iron.
The word sear is a homophone.
A homophone is similar to
homograph, but instead of
two words sharing the same
spelling, they share the same
pronunciation. A homophone
of sear is sere, which means
“prophet” or “fortune teller.”
In your own writing, be aware
that spelling errors may occur
with homophones if you rely on
sounding out words to determine
their spelling.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Find two different meanings for each of the following words. Then
write a sentence illustrating each meaning.
example
refrain
v., to keep from doing something
Alex tried to refrain from biting his nails, but could not help himself.
n., a repeated verse in a song or poem
Everyone sang the refrain.
Many words have more
than one pronunciation
as well.
Metal will conduct electricity. [v.,
[email protected] dukt>]
The student received a medal for
good conduct. [n., k5n> dukt]
1. mace
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If you find a word that
does not seem to
make sense in context, consider
whether the word may have
another meaning. Can the word
be used as more than one part
of speech—for example, as both
a noun and a verb? Does it have
a broader meaning than the one
that first came to mind?
Tip
2. pitch
3. radical
Homographs
Just for Fun
Think of a word that has at
least two meanings. Then draw
a picture that illustrates both
meanings. For example, you might
draw police spreading blankets
over a large area to illustrate two
meanings of blanket.
Words that are spelled alike but have different meanings and
pronunciations are often called homographs. (The word homograph
comes from Greek roots meaning “written the same.”) When you come
across a word that is a homograph, you need to look at the context to
decide what it means and how to pronounce it.
How would you pronounce each word in the examples below?
examples
bass [a type of fish] and bass [having a low pitch]
wind [moving air] and wind [turn a crank as on a watch]
desert [dry place] and desert [leave behind]
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Words typically gain
multiple meanings over
time. For example, a word may:
Tip
Think of two meanings and two pronunciations for each of the
following words.
1. compound
• gain a broader
meaning
• gain a more narrow,
specialized meaning
• gain a positive
connotation
2. entrance
3. minute
• gain a negative
connotation
• come to be used as a
different part of speech
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LEssON 8
review of synonyms and Antonyms
Understand the concept
Synonyms are words that have the same or nearly the same meaning.
Although they are very similar in meaning, synonyms often have slight
differences in connotation. A thesaurus is a good tool for finding
synonyms.
Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. Some antonyms
are completely distinct words, such as warm and cool or genial and
aloof. Often, a word’s antonym can be formed by adding a negating
prefix, such as im– or dis–. For example, an antonym for possible is
impossible. An antonym for respect is disrespect.
The prefix in-, meaning “not,” is spelled four different ways: in-,
im-, il-, and ir-. The first consonant of the base word or root determines
which version of the prefix should be used. The different spellings are
designed to make the resulting words easier to pronounce.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Use your knowledge of synonyms and antonyms, and a thesaurus if
needed, to identify two synonyms and two antonyms for each word
below.
1. irritated
Word of the Week
impediment (im‘ pe [email protected] [email protected])
n., something that stands in the
way, an obstacle
Until Daniel Boone explored
and widened the Cumberland
Gap in 1775, the Appalachian
Mountains formed a considerable
impediment to the westward
movement of American colonists.
An impediment is an obstacle of
some type. For example, a town
situated along a river might build
protective walls as an impediment
to rising springtime flood waters.
An impediment doesn’t have to
be a physical thing or person;
the definition also includes ideas
and other intangible concepts.
For example, the boy’s self doubt
could be an impediment to his
success on an exam. Additional
synonyms of impediment include
obstruction, barrier, hindrance,
hurdle, and stumbling block.
2. young
The following are suffixes
that mean “not.” Adding
one of these suffixes to a word
creates a word with the opposite
meaning.
Tip
3. smile
4. small
a-, an- atypical
dis- disinterested
5. change
il-
illogical
im- impervious
in- insecure
ir-
irrational
un- unreal
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Synonyms and antonyms
often provide context
clues that will help you unlock
the meaning of unfamiliar words.
Synonyms typically occur in
restatement or comparison clues.
Antonyms typically appear in
contrast clues.
Tip
Using synonyms and Antonyms
You already know you can use synonyms to add variety to your writing
or to be more precise. For example, you might replace a word you have
used several times with a fresher synonym, or you might replace a word
with a synonym that more accurately reflects your meaning.
Synonyms and antonyms can also serve as context clues in a text.
For example, the first sentence below uses a synonym as a clue to what
the underlined vocabulary word means. The second sentence uses
antonyms the same way.
examples
I have to admit I find this whole affair confounding, absolutely
mystifying.
Give me just the salient points from the lecture without any of the
inconsequential details.
Just for Fun
Use a dictionary or thesaurus to
find a pair of antonyms that you
would like to incorporate into
your vocabulary. Then make an
illustration using these words and
showing the contrast between
them.
sentimental/hardboiled
When you come across an unfamiliar word, look for a synonym or
antonym in the text around it that might serve as a clue to the word’s
meaning. In your own writing, you may also clarify difficult words by
using synonyms and antonyms as comparison and contrast clues.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Look for synonyms or antonyms to help you figure out the meaning of
each underlined word. Write the meaning on the line provided.
1. Sally endured many ordeals and tribulations as she traveled from
coast to coast.
2. Dennis’s prodigal behavior shocked his parents, who had raised
three cautious, responsible children before him.
3. The lavish spread at the Jones’s dinner made my usual meals seem
parsimonious.
4. I am deeply, profoundly grateful for your kindness.
5. Josh’s wisecracks made it hard for the teacher to convey to us the
gravity of the situation.
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LEssON 9
connotation and Denotation
Understand the concept
A word’s denotation is its dictionary definition. A word’s connotations
are all the positive or negative associations it has in addition to its literal
meaning.
For example, the words dirty and soiled both denote “unclean.”
However, the word dirty has negative connotations. For example,
it is associated with low morals (as in “a dirty business deal”) and
unpleasant tasks (as in “a dirty job”). Soiled, on the other hand, is rather
neutral—neither positive nor negative.
Different people have different connotations for words. For
example, the word ocean has a positive connotation for many people.
They may hear it and think peaceful thoughts. However, if you are
afraid of water due to a near-drowning incident when you were a child,
the word ocean may have a negative association for you!
Try It Yourself
The words in each pair below are synonyms or near synonyms. They
have very similar denotations, but differing connotations. Explain the
difference in connotation on the lines provided.
example
old / vintage
Both words mean “not new,” but vintage has a more positive
connotation. It connotes something that is valuable or
collectable, whereas old is more neutral.
1. strong-willed / stubborn
2. flighty / unpredictable
Word of the Week
preclude (pri kl2d‘) v., to rule
out
The detective knew enough not to
preclude any of the suspects, no
matter how good their alibis were.
Preclude and exclude have
overlapping meanings—they both
refer to keeping things or ideas
out. Most of the time, however,
they are used in different ways,
and their prefixes can give clues
to their meanings. Both words
are derived from the Latin root
claudere, to close. The prefix
pre- means “before,” so preclude
means “to close beforehand.” In
contrast, the prefix ex- means “out
of” or “not,” so exclude means
“to close out” or “to keep out.”
In general, preclude means “to
rule out, especially in advance,”
whereas exclude means “to keep
something out (at the present
time).”
It is important to be aware
of the connotations of
words as well as their dictionary
definitions. If you use a word with
the wrong connotations, you might
not convey the meaning you
intended—or worse, you might
offend your reader or listener.
Tip
3. solitude / loneliness
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Politicians and
salespeople are careful
to use words with positive
connotations. For example, most
presidential speeches contain
“feel-good” words such as unite,
freedom, equality, and progress.
Many sales pitches include words
such as modern, convenient, and
value.
Tip
4. selective / picky
5. arrogant / self-confident
Some dictionaries explain the differences in connotations between
words with similar meanings. For example, if you look up the word
calm in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, you will find a
description of the differences between calm, tranquil, serene, placid, and
peaceful.
Just for Fun
Get together with a partner and brainstorm a list of words that have a
similar meaning, but different connotations. You may use a dictionary
or thesaurus to help you. Then sort the words in a chart like the one
below, showing which have negative connotations, which have positive
connotations, and which are neutural.
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
Time Out for Test Practice
connotation and Denotation
All of the words in each group are near synonyms—they mean basically the
same thing. One word in each group differs from the others in connotation.
Write the letter of that word on the provided blank.
_____ 1. outgoing, gregarious, sociable,
talkative
A. outgoing
B. gregarious
C. sociable
D. talkative
_____ 2. greedy, eager, selfish, hoggish
A. greedy
B. eager
C. selfish
D. hoggish
_____ 4. demolish, dismantle, destroy, raze
A. demolish
B. dismantle
C. destroy
D. raze
_____ 5. desire, covet, crave, want
A. desire
B. covet
C. crave
D. want
_____ 3. travel, roam, rove, wander
A. travel
B. roam
C. rove
D. wander
Word Meanings
For each question, pick out the word that does not relate to the word shown.
_____ 1. baby
A. infant
B. purse
C. darling
D. bib
_____ 4. imitation
A. mock
B. simulation
C. impersonation
D. bizarre
_____ 7. forlorn
A. irate
B. despondent
C. sad
D. lonely
_____ 2. challenge
A. dare
B. confront
C. dispute
D. analyze
_____ 5. radical
A. extreme
B. extremist
C. conservative
D. fundamental
_____ 8. vulgar
A. overindulgent
B. bad-mannered
C. tasteless
D. rude
_____ 3. prolific
A. creative
B. productive
C. scarce
D. abundant
_____ 6. thin
A. skinny
B. fine
C. hefty
D. sheer
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 10
Word of the Week
unique (y1 n7k>) adj., one of a
kind
When Charles Lindbergh
completed the first solo flight
across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927
in his plane The Spirit of St. Louis,
it was a unique accomplishment.
Unique is one of the most
commonly misused words in the
English language. Since it refers
to something that is totally unlike
anything else, something is either
unique or it isn’t. Modifying the
word does not make sense.
However, it is common to hear
people refer to things as very
unique or somewhat unique.
Now you can point out that those
are illogical statements. A more
accurate way to express this
thought is to say that something is
very unusual.
spelling correctly
Understand the concept
The Modern English language consists of words that have been derived
from many languages over the last two thousand years. English words
come from Latin, Anglo-Saxon (Old English), French, and Spanish, as
well as many other languages. These languages have different ways of
spelling certain sounds and the spelling of various sounds has changed as
the English language has grown and developed. Because of this, Modern
English presents many challenges when it comes to spelling. There are
many “rules,” as well as many exceptions to these rules. Even though two
words sound the same, they may be spelled completely differently. As
with any skill, becoming a good speller takes effort and practice.
The Long e sound
A variety of letter combinations produce the long e sound. Each of
the following words has a letter, or combination of letters (including a
silent e at the end of a word), that form the long e sound.
keep
cheese
beaver
either
believe
me
these
disabilities
diabetes
money
enemy
sardine
people
Try It Yourself
There are many different
ways to become a
stronger speller. Recognize the
words you consistenly misspell
and practice spelling them
correctly, using a dictionary for
help. Break the words down into
syllables and pronounce them
out loud. This will help solidify the
words and their correct spellings in
your mind.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Each of the following words contains a long e sound. In your notebook,
identify which letter or letter combinations produce the long e sound.
Pronounce the word and write a brief definition. Use a dictionary if
necessary.
1. balmy
2. decipher
3. keen
4. tedious (two answers)
5. leaping
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Long a sound
A variety of letter combinations produce the long a sound. Each of
the following words has a letter, or combination of letters (including a
silent e at the end of a word), that form a long a sound.
eight
ate
bay
hey
great
bait
café
suede
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
The following words contain a long a sound. In your notebook,
identify which letter or letter combinations produce the long a sound.
Pronounce the word and write a brief definition. Use a dictionary if
necessary.
1. vain
2. gale
3. array
4. convey
5. heinous
Other Letter combinations
There are many other cases in which the same sound is produced
by a variety of letter combinations. For example, the long u sound is
produced using different letters in the words ewe, you, and debut. The
s sound can be made by the letter s, as in surprise, or the letter c, as in
century.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE c
For each of the following sounds, try to think of two different letters
or letter combinations that make the sound and a word that illustrates
each of them.
1. f sound
2. sh sound
3. j sound
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 11
Word of the Week
spelling Patterns I
verdant ([email protected][email protected]) adj.,
greenery, especially that of plants
or forests
Understand the concept
In the springtime, the newly
sprouting buds on the trees
produced a verdant landscape
in the rolling hills of southern
Pennsylvania.
Adding Prefixes
Verdant is derived from the Old
French words for green, verd and
verte, which were derived from
the Latin word vivere, meaning “to
be green.” Verdant is generally not
used to refer to one green item,
but rather to a situation where
the observer is surrounded by
greenery.
Spelling words with affixes—that is, prefixes and suffixes—can be
tricky. You will avoid making most errors if you follow a few simple
guidelines.
When adding a prefix to a word, do not change the spelling of the word
itself.
examples
mis- + spell = misspell
re- + arrange = rearrange
With some words, a hyphen may be used after the prefix. If in doubt,
consult a dictionary.
Adding suffixes
When adding a suffix to most words, you do not need to change or
drop any letters. Unless the word ends in y or silent e, keep all letters of
the word and all letters of the suffix.
examples
Being a good or a bad
speller has nothing to do
with how smart you are or even
how good you are at writing.
Some of the most well-known
writers, F. Scott Fitzgerald for
example, had a terrible time with
spelling. Improve your spelling by
reading more—the more you read,
the more words you see, and the
more likely you will be able to
remember how they look on the
page, and therefore, how to spell
them.
Tip
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stubborn + -ness = stubbornness
personal + -ly = personally
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Choose the correctly spelled word in each pair.
1. iresponsible / irresponsible
2. gradualy / gradually
3. cooperate / coperate
4. actually / actualy
5. unecessary / unnecessary
6. skiing / sking
Final y
When a suffix is added to a word ending in y, the y sometimes changes
to an i. The following are some typical examples. Can you figure out the
pattern? When does the y change to an i, and when doesn’t it?
y changes to i
busy + -ness = business
country + -es = countries
y does not change
enjoy + -able = enjoyable
play + -ful = playful
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
1. Fill in the blanks to describe the pattern you see in the examples
given on the previous page.
The final y changes to an i before a suffix when
___________________; however, the final y does not change
when ___________________.
2. Add a suffix to each of the following words, being sure to spell
each new word correctly. Notice that not all of the words fit the
pattern—there are a few oddballs.
A. shabby + -er =
B. boy + -ish =
C. airy + -ly =
Note that the following
words do not fit the
pattern: acknowledgment,
judgment, argument, truly, awful.
Silent e is always dropped in these
words, even though it is kept in
other words like them.
Tip
D. fly + -ing =
E. employ + -er =
F. coy + -ly =
silent e
When a suffix is added to a word ending in silent e, sometimes the e is
dropped and sometimes not. The following are some typical examples.
Can you figure out the pattern? When is the silent e dropped, and when
is it kept?
silent e is dropped
believe + -able = believable
make + -ing = making
Mileage and acreage also do not
fit the typical spelling pattern—
they keep the silent e.
silent e is not dropped
use + -ful = useful
fortunate + -ly = fortunately
Try It Yourself
Note that when adding a
suffix beginning in a or o
to a word ending in -ce or -ge, the
silent e must be kept. Why do you
think this is so?
Tip
ExErcIsE c
1. Fill in the blanks to describe the pattern you see in the examples
given above.
The final e is usually dropped before a suffix when
___________________; however, it is usually not dropped when
___________________.
2. Add a suffix to each of the following words, being sure to spell each
new word correctly. All of these words should fit the pattern you
identified.
noticeable [not noticable]
advantageous [not advantagous]
courageous [not couragous]
A. infringe + -ing =
B. irate + -ly =
C. remote + -ness =
D. distribute + -ed =
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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The following words
do not fit the common
pattern of when to drop the silent
e. The silent e is dropped in these
words, even though it is kept in
other words like them.
Tip
acknowledge + -ment =
acknowledgment
E. recuperate + -ion =
F. arrange + -ment =
3. Words ending in -ce or -ge are exceptions to the pattern. In these
words, the silent e is not dropped before a suffix beginning with
an a or an o. Examples include courageous, peaceable, changeable,
noticeable, and advantageous. Why do you think the silent e is kept
in these words?
judge + -ment = judgment
argue + -ment = argument
true + -ly = truly
awe + -ful = awful
4. Other exceptions to this pattern include dyeing (coloring with a
dye) and singeing (burning or scorching). Why do you think the
silent e is kept in these words?
Practice difficult spelling
words with a friend. Take
turns spelling words aloud to the
other person.
Tip
Doubling consonants
One final area of confusion: sometimes, when a suffix is added to a
word that ends in a single consonant, the final consonant is doubled.
examples
sad
commit
thug
prefer
sadder
committed, committing
thuggish
preferred
Often, however, the consonant is not doubled.
examples
sad
commit
meet
train
benefit
sadness, sadly
commitment
meeting
training
benefited
Can you figure out the pattern? (Hint: Look at the consonant and vowel
patterns in both the word and the suffix. If the word has more than one
syllable, notice which syllable of the word is stressed.)
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
© EMC Publishing, LLC
4/15/09 12:27:51 PM
Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 12
spelling Patterns II
Understand the concept
This lesson will help you avoid some common spelling errors. Many
spelling problems arise from a common operation: forming plurals.
Form the plurals of most nouns simply by adding s such as in the words
chairs, players, and guitars.
Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant have plurals
ending in es, as do nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh such as heroes,
crashes, foxes, and beaches.
However, certain words ending in o—including musical terms
from Italian and other words borrowed from foreign languages—take
the s ending (concertos, pianos, cellos, radios, tacos).
Form the plurals of nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel by
adding s as in monkeys, plays, and Wednesdays. (The vowels are the
letters a, e, i, o, u. Sometimes the letter y also represents a vowel sound.)
Form the plurals of nouns that end in y preceded by a consonant by
changing the y to i and adding es as in the words stories, cherries, and
fairies.
The same rules hold true when adding the suffix s or es to the end
of a verb.
examples
push ➞ pushes
say ➞ says
whinny ➞ whinnies
child ➞ children
goose ➞ geese
tooth ➞ teeth
mouse ➞ mice
When forming the plurals of nouns ending in f, ff, or fe, you can usually
just add s. A few such words, however, form their plurals by changing
the f to a v. When in doubt, consult a dictionary.
examples
knife ➞ knives
thief ➞ thieves
Words taken from other languages sometimes keep their foreign
plurals. For example, the plural of the Latin word alumnus, meaning
student, is alumni.
examples
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abyss (@ bis‘) n., a very deep
hole
During their march across
Greenland, the explorers carefully
avoided the deep fracture on the
glacier, which appeared to be a
bottomless abyss.
Abyss is derived from the Greek
word abyssos, which means
“bottomless.” Abyss commonly
refers to a physical hole, such as
a deep, narrow canyon, but it can
also be used to refer to a figurative
concept. For example, a person
suffering from serious depression
might be described as being in an
emotional abyss.
Tip
The plurals of some nouns are irregular.
examples
Word of the Week
Remember these helpful
hints:
If you are adding a suffix to a word
that ends with y, and that y follows
a consonant, you should usually
change the y to i.
party ➞ parties
If you are adding a suffix to a word
that ends with y, and that y follows
a vowel, you should usually leave
the y in place.
ploy ➞ ploys
paparazzo (Italian) ➞ paparazzi
crisis (Greek) ➞ crises
thesaurus (Latin and Greek) ➞ thesauri or thesauruses
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
LEvEL Iv, UnIt 3
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Moose does not follow
the same pattern as
goose. The plural of moose is
simply moose! Other animal
words that are the same in plural
as in singular include sheep,
swine, fish, and deer.
Tip
I before E
Other common spelling errors arise in words that are spelled with the
letters i and e. Remember that when a word has the long e sound (as in
shriek), you should put i before e, except after the letter c.
examples
field, believe, shield
perceive, receipt, ceiling
Note that there are some exceptions, including seize, either, neither,
leisure, and species, as well as words with the suffix -er, such as fancier.
-sede, -ceed, or -cede?
Irregular plurals are
sometimes holdovers
from older forms of the English
language. For example, plurals
were once formed with the suffix
–en. That changed, but can still be
seen in the words children, oxen,
women, and men.
Tip
Some spelling errors arise in words that end with the sound [sēd].
Remember that there are only three words in English that end in
–ceed: exceed, proceed, and succeed. There is only one word that ends in
–sede: supersede. Every other word that ends with [sēd] is spelled –cede.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Make the following singular nouns into plural nouns in your notebook.
1.
2.
3.
4.
soprano
crutch
apartment complex
Tuesday
5.
6.
7.
8.
bully
video
trench
personality
ExErcIsE B
Tip To form the plural of an
abbreviation, number,
or symbol, you may simply add
s. You may add an apostrophe if
there is danger of confusion.
IOUs, 1900s, #s (or #’s) mind
your p’s and q’s
Read the following sentences and correct any errors in the formation of
plurals. Write your corrections in your notebook.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Two of my friends had crisises last night.
The salsa recipe calls for tomatos, onions, pepperes, and chivees.
Please turn in your analysises of the short story by Friday.
Counting sheeps in bed helps many childs get to sleep.
Even alumnuses of prestigious schools have trouble remembering
how many cs and ss there are in the word necessary.
ExErcIsE c
Circle the word in each pair that is spelled correctly.
1. “You are so (wierd / weird)!” Calvin (shreiked / shrieked), staring
at his (neighbor / nieghbor) in (disbeleif / disbelief).
2. The (chief / cheif) of police planned an all-out (siege / seige) on the
criminals (believed / beleived) to live in the (biege / beige) house.
3. The (conceited / concieted) man (succeeded / suceded) in stopping
his hairline from (receeding / receding).
4. “(Procede / proceed),” (conseeded /conceded) the guard, “but
don’t (exceed / excede) the two hour time limit.”
5. When a fight broke out on the (field / feild), the referee had to
(intersede / intercede).
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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4/15/09 12:27:52 PM
Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 13
spell-check software and
What It Fails to Do
Understand the concept
Spell-check software can be a useful tool in checking your work
on the computer. However, keep in mind that spell check does not
always make the correct decisions. Some typographical errors will
not be caught by a spell check because the word may still be spelled
correctly—it was just the wrong word to begin with. Consider the
following sentence:
When I finally remembered to remove he book form my book
bag and return it to the library, it was too months late.
Running a spell check on that sentence would result in no errors found.
However, there are three errors. Can you find all three?
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Type this paragraph into a word processing program on a computer.
If you do not have access to a computer in your classroom, try your
school or local library. Do not check for spelling mistakes as you type.
When you are finished, run a spell check on your work. After the spell
check is complete, proofread your paragraph against this one. Did you
find any mistakes? If not, congratulations! You’re an accurate typist,
and your spell check did its job. If you did find mistakes, examine the
mistakes. Are they correctly spelled words that are used incorrectly in
the sentence? For example, did you type “did it’s job” or “did its job”?
These small differences make big differences in meaning.
Word of the Week
dupe (d2p) 1. v., to fool; 2. n.,
one who is easily fooled
Before the Munich Conference
in 1938, Adolf Hitler knew he
would be able to dupe Neville
Chamberlain into thinking that
Europe would remain at peace for
many years.
Dupe has many synonyms,
including deceive, cheat, fool,
trick, con, hoodwink, and swindle.
Most of these alternatives can
be used in either a serious or
lighthearted way. Dupe, however,
is generally used only in a serious
and negative manner. Claiming
that someone has been duped is
usually considered to be insulting
toward that person.
With most spell-check
programs, you can
choose preferences that will help
to customize what you want
your spell check to suggest. For
example, you can choose if you
want a standard or specialized
dictionary.
Tip
ExErcIsE B
Proofread the following paragraph for errors that would not be caught
by a spell-check program. Rewrite the paragraph correctly below.
When researching a author, keep in mind that it takes time to
find a quality, informative sight among the clutter and gigantic
mass of the Internet. Web browsers are a great place to start;
most of the sites you will find their will be well-organized and
in-depth. The best cites are often those hat the authors put
together themselves. When a writer creates a home page, you
can often find personnel messages an anecdotes that sallow
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Most spell checks will ask
if you want to delete a
repeated word. Sometimes you
will have accidentally typed a
word twice and will want to delete
the second usage. Other times,
you will want to have the word
repeated, as in this sentence: “If
he had had thirty more minutes
to complete the exam, he would
have done really well.”
Tip
you to get a real sense of who he or she is. Good secondary
sites include these authorized by the author or his or her agent,
literary societies, publishers, and fans of the other.
Just for Fun
Start a section of your Word Study
Notebook for recording typos
you make frequently. Words like
from/form, the/he, too/two are
problematic because a spell check
won’t catch them. Become familiar
with the kinds of mistakes you
make, and then proofread your
work for those mistakes.
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
Time Out for Test Practice
spelling
Choose the letter of the word as it is spelled correctly. Write the corresponding
letter on the blank provided.
_____ 1. Jana flipped the (calendar / calender)
page over to see the month of
September.
A. calendar
B. calender
_____ 2. Mike is a very (competetive /
competitive) chess player.
A. competetive
B. competitive
_____ 3. I don’t like it when my mother
(embarrasses / embarasses) me in
front of my friends.
A. embarrasses
B. embarasses
_____ 4. Lila thought the film was
(extrordinary / extraordinary).
A. extrordinary
B. extraordinary
_____ 5. Who knows how to (attatch / attach)
the hitch to the pickup truck?
A. attatch
B. attach
_____ 6. Everyone thinks that the boys are
(heroes / heros).
A. heroes
B. heros
_____ 7. The puppies are very (mischievous /
mischievious).
A. mischievous
B. mischievious
_____ 8. Do you know what the (temprature /
temperature) is outside?
A. temprature
B. temperature
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_____ 9. The comedian was quite (humorous /
humerous).
A. humorous
B. humerous
_____ 10. The movie was full of (repitition /
repetition).
A. repitition
B. repetition
_____ 11. That story is so (weird / wierd)!
A. weird
B. wierd
_____ 12. The waiter (reccomends /
recommends) the tortellini salad.
A. reccomends
B. recommends
_____ 13. Howard finds his sock warmers
(indispensible / indispensable) in the
winter.
A. indispensible
B. indispensable
_____ 14. I was (surprised / suprised) to see
Tori at the football game.
A. surprised
B. suprised
_____ 15. That dog likes to (harrass / harass)
everyone who walks by the house.
A. harrass
B. harass
_____ 16. Noelle is (eligible / elligible) for the
award.
A. eligible
B. elligible
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_____ 17. We went to the old (cemetary /
cemetery) to do grave rubbings.
A. cemetary
B. cemetery
_____ 18. The floral dress is very (feminine /
femenine).
A. feminine
B. femenine
_____ 19. Peter’s (concience / conscience) was
bothering him.
A. concience
B. conscience
_____ 20. The (amateur / amature) soccer team
won the tournament.
A. amateur
B. amature
_____ 21. The two roads run (parallel / paralell)
to each other.
A. parallel
B. paralell
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_____ 22. After halftime, the Rivertown
Rats came back with a (vengence /
vengeance) and won the game.
A. vengence
B. vengeance
_____ 23. The neighborhood bakery agreed to
(sponsor / sponser) our softball team.
A. sponsor
B. sponser
_____ 24. It would be a (privilege / privelege) to
be in your wedding!
A. privilege
B. privelege
_____ 25. The school board formed a (comittee
/ committee) to study the effects of
additional testing.
A. comittee
B. committee
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
© EMC Publishing, LLC
4/15/09 12:27:54 PM
Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 14
Morphemes—The Building Blocks
of Words
Understand the concept
A morpheme is a chunk of a word that has meaning. All words are made
up of one or more morphemes. For example, the word apples can be
broken into two meaningful chunks: apple / s. Apple is a base word that
refers to a type of fruit. The s is a suffix that means “more than one.”
Breaking a word down into its parts can help you figure out what
the word means. For example, suppose you did not know the meaning
of the word prediction. You could break it down into three meaningful
parts:
prediction = pre- + dict +- ion
pre- = a prefix meaning “before”
dict = a word root meaning “say” or “tell”
-ion = a suffix meaning “act of,” “state of,” or “result of”
Word of the Week
posterity (p5 ster‘ @ t7) n., all
future generations; descendants
The governor stated that the
major reason to clean up the
environment is to leave a healthy
planet for posterity.
Posterity contains the prefix post-,
which refers to something that
comes afterward. Posterity is a
word that is commonly found
in speeches by politicians, who
want voters to know they are
concerned about the quality of
life for everyone’s children and
grandchildren.
Together, the parts create a word that means “the act of telling about
something before it happens.” Notice that they can also be combined
with other parts to create new words such as the following:
pre- (preview, pretest, preschool)
dict (diction, dictionary, dictator, dictation)
-ion (communication, transportation)
ExErcIsE A
List five words that contain each of the following word parts.
example
The four main types of
morphemes are prefixes,
suffixes, word roots, and base
words. Prefixes are word parts
that attach to the front of a word;
suffixes attach to the end.
Tip
Try It Yourself
ex-, prefix meaning “out of; from”
explode, export, extend, excel, except
1. pro-, prefix meaning “before; forward”
2. spect, word root meaning “look”
Word roots and base words are
word parts that form the core of
a word. Word roots cannot stand
alone as words; base words can
stand on their own.
3. ject, word root meaning “throw”
4. -ify, suffix meaning “make or cause to be”
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Some words contain just
one morpheme. These
are called base words. They
cannot be broken down into
smaller parts.
Tip
apple, pink, read
ExErcIsE B
Break each of the following words down into its morphemes, or word
parts. Tell whether each part is a prefix, suffix, word root, or base word.
Also, give the meaning of each part, as found in your lists of common
word parts. Finally, using the dictionary and your knowledge of the
word parts, write a definition of the word.
1. stupefy
Word Part
Type
Meaning
Type
Meaning
Type
Meaning
Type
Meaning
Type
Meaning
2. protract
Word Part
3. servitude
Word Part
4. sheepishly
Word Part
5. semitranslucence
Word Part
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 15
Prefixes, roots, and suffixes
Understand the concept
Many words consist of a central part, called either a root or a base word,
and a prefix or a suffix (or both a prefix and a suffix). If you are familiar
with common roots, prefixes, and suffixes, it will be easier for you to
figure out the meaning of words that are new to you.
The root or base word is a group of letters to which a prefix or
suffix is attached. A prefix is a letter or group of letters added to the
beginning of a root or base word, whereas a suffix is a letter or group of
letters added to the end of a root or base word. Adding a prefix or suffix
almost always changes the meaning of a word.
Prefixes
The following are some of the most common prefixes:
Prefix
bicondismidinterunsemi-
Word of the Week
enmity (en‘ [email protected] t7) n., hostility
or bad feelings toward a person or
group
The enmity between the Greek
and Turkish peoples, which dates
back to the Ottoman Empire, has
diminished in recent decades.
The word enmity shares an origin
with the word enemy—they
are both derived from the Latin
word inanimus, meaning “not a
friend.” There are many synonyms
of enmity, including hostility,
antagonism, antipathy, animosity,
acrimony, loathing, and hatred.
Meaning
two
with
not, opposite
middle
together
not
half
Many words consist of a
root and a prefix or suffix
(or a prefix and a suffix). Roots
and base words are discussed in
more detail in Lessons 19 and 20.
Tip
For example, semifinal means “half-finals” (or in a tournament, the
round just before the finals), disappear means the opposite of appear,
and unattractive means “not attractive.”
Try It Yourself
Knowing common roots,
prefixes, and suffixes can
help you figure out the meaning
of words you do not know.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Try to determine the meaning of the following words, using their prefixes
and roots or base words as clues. Write your answers on the lines given.
1. semiannual
2. disassemble
3. bimonthly
4. interfaith
5. midtown
6. unknown
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suffixes
The following are some of the most common suffixes:
Suffix
-er, -or
-en
-ful
-hood
-ly
-ness
-ship
Meaning
one who
made of
full of
condition of; quality of
having the characteristics of
state or quality of
state of
For example, banker means “one who works for a bank,” neighborhood
refers to what the neighbors are like in a certain area, happily means “in
a happy manner,”,and ownership is the state of owning something.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Try to determine the meaning of the following words, using their
suffixes and roots or base words as clues. Write your answers on the
lines given.
1. fatherhood
2. southerner
3. relationship
4. preparedness
5. scholarly
6. hopeful
ExErcIsE c
In the left column of the chart below, write two common prefixes and
two common suffixes that were not mentioned in this lesson. Then
write down a word using each one. Based on your knowledge of what
these words mean, what do you think the prefix or suffix means?
example
Prefix
pre-
Prefix/Suffix
Prefix 1:
Prefix 2:
Suffix 1:
Suffix 2:
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Word
precede
Meaning
“before”
Word
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LEssON 16
More About Prefixes
Understand the concept
A prefix is a meaningful word part that appears at the beginning of a
word. A prefix can be added to an existing word to change the word’s
meaning, or it can be combined with a word root (such as rupt, fer, or
ject) to create a new word.
prefix + word
re- + read = reread
prefix + root
re- + fer = refer
Knowing the meanings of common prefixes can help you decipher
words that contain them. For example, the prefix ante- means “before.”
Words that share this prefix have “before” as part of their meaning.
antecedent:
something or someone that comes before, such as
ancestors
Our antecedents believed that the Earth was flat.
Word of the Week
abhor (@b h0r>) v., to intensely
dislike
Tom Sawyer truly abhorred
bathing.
Abhor and horror are both derived
from the Latin word horre–re,
which means “to shudder.” Using
the word abhor can be a more
refined way to express intense
dislike than the more common
word hate, which at times seems
crude. Other synonyms of abhor
include detest, loathe, and
despise.
The following prefixes mean “before” or “after.”
Prefixes
afteranteepiforepostprepro-
Meaning
after
before; in front of
after (also “on; at; besides”)
before
after; behind
before; in front of
before (also “in favor of”)
Examples
afterthought
antecedent
epilogue, epitaph
forerunner, forecast
postpone, postscript
preamble, preview
prologue, prognosis
Most prefixes we use
today come from ancient
Greek and Latin, although some
come from Old English.
Tip
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Use your knowledge of prefixes to define each of the following words.
In your definition, include the word before or after. Then use each word
in a sentence.
1. antechamber
2. afterglow
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The spelling of a prefix
may vary depending on
the word or base to which it is
attached. The prefix con- can be
spelled com-, col-, co-, or cor-.
Tip
comcolcocor-
used before b, p, or m
used before l
used before o
used before r
The spelling changes make
the resulting words easier to
pronounce. For instance, when
con- is added to the word
respond, it is spelled cor-.
Correspond is easier to pronounce
than conrespond.
Prefixes may have more
than one meaning. The
prefix ex- can mean “out of,” as
in extract and exclude, or it can
mean “former,” as in ex-boyfriend
and ex-president.
3. epitaph
4. prognosis
The following prefixes express togetherness and separateness.
Prefixes
Meaning
ab- / abs- / aaway, from; separate from
con- / com- / col- / with; together
co- / cordis- / di- / difapart; in different
directions; not
se- / sedapart, aside, without
syn- / sym- / syl- / with; together
sy- / sys-
Examples
abduct, absent, avert
connect, compile, collaborate,
coordinate, correspond
distract, divorce
segregate, secret
sympathy, synchronize
Tip
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Use your knowledge of prefixes to define each of the following words
in your notebook. In your definition, use one of the following words:
together, separate, apart. Then, use each word in a sentence.
1. avert
2. collaborate
3. diverge
The following prefixes express opposite, or contrasting, ideas.
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Prefixes
bene-, eudys-, mal-, mis-
Meaning
good; well
bad; badly
anti- / antcontra- / contro- /
counterpro-
against
for, in favor of (also
“before; forward”)
Examples
benefactor, euphony
dysfunction, malpractice,
mismanagement
antislavery, antagonist
controversy, counteract
progress, pro-American
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LEssON 17
More About suffixes
Understand the concept
A suffix is a meaningful word part that appears at the end of a word.
Some suffixes indicate nouns—people, places, and things.
Suffix
-an/-ian/-arian
-ant/-ent
-ar/-er/-or, -ier/-yer, -eur
-ee
-arium/-orium, -ary/-ory/ery
-ence/-ance, -ency/-ancy/-cy
-hood
-ion, -tion, -sion
-ment
-ness
-ship
-tude/-itude, -ty/-ity
Meaning and Examples
one who does or is connected with (American,
guardian, librarian)
one who or thing that (immigrant, irritant, resident)
one who (liar, actor, lawyer, cashier, chauffeur)
one who receives or is the object of (payee,
employee)
place for (aquarium, laboratory, bakery)
state or quality of (defiance, infancy)
state or quality of (childhood)
action of; state of; result of (ambition, suspicion)
action or process of; state or quality of (development,
amazement)
state or quality of (kindness)
state or quality of (hardship); skill, art, or practice of
(penmanship)
state or quality of (solitude, necessity)
Word of the Week
devise (di v8z>) v., to produce or
form a plan
When Franklin Roosevelt took
office in 1933, he wanted to
devise a plan to pull America out
of the Great Depression.
Devise means to invent or concoct
a means of solving something.
It has many synonyms, such as
formulate, conceive, invent, plan,
develop, create, and imagine.
When spelling devise, be sure
not to confuse it with device
(pronounced di v-s´), a noun that
refers to a machine or gadget.
The suffix -ary, meaning “a
place for,” is found in the
word dictionary. A dictionary is “a
place for” words.
Tip
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Add a noun suffix to each of the following words or word roots to
create a word with the meaning given.
1. Something that causes pollution: pollut_______.
2. One who is brought into a new family: adopt_______.
3. State or quality of extreme coldness: frigid_______.
4. State or quality of being an unmarried man: bachelor_______.
5. Action of communicating by letters: correspond_______.
6. One who defends himself or herself in a court of law:
defend_______.
7. One who is not a professional: amat_______.
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Some suffixes have
more than one meaning
and can indicate more than one
part of speech. For example, the
suffix -ant can indicate a noun
(defendant) or an adjective
(militant).
Tip
Just for Fun
Divide the class into groups. See
how many words each group can
form by adding suffixes to the
following words. Set the timer for
3 minutes. The group with the
most new words wins the game.
defy
predict
beauty
false
A number of common suffixes form adjectives—words that describe
nouns.
Suffix
-able, -ible
-al
-ant, -ent
-en
-er
-est
-ful
-ic
-ish
-ive
-less
-like
-ly
-oid
-ous/-ious/-uous
-y
Meaning and Examples
able to; likely to (attainable, durable)
relating to (personal, natural)
tending to (defiant, urgent)
made of; relating to (golden, wooden)
more (higher, calmer, shorter)
most (lowest, craziest, tallest)
full of; characterized by (hopeful, fearful)
relating to; characterized by (scientific, historic)
relating to (selfish, reddish)
tending to (festive)
without (hapless, careless)
resembling (childlike)
resembling (motherly); every (monthly, daily)
resembling (humanoid)
full of or characterized by (generous, anxious)
characterized by (flowery)
A few suffixes indicate adverbs, words that describe verbs,
adjectives, or other adverbs.
Suffix
-ly
-ward, -wards, -ways, -wise
Meaning and Examples
in such a way (quickly, studiously, invisibly)
in such a direction (towards, sideways, clockwise)
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Many words ending in
-ing, -en, and -ed are
participles.
Tip
Participles form part of twoword verbs: was swimming, had
written, have closed. They can
also be used as adjectives: the
swimming fish, the half-written
note, the closed door.
Words ending in -ing can also be
used as nouns.
Swimming is my favorite sport.
Add an adjective suffix to each of the following words or word roots to
create a word with the meaning given.
1. Likely to spoil if not refrigerated: perish_______.
2. Tending to be watchful: vigil_______.
3. Full of scorn for others: contempt_______.
4. An object that looks like a falling star: aster_______.
5. Having to do with the universe: cosm_______.
Add an adverb suffix to each of the following words. Give a definition
of the new word you have formed.
6. cross_______:
7. reckless_______:
8. to_______:
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Other common suffixes form verbs—words that express action or a
state of being. Following are some common verb suffixes.
Suffix
-ate
-ed
-en
-ify/-fy
-ing
-ize
Meaning and Examples
to make or cause to be (activate, fascinate)
past tense of verb (walked, stopped)
to make (strengthen); also, past action (taken,
eaten)
to make or cause to be (clarify, terrify)
ongoing action (calling, debating)
to make or cause to be (popularize)
Try It Yourself
Exercise C
Create a verb by combining each of the following words with a suffix
from the chart above. Then use the new word in a sentence in your
notebook. Remember that you may have to alter the spelling of the
word when you add a suffix.
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 18
Word of the Week
pernicious ([email protected] ni‘ [email protected]) adj.,
extremely destructive or harmful
In 15th century Italian courts,
the potential for political
murder made for a pernicious
atmosphere where no one knew
who would be the next victim.
Pernicious is used to imply some
combination of poison, evil,
danger, and destructiveness. It
is derived from the Latin word
for destruction, perniciosus.
Pernicious has many colorful
synonyms, some of which are
destructive, harmful, deadly, evil,
toxic, noxious, insidious, spiteful,
and malicious.
A linguist is someone
who studies language and
traces words back through time to
discover their histories.
Tip
Word Origins
Understand the concept
The majority of English words have origins in other languages. You
can find information on where a word came from by looking up
its etymology, or history of origin. Etymologies can be found in a
regular or etymological dictionary. In a regular dictionary, a word’s
etymology is located after its pronunciation and part-of-speech label.
The information is usually abbreviated and surrounded by brackets,
and you can usually find a key to the abbreviations in the front or back
of the dictionary. Consider the word annihilate. Below is the entry that
can be found in a regular dictionary.
an • ni • hi • late (@ n8> @ l6t) v., [LL annihilatus, pp. of annihilare to
reduce to nothing, fr. L ad- + nihil nothing –more at NIL] (1525)
In the example above, the etymology of the word appears in brackets,
following the part-of-speech label. A list of abbreviations indicates
that LL stands for Late Latin, L stands for Latin, pp. stands for past
participle, and fr. stands for from.
Based on this entry, we learn that the English word annihilate
comes from the Late Latin word annihilatus, which is the past participle
of annihilare, which means “to reduce to nothing.” The word comes
from the Latin prefix ad-, plus nihil, which means “nothing.” The
phrase “more at NIL” indicates that related etymological information
can be found by looking up the word nil. The number in parentheses
after the etymological information indicates the year of the first
recorded use of the word in English. For more information, reference
the explanatory notes at the front of your dictionary.
Try It Yourself
Use a dictionary to find the meaning and origin of each of the following
words. Then use each word in a sentence.
example
annihilate: to destroy
origin: comes from the Late Latin word annihilatus
sentence: We wanted to annihilate the ant hills that surrounded the
sidewalk, but my older sister wouldn’t let us.
1. sequester:
origin:
sentence:
2. banal:
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origin:
Tip
sentence:
Other abbreviations used
in etymologies include:
AF = Anglo-French
D = Dutch
F = French
G = German
Gk = Greek
Ir = Irish
lit. = literal, literally
ME = Middle English
OHG = Old High German
3. bestow:
origin:
sentence:
4. clammy:
origin:
sentence:
5. ecology:
origin:
sentence:
6. harmony:
origin:
sentence:
7. hence:
origin:
sentence:
8. jeopardy:
origin:
sentence:
9. legacy:
origin:
sentence:
10. zeal:
origin:
sentence:
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LEssON 19
Word of the Week
root Families
adjacent (@ j6> [email protected]) adj., next to
The fire in the hotel kitchen
caused smoke damage to several
adjacent rooms.
Adjacent implies that two things
are next to one another, though
they don’t necessarily have to be
touching. Synonyms of adjacent
include adjoining, nearby,
neighboring, bordering, and
flanking.
Understand the concept
Many words in English come from ancient Greek and from Latin, the
language of the ancient Romans. For example, the following words
come from the word root fract, which comes from the Latin word
fractio, meaning “the act of breaking.”
fraction—what you get when you break something into pieces or
portions (1/2, 1/3, etc.)
infraction—the breaking of a law
refraction—when a beam of light splits apart (“breaks”) as it passes
through a barrier such as glass or water
fracture—the surface along which something breaks
Notice that all these words have “break” as part of their meaning. They
are all part of the same root family.
Knowing the meanings of common Greek and Latin roots can help
you decode many unfamiliar words. Here are some common Latin roots:
Word roots are
meaningful word parts
that can be found in many English
words. Many word roots are taken
from ancient Greek and Latin
words.
Tip
voc—Latin word root meaning
“voice”; it comes from the Latin
vocare, meaning “to call”
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Word Root
am
bene
centr
duc/duct
fer
ferv
greg
lum/luc
mal/male
man/manu
tract
Meaning And Examples
to love (amicable, amateur)
good; well (benefit)
center (concentrate)
to lead (conduct, seduce)
to carry (transfer, refer)
to boil or bubble (fervor)
flock or herd (congregate)
light (luminous, translucent)
bad; badly (malnutrition)
hand (manufacture, manual)
to draw; to drag (retract, tractor)
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Here are some common Greek roots:
Word Root
acr
astr, aster
chron
phil
phot
psych
therm
Meaning And Examples
highest point (acrobat, acme)
star (asteroid, disaster)
time (chronological)
love, fondness (Anglophile)
light (photography, photosynthesis)
mind (psychology)
heat (thermal, thermostat)
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
The following words share the Latin root voc or voke, meaning “voice” or
“to call.” Look up each word in the dictionary and jot down its definition.
How is each word’s meaning related to “voice” or “calling”? Finally, write
a sentence using each word. Use your own paper as needed.
example
1. revoke
2. provoke
3. vociferous
4. advocate
5. avocation
benefactor, beneficiary, benign, benediction
malpractice, malefactor, malignant, malnourished
dynamic, dynamo, dynamite, dynasty
fervent, fervid, fervor, effervescent
congregate, segregate, gregarious
Just for Fun
Greek and Latin word roots can be found in many given names. For
example, the name Theodore means “gift from God.” it comes from
the Greek roots theo, meaning “God,” and doro, meaning “gift.” Using
Internet or library resources, research the following names to uncover
their Greek or Latin roots.
Lucas
Melanie
Timothy
Amateur contains the
Latin root am, meaning
“to love.” An amateur is someone
who engages in a pursuit, study,
science, or sport as a pastime
and not as a profession—in other
words, he or she does it for love,
not for money.
Tip
In your notebook, identify and define the word root shared by the
words in each of the following root families. Then give the definition of
each word.
Barbara
Dominic
Laura
To castigate or chastise someone
means to punish bad behavior in
the hope of making that person
be good.
vocation
a job or career; a person’s “calling” in life
Nursing is a challenging vocation.
ExErcIsE B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
It can help you remember
the meaning of a new
vocabulary word if you associate it
with other words in the same root
family. For example, to remember
the meanings of castigate and
chastise (“to punish”), notice that
they, along with other words like
chastity and chaste, contain the
Latin root cast or chast, meaning
“good; pure.”
Tip
The Greek root meaning “to love”
is phil. It can be found in words
like philosophy (literally, “the love
of learning”) and bibliophile (“one
who loves books”).
Victor
Valerie
You may wish to get together as a class to compile a longer list of names
to be included in a Greek and Latin baby name book.
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LEssON 20
Word of the Week
augment (0g ment>) v., to add
to something
Many police officers augment
their income by working off-hours
as security guards for special
events such as county fairs, rock
concerts, and football games.
Synonyms of augment include
add, increase, supplement,
enlarge, enhance, and boost. With
the right effort, things that can be
augmented include income, test
scores, bicep size, engine power,
and speaker volume.
The ancient Greeks
and Romans, highly
accomplished in the areas of
science, medicine, mathematics,
politics, drama, and art, spread
their culture and language
across Europe as they explored
and conquered other regions.
Greek and Latin terms began to
enter English after the Romans
conquered Britain in 43,
introducing their law, culture, and
Latin language to the island.
Tip
Greek and Latin roots
Understand the concept
Greek and Latin word parts are commonly found in terms that have
to do with science, mathematics, politics and law, and other areas of
learning and study.
In fact, the word science contains the Greek root sci, meaning “to
know.” Another example is the Greek word part -ology, meaning “the
study or science of.” It can can be found in words such as biology,
geology, and anthropology. The Greek word part -metry, meaning “the
measure of,” can be found in words such as geometry and trigonometry.
The Greeks and Romans also influenced our ideas about
government and law. For this reason, political and legal terms often
have Greek and Latin roots. For example, the term democracy comes
from the Greek roots dem-, meaning “people” and -cracy, meaning
“rule by.”
Word Part
dem- (G)
leg- (L)
judic- (L)
pol-, polis- (G)
pop (L)
reg- (L)
-arch, -archy (G)
-cracy (G)
-crat (G)
-ism (G)
-ist (G)
Meaning and Examples
people (democracy)
law (legislature)
judgment (judiciary)
city (politics)
people (populist)
rule (regulation)
ruler; ruling class (monarch, oligarchy)
form of government; social or political class
(democracy, aristocracy)
leader, member, or supporter of a certain
government or class (democrat, aristocrat)
system of belief; act, practice, or process (capitalism)
one who does or practices (Communist)
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Try to guess the meaning of the following -ology words. Write your
guess in your notebook. After you make a guess, look the word up in
the dictionary and write down its definition too.
1. cryptology
2. epistemology
3. etymology
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4. gerontology
5. pathology
6. theology
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The Greeks made many discoveries in the areas of science and
mathematics. For example, the Greek mathematician Euclid came
up with the principles of geometry (geo + -metry, or “measuring the
earth”).
Many Greek and some Latin word parts can be seen in English words
having to do with science and math. In fact, people still use these word
parts all the time to create new scientific, medical, and technical terms.
Tip
Greek and Latin roots are
found in medical terms as
well.
neur-
nerve; brain
rhin-
nose
-ectomy
surgical removal of
ExErcIsE B
-itis
swelling of
Think of at least one word that can be formed from each Greek or Latin
word part in the chart below. Put the words in the third column under
“Example Words.”
-oma
tumor
-osis
diseased condition
-path
disease; disorder
Word Part
astrobiodiaeco-
Meaning
Example Words
star
life
through, across
home, habitat,
environment
ethnorace, cultural group
ge-, geoearth; soil; ground
gen-, geneto originate; produce
isoequal; uniform
physinature; relating to the
body
psychmind
-graph(y, ic), -graph
written or drawn
-metry, -metric, -meter having to do with measure
The Greeks were not the
first ancient civilization
to make advances in science
and mathematics. In fact, they
got many of their ideas from
the ancient Egyptians and
Babylonians. Other ancient
peoples, such as the Chinese,
the Maya, the Persians, and the
Phoenicians, just to name a few,
were also skilled in math and
science.
Tip
ExErcIsE c
In your notebook, identify and define the Greek or Latin roots in each
of the following political terms. Then consult a dictionary to give the
definition of the word.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
oligarchy
legislator
populist
plutocracy
technocrat
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 21
Word of the Week
mirth ([email protected]) n., happiness and
laughter
During the Middle Ages, the
songs, jokes, and acrobatic tricks
of the jester brought mirth and
merriment to the king’s court.
Mirth is derived from the Old
English words myrgth and myrge,
which mean “merry.” Synonyms of
mirth are hilarity, jollity, merriment,
and fun.
The more meanings of
prefixes, suffixes, and
word roots you know, the better
equipped you are to tackle difficult
vocabulary words.
Tip
Using word parts to guess
meanings is even easier
if you work with a partner. Think
aloud with your partner about how
to break apart a word. Together,
brainstorm words that share each
word part, and use those words
to guess the meaning of each part
and a possible meaning for the
entire word.
Tip
Using Word Parts to Unlock Meaning
Understand the concept
You can use your knowledge of word parts like those you encountered
in the last few lessons to unlock the meaning of new words. For
example, imagine that you encounter the word provocative and don’t
know what it means. You could break the word down as follows:
pro– prefix meaning “forward” or “toward”
voc(a) root meaning “voice” or “call”
–(t)ive suffix meaning “tends toward”
From these word parts, you could guess that something provocative
is something that tends toward voice, in other words, something that
makes a person want to speak up or speak out. If you checked this guess
in the dictionary, you would discover that provocative means tending to
call forth a response.
Even if you don’t know the meaning of a word part, however, you
can often figure out the meaning of a word by using word parts. To do
this, think of as many familiar words as you can that contain each part
of the word.
For example, if you were tackling the word biped, you might first
think of words beginning with the prefix bi-: bicycle, biannual, and
bisect. You know that a bicycle is different than a tricycle because it
has two wheels rather than three. You’re pretty sure that the other two
words also have something to do with the number two. Then you might
think of words that contain ped: pedal, pedestrian, and pedestal. A pedal
and a pedestal are both things you step on with your foot. A pedestrian
is someone who is walking. From this information, you might guess
(correctly) that ped means foot. A biped is something with two feet!
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Work with a partner to guess the meaning of each of the words below.
You can use the Word Parts Charts from the previous lessons if you
like. Record your thought process in your notebook.
example
ambivert
We know these words that contain ambi–: ambidextrous,
ambivalent, and ambiguous. We know that ambidextrous
means to be able to do things with both the right and left hand.
We’re pretty sure that the other two words also have something
to do with taking up both positions or sides. We also know
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these words that contain vert: divert, introvert, and extrovert.
Introvert and extrovert have to do with turning inward and
turning outward, respectively. Divert also has something to do
with turning. We think vert means turn. An ambivert might be
someone who turns both inward and outward, someone who
has characteristics of both an introvert and extrovert.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Use a combination of
context clues—hints
from the surrounding text—and
your knowledge of word parts to
unlock the meaning of new words
you encounter as you read.
Tip
pseudoscience
homogeneous
chronicles
disregard
interaction
Just for Fun
ExErcIsE B
The following sentences contain underlined words that may be
unfamiliar to you. Use word parts as well as context clues to guess the
meaning of each word. Then record the dictionary definition of the word.
1. The robot Eugene displayed for the engineering class today is just
the prototype; his final project won’t be finished for another two
months.
Predicted Meaning:
Dictionary Definition:
2. The scientist panicked when he saw the data from the latest
experiment; it was so unexpected that it might end up invalidating
his hypothesis.
Predicted Meaning:
Dictionary Definition:
Form teams of four or five people.
Set a timer for three minutes. In
that time, brainstorm as many
words as you can that contain the
following word parts:
tract
-able/-ible
interWhen the timer goes off, check
each team’s list and make sure all
of the words on each list actually
exist. (Check a dictionary if you
aren’t sure.) The team with the
most legitimate words wins!
3. I used to like that politician, but now that he has reversed his
position on two key issues, I find him despicable.
Predicted Meaning:
Dictionary Definition:
4. When a people’s beliefs are so entrenched, it’s hard to get them to
change their minds.
Predicted Meaning:
Dictionary Definition:
5. The witness’s recriminations convinced the jury that the
defendant was guilty.
Predicted Meaning:
Dictionary Definition:
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 22
Word of the Week
boughten (b0> [email protected]) adj.,
purchased from a store
Father built the new house with
boughten boards and shingles and
real glass windowpanes.
Because in modern times, people
buy almost everything they need
instead of making things from
scratch, boughten has become
an out-of-date, or archaic, word.
Therefore, it is unacceptable to
use the word boughten today. You
will encounter many archaic words
in literature, especially in books
written many years ago.
Archaic and obsolete
words often have to
do with objects, customs, and
practices that no longer exist. For
example, keeps is the name of a
marble game that is rarely played
anymore, and a sulky is a plow
pulled by horses.
Tip
The Evolution of Language
Understand the concept
When you read literature from earlier time periods, you might notice
that many of the words are unfamiliar to you. For example, you might
find the word vesture used instead of the modern word clothes. In other
cases, a familiar word—such as list—is used to mean something other
than it currently means. In Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Romeo and
Juliet, list means “wish.”
Archaic and Obsolete Words
Words or specific meanings of words that are rarely used in modern English may be labeled in the dictionary as archaic or obsolete. Archaic words
are those that are rarely used or are used only in certain contexts. The
word vesture from the example above could be considered archaic; today,
it is used only to refer to the garments worn by members of the clergy. An
obsolete word is one that is no longer used at all. A fever was once called
an ague, a toilet a donnicker, and an unethical politician a snollygoster.
You will encounter archaic and obsolete words in your reading. To
unlock the meaning of these words, use the same word attack skills you
use with any unfamiliar word.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Rewrite each of the following sentences, replacing the underlined
archaic or obsolete word with a more contemporary word or phrase.
Use context clues and your dictionary for help.
1. The man was sore in debt; he couldn’t even afford a new pair of
shoes.
2. You’d better hark your mother’s advice; she knows what she’s
talking about!
3. Initially, I trusted the peddler to deal honestly with me, but
eventually I realized he was a conycatch.
4. Perhaps Jon will stop by on his way home, or haply he won’t.
5. The peddler asked to speak with the goodman, but only the wife
was available to speak with him.
Neologisms
At the same time as some words are becoming archaic or obsolete,
new words are being created. These newly created words are called
neologisms. Some of them will eventually be accepted as part of the
language, and others will be forgotten.
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New words are created, or coined, in a number of ways. Some
words come from the names of people, places, or brands. Words that
come from proper names are called eponyms.
Another source of new words is acronyms, such as TV as an
abbreviation of television or the name yuppie for a “young upwardly
mobile professional.”
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Identify each of the following words as an eponym, a borrowed word,
or an acronym. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
1. chauvinism
An acronym is a word
formed from the initial
letters of the main parts of a
compound term. Many acronyms
are pronounced as words, but
others, called initialisms, are
pronounced letter by letter.
Tip
AWOL—absent without leave
NATO—North American Treaty
Organization
MIA—missing in action
SUV—sports utility vehicle
2. laser
3. Doberman
Just for Fun
4. escalator
5. chanteuse
Manipulating Language to Form New Words
Many new words are formed from existing ones. One common way
new words are formed is by adding affixes, as in deplane, classism,
e-business, and even tabloidification. It is also possible to add a
common word root to form a new term. Technophobe, schmoozefest,
and toiletology were all formed this way.
Sometimes the opposite happens—a prefix, suffix, or other
word part is removed to form a new word. This process is called
backformation. In this way, the noun babysitter generated the verb
babysit, and the adjective spunky produced the noun spunk.
Often, a word that began as a noun will also become accepted as a
verb, or vice versa. For example, message was originally only a noun,
but since the advent of advanced communication devices, it has become
possible to message someone. You can also telephone someone and
pencil in a date. The process by which a word changes function is called
conversion.
Clipping is another source of new words. For example, demo is a
clipped form of demonstration. Other clipped words include phone, ad,
gym, and fridge.
Sometimes speakers combine two or more words to create
compound words and blends. Compound words are formed when
two or more existing words are combined, as in break-in, urbanwear,
and web page. Some compounds are written as one word, some are
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
Invent eponyms for at least
three friends or family members,
and assign a meaning to each
eponym. For example, if your
friend Cedric is known for his
brightly colored socks, you
might invent the word cedrics to
designate socks bright enough to
be worn by him.
Just for Fun
New words enter the language in
all of the following ways:
• generic use of brand names
• use of names of people and
places
• borrowing from other languages
• acronyms and initialisms
• combining affixes or roots in
new ways
• backformation
• conversion
• clipping, or shortening, words
• creating new compounds and
blends
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Neologisms often have
to do with technology,
popular culture, and current events.
They are more likely to appear in
publications geared toward readers
in their twenties and thirties. Why
do you think this is?
Tip
Just for Fun
Try coining your own words using
some of the methods described
in this lesson. Use each of your
words in a sentence that shows
what the word means.
miswanting—thinking you want
something you really don’t
Effective advertisements can cause
even the most savvy shoppers to
fall prey to miswanting.
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hyphenated, and some are written as two words. Blends are words that
are formed from parts of existing words
examples
newbies (newcomers + babies)
telemarketer (telephone + marketer)
infomercial (information + commercial)
Many of the newest words in the language are not yet in the dictionary.
Use context clues and word parts to determine the meaning of these
words.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE c
Try to define each of the underlined words by using context clues or
word parts. Write your definitions in your notebook.
1. While the official wouldn’t actually retract what he said, he did
admit that it might have been wrongish.
2. Katelyn dreaded attending the reception for the lead executives;
this kind of event always turned into a shmoozefest with everyone
competing to make the best impression on the guests.
3. The new trend in the school district was to include one or two
paraeducators in each classroom to assist the teacher.
4. I got this headband at a shoplet in Chinatown.
5. Technobabble was everywhere at the network administrators’
conference.
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
Time Out for Test Practice
Prefixes and suffixes
Choose the correct meaning for each of the following prefixes and suffixes.
_____ 1. hemi-: What percentage of the
world’s population is in the northern
hemisphere?
A. half
B. opposite
_____ 2. a-: The results from the study are
atypical; the findings were different
from those of similar studies.
A. not
B. to; toward
_____ 3. tri-: Henry fastened his camera to the
tripod and began taking photographs
of the bald eagles.
A. top
B. three
_____ 4. hypo-: People lost in a blizzard can be
at risk for hypothermia.
A. too little; lacking
B. fast
_____ 5. post-: Barb postdated her check so it
wouldn’t be cashed before the first of
the month.
A. on top of
B. later; after
_____ 6. fore-: The inhabitants of the coastal
village were forewarned of the
oncoming storm.
A. over; again
B. before; first
Choose the correct prefix or suffix to complete each of the unfinished words
in the following sentences.
_____ 7. Zena wanted to personal___ each
holiday letter by writing a little note
and signing her name at the bottom.
A. -ize
B. -ate
C. -ify
D. -ity
_____ 10. The organizers took ___cautions to
make sure that no problems would
occur during the event.
A. deB. reC. preD. pro-
_____ 8. The biologist examined the bacteria
using a _____scope.
A. microB. macroC. periD. tele-
_____ 11. The television documentary was a
___spective, looking back over the
past few decades.
A. reB. circumC. perD. retro-
_____ 9. The data was ___sufficient so we
asked for additional information.
A. inB. unC. disD. under-
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_____ 12. Paul worked hard to strength___ the
muscles in his legs.
A. -ify
B. -en
C. -ate
D. -ize
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root Families
For each of the following groups of words, identify the root that each word
shares. Write that root (and its variations, if any) on the line. Then write the
letter of the best definition for that root.
_____ 1. predict, dictionary, verdict,
contradict
root: __________
A. to construct
B. to see
C. to say
D. to give
_____ 2. describe, inscription, prescription,
subscribe
root: __________
A. to go
B. to carry
C. to offer
D. to write
_____ 3. transportation, import, export,
deportation
root: __________
A. to carry
B. to grow
C. to reverse
D. to catch
_____ 4. final, finite, confine, define
root: __________
A. border
B. end
C. change
D. beginning
_____ 5. audience, inaudible, auditorium,
audiovisual
root: __________
A. to do
B. to perform
C. to see
D. to hear
6. revive, survival, vivacious, revitalize
root: __________
A. waning
B. alive
C. colorful
D. born
Use your knowledge of word parts to choose the best definition for each word.
_____ 7. irresolute
A. cranky and irritable
B. determined
C. scared
D. uncertain how to act or proceed
_____ 10. inquietude
A. disturbed state
B. serene
C. in the process of quieting down
D. unruffled
_____ 8. monopolist
A. first player
B. a single pole
C. one who plays games
D. one who assumes complete
control
_____ 11. trisect
A. creature with three legs
B. insect with three legs
C. divide into three equal parts
D. divide into multiple parts
_____ 9. bivariate
A. involving multiple variables
B. involving no variables
C. involving one variable
D. involving two variables
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_____ 12. equivocal
A. a quivering voice
B. of more than one voice
C. one who sings
D. clear
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 23
spanish Words in English
Understand the concept
The English language contains many words taken from other
languages. These are known as borrowed words. Below are some words
that were borrowed from Spanish.
adobe
aficionado
barrio
bonanza
bronco
burro
canyon
cockroach
desperado
enchilada
guerrilla
guitar
hurricane
incommunicado
junta
lasso
machete
mesa
mosquito
mustang
patio
pinto
plaza
pronto
ranch
renegade
rodeo
serape
sierra
siesta
sombrero
stampede
tornado
vigilante
A number of words borrowed from Spanish are actually Native
American in origin. When Spanish explorers arrived in the Americas,
they found plants and animals for which they didn’t have words.
They turned to the native peoples for the names of these things. Later,
English speakers borrowed these same words from Spanish.
chile, chocolate, cocoa, coyote, tomato (Nahuatl)
condor, llama, puma (Quechua)
guava, papaya (Arawak)
iguana (Arawak & Carib)
manatee, potato (Taino)
Native peoples also provided the Spanish with names for the following:
barbecue, hammock, hurricane (Taino)
poncho (Araucanian)
Word of the Week
vigilante (vi [email protected] lan> t7) n.,
person enforcing law without legal
authority; one who takes the law
into his or her own hands
When the bandits rode into town,
the sheriff hid away in fear—and
it was left to one lone vigilante to
enforce the law and bring the bad
men to justice.
Vigilante is a Spanish word; in the
Spanish language, its meaning
is closer to “watchman” or
“guard.” The English word vigilant,
meaning “watchful,” is related to
this word.
Native people whose
words were borrowed
include the following:
Tip
Arawak (from South America and
the West Indies)
Carib (northern South America
and the Lesser Antilles)
Nahuatl (Mexico)
Quechua (South America)
Taino (Greater Antilles and the
Bahamas)
Try It Yourself
Look up each of the following words in a good dictionary and copy
down the etymology, or origins, of each word. Notice that the words
may have been altered from their original Spanish or Native American
pronunciation or spelling.
example
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barbecue (also barbeque)
From American Spanish barbacoa, a framework for
supporting meat over a fire; probably originally from
Taino.
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Just for Fun
Use a Spanish-English dictionary
or ask a Spanish-speaking friend
to find one or more words from
Spanish that have not yet been
incorporated into English. Pick
words that you like based on
meaning or sound. Use each in a
sentence.
1. guava
2. hammock
3. hurricane
4. alligator
5. cockroach
English words enter
Spanish as well, creating
hybrid terms such as lonche and
parquear (Mexican Spanish for
lunch and to park, as in to park a
car). Find a person at your school
whose native language is Spanish.
Interview that person to find out
what English words he or she
knows of that are regularly used in
the Spanish language.
Tip
For each of the following words, give the definition as well as the
etymology, and use the word in a sentence of your own.
6. pinto
7. incommunicado
8. serape
9. junta
10. guerrilla
More Spanish words are entering English every day as Americans
become exposed to new Latin American foods, music, and ideas. Words
adopted within the last century include the following:
burrito
macho
mariachi
merengue
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nada
salsa
taco
tango
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 24
English Words from French
Understand the concept
In 1066, England was conquered by the Normans, a people from
northern France. In the centuries that followed this so-called Norman
Conquest, the English language was greatly influenced by Norman
French. So many French words entered English that today, it is virtually
impossible to write a paragraph in English without using many words
of French origin.
Below are some of the words borrowed from French after the
Norman Conquest.
Some Words Borrowed From French
Politics
assembly, crown, empire, government, realm, reign,
sovereign
Financial Matters
account, agent, bargain, estate, heir, merchant,
revenue
Power Relationships
allegiance, authority, homage, oppress, pedigree,
servant
Law
accuse, assault, attorney, convict, evidence, felony,
justice, legal, perjury, treason, verdict
Manners
cavalier, courteous, debonair, dignity, loyalty
Religion
baptism, devotion, faith, virtue
Architecture and Furnishings balcony, dungeon, furniture, pavement
Fine Clothing
apparel, attire, costume, dress, fashion, garments,
gown
Entertainment and the Arts
art, dance, harmony, sculpture, tournament
Food
banquet, feast, roast, salad, supper
Word of the Week
rendezvous (rän´ di vü) n., a
meeting at a specific place and
time; v., come together at a
designated time and place
The private detective arranged
a secret rendezvous with her
newest client, who had insisted on
the utmost privacy.
The brothers agreed to
rendezvous later in the week.
Rendezvous is a French word.
In French, it means “present
yourselves.”
Since the Normans were
the ruling class, many
of the words they introduced to
English were related to power and
prestige, as well as art, fashion,
and food.
Tip
Some words borrowed from French are easy to spot because they
have kept their original French spellings and pronunciation such as
café, déjà vu, and rendezvous. Others have been “Anglicized,” that is,
changed so that they look and sound more English.
Notice that the words derived from French tend to sound more
formal. Because the French-speaking Normans were the ruling class,
the words they used still carry connotations, or associations, of
formality and sophistication.
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Old English
You can find the
etymology, or origins,
of most words in a standard
dictionary. Look for it in brackets
to the right of the part-of-speech
label, as in the example below.
Tip
begin
bloom
book
clothes
eat
help
hide
house
steal
tell, say
theft
vignette (vin yet?) n., [F. from
MF vignete, from dim. of vigne
vine—more at ]
Note: F stands for “French,” MF
stands for “Middle French,” and
dim. stands for “diminutive,” which
means “small form.” In other
words, vignete means “little vine”
in French. Your dictionary will
provide a list of abbreviations and
what each stands for.
French
commence
flower
volume
apparel, attire, garments
dine
aid
conceal
mansion
purloin
notify, inform
burglary
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Look up each of the following French words in a good dictionary.
Copy down the description of its etymology, or origins, and record
the definition of the word. Finally, write down a connection with the
word. This connection could be a contextual sentence, a question, a
mnemonic device for remembering the meaning, or anything else you
can think of.
In the centuries after
the Middle Ages, French
was still considered a high-class
language in Europe, one that was
used by politicians and writers.
English speakers often adopted
French words and phrases in
order to sound educated or
sophisticated.
example vignette
etymology: From French meaning a little vine, or vigne.
meaning: 1) a decorative design or picture (often involving vines) at
the beginning of a book chapter or 2) a brief incident or scene in a
movie, book, or play.
connection: I wonder if the word vintage is related, since vigne
means vine and vintage has to do with the wine obtained from
grapes, which grow on vines.
Tip
1.
2.
3.
4.
curfew
siege
virtue
perjure
ExErcIsE B
Rewrite the sentences, replacing the underlined words with their Old
English counterparts. Does the result sound more or less formal?
1. Once we had informed our dinner companions that we admired
their apparel, we commenced to dine.
2. I looked for the volume, only to discover that it had been
purloined! Luckily, my friend aided me in discovering the burglar.
3. The peonies flowered all around the mansion, concealing the large
French doors that led into the garden.
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LEssON 25
English Words from German
Understand the concept
More than seven million Germans immigrated to America from the
seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. These immigrants brought with
them their language, and gradually, German words made their way into
English. English words with German origins include many everyday
terms, including
blitz
burg
fest
hamster
kaput
kindergarten
kitsch
nickel
plunder
poltergeist
spiel
spritz
stark
stein
strand
waltz
wander
wanderlust
yammer
yodel
zigzag
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Each sentence below contains an underlined word of German origin.
Use context clues to predict the meaning of each word. Then check
your prediction by looking the word up in the dictionary. If the word
has several meanings, be sure to pick the one that fits the sentence in
which the word is used.
1. Once a telemarketer gets you on the phone, your choices are to
hang up, to interrupt him or her, or to listen to the entire product
spiel, which might take as long as ten minutes.
Predicted meaning:
Dictionary definition:
Word of the Week
angst (54(k)st) n., feeling of
unease and insecurity
Derek’s angst over diving
lessons melted when he met
the coach—an easygoing young
woman who put his fears to rest.
Angst is a German word.
You might have heard
of a group of immigrants
and their descendents known
as the Pennsylvania Dutch. The
people referred to by that name
are actually of German rather than
Dutch origin. Americans misheard
the German word deutsch, which
means German, as the English
word Dutch.
Tip
Visit a German restaurant
or locate a menu on the
Internet. Use that information and
the list in this lesson to plan the
menu for a dinner party with a
German theme.
Tip
2. The soldiers plundered the deserted town, taking everything of
value.
Predicted meaning:
Dictionary definition:
3. I prefer the rich, colorful paintings of Gauguin, but Sheila favors
stark, barren landscapes that convey loneliness and desolation.
Predicted meaning:
Dictionary definition:
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Context clues are hints
in the text surrounding an
unfamiliar word that suggest what
that word means. Some kinds of
context clues include comparison,
contrast, cause and effect,
restatement, and apposition.
Tip
4. Omar was supposed to mow Mrs. Sander’s lawn today, but he
called to tell her that his mower was kaput and wouldn’t be fixed
until Tuesday.
Predicted meaning:
Dictionary definition:
Immigrants arriving from Germany brought with them their food
preferences. As a result, many German words for food items have made
it into the English language. Some examples appear below.
Just as in English, we call
someone from New York
a “New Yorker,” Germans add –er
to the name of a city to designate
someone who lives there. Given
that fact, it is interesting to note
that residents of the German city
of Frankfurt call hot dogs wieners,
while residents of the Austrian
city of Vienna (called Wien in
German) call them frankfurters.
Both words have made it into
English as synonyms, or words
that mean nearly the same thing.
Tip
Etymologies, or
word origins, are often
colorful. For example, the word
pumpernickel comes from
pumpern meaning “to release
gastrointestinal gas” and nickel
meaning “goblin or devil.” The
word refers to coarse, dark bread
that many people find hard to
digest.
Tip
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bratwurst
frankfurter
hamburger
knackwurst
lager
liverwurst
muesli
muffin
noodle
pretzel
pumpernickel
sauerkraut
schnapps
strudel
wiener
A number of German words entered the English language during the
two World Wars of the twentieth century.
anschluss
blitzkrieg
flak
führer
gestapo
Nazi
U-boot
The following words, while less common and more closely linked to
their German origins than to English, often appear in English texts.
bildungsroman
doppelgänger
dummkopf
ersatz
fahrvergnügen
hausfrau
hinterland
kaffeeklatsch
mensch
schadenfreude
verboten
weltanschaung
weltschmerz
wunderkind
zeitgeist
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Use a dictionary to look up the etymology and meaning of each of the
following words. Then use each word in an original sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
blitzkrieg
schadenfreude
dummkopf
verboten
flak
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LEssON 26
register, slang, and colloquialisms
Understand the concept
Word of the Week
revelry (re> [email protected] r7) n., noisy
partying or merrymaking
A register is a subset of language usage specific to a particular
relationship between people. There are certain words and expressions
that you would use in a conversation with a friend but not when
talking to your friend’s parent. With a young child, you use a register
that is nonthreatening and simple to understand. With an authority
figure such as your school principal or a local political official, you use
a register that is more formal. The more words you know, the more
flexibility you will have in selecting the proper register to use with
different audiences.
A formal register is appropriate for school essays, newspaper and
magazine articles, some literary works, oral or written reports, and test
answers. Informal English is appropriate when speaking with a friend
or writing personal letters or notes; it can also be found in some literary
works.
We enjoyed our revelry and did
not return home for three days.
Try It Yourself
You might use somewhat
formal English in getting
to know a new friend, and then
more informal language once the
friendship has developed.
The word revelry is rather formal
in nature. Some more informal
synonyms include high jinks and
skylarking. Try to think of other
colloquialisms or slang that mean
something similar to revelry.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Your friend has drafted a letter to the principal of your school
suggesting that the school hold a book drive to collect and deliver books
to inner-city day care centers and elementary schools. She is worried
that her draft might be too informal. Read what she has written, and
suggest phrases and words she might want to change in order to achieve
the proper register. Write your advice in your notebook.
Dear Mr. Thompson:
Here at Anywhere High School, our media center is loaded with
tons of good books. I am really bugged that children in other
places, like elementary schools and day care centers in the inner
city, don’t have access to as many super books as students here
do. I’d like to do something about this problem.
Specifically, I would like to organize a book drive in our school.
We could collect the books in containers near the doors to
the school so that students could just lob their donations in
as they enter the building. I’d be totally fine with emptying the
containers at the end of each week and distributing the books to
their new homes.
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This drive would give all of us a chance to clean out our
basements and bookcases, getting rid of all of those books that
are too babyish for us now. At the same time, it would help little
kids get excited about reading.
Register is closely related
to tone, or the attitude
toward a subject implied by a
writer or speaker’s language. You
shape the tone of your message
by carefully choosing words and
phrases.
Tip
Please let me know if you are cool with this idea. Thanks a
bunch!
Sincerely,
Amanda Goodidea
Informal English also uses colloquialisms and slang. A colloquialism
is a word or phrase used in everyday conversation but not in formal
writing: “You guys must have raced home to meet curfew.” Slang is a
form of speech made up of invented words or old words that are given a
new meaning: “That movie was tight, man!”
Just for Fun
Find a document written in a
formal register. You might choose
a business letter or memo,
a political commentary, or a
textbook passage. Rewrite the
passage as a rap song, a rant, or a
children’s story using an informal
register. Use your own paper as
needed.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Write down three examples of colloquialisms.
1.
2.
3.
Write down three examples of slang.
4.
5.
6.
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LEssON 27
Idioms
Understand the concept
An idiom is an expression in which the language is fixed and in which
the meaning of the expression cannot be deciphered by understanding
the meaning of the individual words. For example, if someone “bends
over backwards” to help you, that person isn’t really doing a backbend.
The phrase “bend over backwards” is an idiom meaning “do everything
possible.” The idiom “go to great lengths” means almost exactly the
same thing.
How many of these idioms do you understand?
all thumbs
an arm and a leg
asleep at the wheel
back out
bank on something/someone
beat someone to the punch
bee in your bonnet
beside one’s self
beyond the pale
bite the bullet
bring the house down
bury the hatchet
caught dead
down the line
fill someone in
get-go
heavy-handed
in the red
jump at the chance
know the ropes
let sleeping dogs lie
like nobody’s business
off the shelf
on your own
pig in a poke
Often, idioms are based on metaphors, or comparisons between two
unlike things. In the first example above, someone being extremely
helpful is compared to a very flexible person doing a backbend. Review
the list of idioms above. Which are based on metaphors? What two
things are being compared in each?
Try It Yourself
Word of the Week
shoo-in (sh2> in) n., certain and
easy winner
Alice is sure to win the singing
competition; with that voice, she’s
a shoo-in.
The term “shoo-in” is an idiom.
Its meaning cannot be derived
from the meaning of the individual
words. The phrase originated in
horseracing. Occasionally, corrupt
jockeys would agree to hold back
their own horses and “shoo in” a
slow horse on which they had all
placed bets. Because the jockeys
had control, their choice was a
shoo-in, or a certain winner.
The wording of an idiom
cannot be varied: you
can’t say that a helpful individual
“bends over sideways” and expect
to be understood. For this reason,
idioms are one of the hardest
aspects of the language for
nonnative speakers to master.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Use each of the following idioms in a sentence. Write your sentence in
your notebook. Make sure your sentence provides context clues so that
someone unfamiliar with the idiom could guess what it means.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
about to
don’t borrow trouble
neck and neck
burn the candle at both ends
on thin ice
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Just for Fun
Pick two of the following idioms,
and use the Internet or a dictionary
of phrases to research the
meaning and origin of the phrase.
Find out how the phrase came into
existence. Then share your findings
with the class.
bite the bullet
can’t hold a candle to
chew the fat
close but no cigar
dark horse
dead as a doornail
over the top
pan out
roll with the punches
rule of thumb
show your true colors
sleep tight
spill the beans
square meal
straight from the horse’s mouth
the writing is on the wall
under the weather
white elephant
ExErcIsE B
The underlined word or words in the sentences below are synonyms for
common idioms. In parentheses after each sentence, you will find one
word that appears in the idiom being suggested. Write the full idiom
on the lines provided. You might want to work with a partner or small
group to complete this activity.
example
I really need to change that problematic behavior. (habit)
kick that habit
1. You will see Faith at the meeting, but she would really like to talk
to you before it starts. (time)
2. Lester is out looking really hard for a job. (pavement)
3. Please leave out all the nonessential information and just tell me
the most important point. (chase)
4. The mother worried about how to tell her daughter that her
goldfish had died. (break)
5. We need to hurry if we’re going to finish on time. (pace)
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Time Out for Test Practice
Borrowed Words in English
On the line, write the letter of the word from the right column that best
matches the definition and etymology in the left column.
_____ 1. German, “something of poor taste and/or poor quality”
A. angst
_____ 2. French, “sense that one has experienced the same thing before”
B. vogue
_____ 3. Spanish, “donkey”
C. bizarre
_____ 4. German, “feeling of unease and insecurity”
D. blitz
_____ 5. Spanish, “blanket with slit for the head”
E. buffet
_____ 6. Spanish, “one who conquers”
F. burro
_____ 7. Spanish, “rope with noose used with cattle and horses”
G. canyon
_____ 8. Spanish, “ground and roasted cacao beans”
H. cocoa
_____ 9. French, “place and time designated for a meeting”
I. conquistador
_____ 10. French, “stylish”
J.
_____ 11. German, “strong desire or impulse to travel”
K. déjà vu
_____ 12. French, “strikingly out of the ordinary”
L. flak
_____ 13. Spanish, “courtyard next to a building”
M. gourmet
_____ 14. German, “sudden overwhelming attack”
N. kitsch
_____ 15. French, “beaten eggs cooked and folded in half”
O. lasso
_____ 16. Spanish, “deep, narrow valley”
P. omelet
_____ 17. French, “high-quality, fancy foods”
Q. patio
_____ 18. Spanish, “canine smaller than but related to the wolf”
R. poncho
_____ 19. German, “criticism or opposition”
S. rendezvous
_____ 20. French, “meal set out for ready and informal service”
T. wanderlust
coyote
Idioms and colloquialisms
Circle the letter of the answer that best describes the meaning of the
underlined phrase.
_____ 1. If you open up that can of worms,
we’ll be arguing all night.
A. bring up a topic of dispute
B. make a mess
C. cause mischief
D. tell a lie
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_____ 2. Uncle Horace and Granny Mildred
love to sit around all day to chew the
fat.
A. snack
B. gossip; have a casual conversation
C. complain violently
D. perform plays
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_____ 3. Harold, the chow hound, helped
himself to four plates at the buffet
dinner.
A. starved person
B. finicky eater
C. gourmet food connoisseur
D. hearty eater; glutton
_____ 4. Rumor has it that you can buy one of
those scooters for just chump change.
A. cost of a loan for a scooter
B. sum of money returned as change
from a larger bill
C. small amount of money
D. large amount of money
_____ 5. Bertha, the senior associate, agreed to
show me the ropes at my new job.
A. teach me how things are done
B. threaten to get me in trouble
C. lead me to the exit
D. order my supplies
_____ 6. The salespeople came to the meeting
with a real dog and pony show.
A. musicians and other entertainers
B. elaborate, showy presentation
C. carnival-like treats
D. effective sales techniques
_____ 7. Well, that idea didn’t work, so let’s go
back to square one.
A. skip some of the steps
B. start all over again
C. try the idea again
D. forget it
_____ 9. Let’s not jump the gun and make a
hasty decision.
A. use a weapon
B. take the law into one’s own hands
C. think too much about something
D. get ahead of oneself
_____ 10. You may think you are the only one
who feels cheated, but we are all in
the same boat.
A. cheering for someone
B. suffering
C. in the same predicament
D. cheated
_____ 11. Jay has gotten away with having
Garrett do his homework for weeks,
but someday he will pay the piper.
A. be expelled
B. reap the consequences of one’s
actions
C. pay the teacher
D. be discovered
_____ 12. Georgia is kind of shy, but her sister
Ginger is a social butterfly.
A. very active social person
B. great dancer
C. chatty person
D. busy girl
_____ 8. Don’t pick a fight with Jake—he has a
short fuse.
A. bad memory
B. quick temper
C. strong uppercut
D. tendency to shout
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LEssON 28
Vocabulary Questions on
standardized Tests
Understand the concept
There are several different kinds of vocabulary questions that might
appear on standardized tests.
contextual Passages
One of the most common types of vocabulary questions will ask you to
read a passage and then answer questions about particular words that
appear in that passage.
The word attack strategies you have learned in this program will
enable you to answer questions like this one. Use context clues, word
parts, and your knowledge of word families and origins to make an
educated guess about the meaning. Then consider the answer choices
and choose the one that is closest to your educated guess.
synonym and Antonym Questions
Synonym and antonym questions give you a word and ask you to
select the word that has the same meaning (for a synonym) or the
opposite meaning (for an antonym). You must select the best answer
even if none is exactly correct. For this type of question, you should
consider all the choices to see which is best. Always notice whether you
are looking for a synonym or an antonym. You will usually find both
among the answers.
Word of the Week
paraphrase (par> @ fr6z) v.,
restate something in different
words, retaining the meaning
In her paper about the founding
of the United States, Kindra
paraphrased several parts of the
Bill of Rights.
Paraphrase is a term commonly
seen on standardized tests.
Use context clues such
as comparison, contrast,
cause and effect, restatement,
and examples to help you “get the
gist” of unfamiliar words.
Tip
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Read the passage below from “Black Cat” by Edgar Allan Poe. Then
identify the best answer to each question that follows the passage.
For the most wild yet most homely narrative which I am about
to pen, I neither expect nor solicit belief. Mad indeed would I
be to expect it, in a case where my very senses reject their own
evidence. Yet, mad am I not—and very surely do I not dream.
But tomorrow I die, and today I would unburden my soul. My
immediate purpose is to place before the world, plainly, succinctly,
and without comment, a series of mere household events. In their
consequences, these events have terrified—have tortured—have
destroyed me. Yet I will not attempt to expound them.
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Just for Fun
Write a paragraph describing
a monster, ghost, or other
ghoulish creature that might live
somewhere in your house. In
your paragraph, use five invented
words. Use context clues or
familiar word parts to help your
reader determine the meaning
of each invented word. Then
exchange paragraphs with a
partner and have your partner
use the context clues you have
provided to identify synonyms for
each of your invented words.
_____ 1. In this passage, succinctly most likely means
A. elaborately.
B. recklessly.
C. briefly.
D. imaginatively.
_____ 2. The word expound most likely means
A. explain.
B. succeed.
C. overwhelm.
D. forgive.
_____ 3. An antonym for homely as it is used in this passage would be
A. fancy.
B. ugly.
C. homemade.
D. gorgeous.
_____ 4. The best synonym for solicit would be
A. destroy.
B. solidify.
C. request.
D. question.
Approach sentence
completion questions
by trying each of the first words
in the first blank. Eliminate those
answers that don’t make sense.
Then see which of the second
words from the remaining answers
works best.
Tip
sentence completion Questions
Sentence completion questions present you with a sentence that has two
words missing. You must select the pair of words that best completes the
sentence. The key to this kind of question is to make sure that both parts
of the answer you have selected work well in the sentence.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Select the best answer to each of the following sentence completion
questions.
_____ 1. It took me a full week to _____ the courage to confront that
_____ reporter.
A. generate…solicitous
B. annoy…biased
C. muster…malicious
D. decimate…indignant
_____ 2. The newscaster worried that the change in her hair color
would be too _____, but it turned out to be _____.
A. dramatic…imperceptible
B. intense…electrifying
C. distracting…different
D. important…essential
_____ 3. The musician’s _____ clothing and makeup caused parental
_____.
A. suggestive…approval
B. garish…censure
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C. modest…outcry
D. immoderate…imposition
Analogy Questions
Analogy questions ask you to find the relationship between two words
and then to recognize a similar relationship in another pair of words.
Look at the example below.
example
CAMERA : PHOTOGRAPHY ::
A. paint : paint brushes
B. easel : drawing
C. nail : hammer
D. writer : computer
In an analogy question, the symbols : and :: mean “is to” and “as.” The
example above would be read aloud as “Camera is to photography as…”
Follow these guidelines for answering analogy questions:
Analogy questions can
utilize many types of
relationships. While synonyms,
antonyms, and cause-andeffect relationships are the most
commonly used, others include:
general and specific (pasta :
spaghetti); part and whole (petal
: flower); age (horse : foal); tool
and associated action (scissor :
cut); worker and tool (dentist :
drill); and symbol and meaning
(flag : patriotism).
Tip
1. Think of a sentence that relates the two words. For the example
above, you might think “A camera is a tool used in photography.”
2. Try substituting the words from each answer pair in the sentence.
“A paint is a tool used in paint brushes.”
“An easel is a tool used in drawing.”
“A nail is a tool used in hammer.”
“A writer is a tool used in computer.”
3. Decide which sentence makes the most sense.
4. If none of the options makes sense, try to think of a different
sentence that relates the words, and work through the same
process with the new sentence.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE c
Select the best answer to each of the following analogy questions.
_____ 1. HAPPINESS : EUPHORIA ::
A. joy : despair
B. denial : excuse
C. urgent : important
D. anger : fury
_____ 2. TORNADO : DESTRUCTION ::
A. hurricane : ocean
B. thunder : wind
C. windmill : electricity
D. wave : tsunami
_____ 3. HEART : LOVE ::
A. brain : vision
B. smiley : good will
C. flag : burning
D. television : entertainment
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LEssON 29
Word of the Week
convoluted (k5n [email protected] l2> ted)
adj., overly twisted or complicated
As you experiment with using
new vocabulary in your writing,
avoid inserting extra words
unnecessarily, a practice
that could make your writing
convoluted.
Convoluted comes from the
Latin con- (“with, together”) and
volvere (“to roll”). In literal terms,
convoluted means “all rolled up
together,” or “tangled.”
While the words covered,
enshrouded, and cloaked
may be listed in the thesaurus
as synonyms, each carries a
slightly different connotation, or
emotional association. A nuance
is a subtle distinction or variation.
Even synonyms have subtle
nuances of meaning.
Tip
A verb expresses action
or state of being. An
action verb expresses physical
or mental activity. Action verbs are
usually more vivid than state of
being verbs.
Tip
A noun is a part of speech
that names a person,
place, idea, or thing.
Tip
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Writing and Word choice
Understand the concept
Imagine that you are writing about an experience you had one morning
when you were out camping with a friend’s family. You describe how
you stepped outside the tent before anyone else was awake, how you
walked down to the lake while it was still enshrouded in mist, how
something about that early morning birdsong made you feel that the
world was full of potential. When you finish your essay, you know
you have really communicated the experience. Anyone who reads
your essay will understand exactly how that morning looked, smelled,
sounded, and felt. You are incredibly satisfied with your essay.
The way to achieve such accurate communication in your writing
is to consider your word choices carefully. Was that fog on the lake,
or was it mist? Was the lake covered, enshrouded, or cloaked in that
mist? As you write, you will want to consider the nuances of a word’s
meaning to make sure it conveys exactly what you want to express.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
In your notebook, explain how the following sets of words differ in
connotation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
bitter / resentful / cynical
confusing / bewildering / inexplicable
fatigued / tired/ exhausted
alone / lonely / forlorn
triumphant / victorious / exultant
Vivid Verbs
Verbs express what is happening in your writing. Imagine that you want
to describe a deer moving through a field. You could simply write “The
deer moved through the field,” but you could also have the deer bound,
saunter, dart, browse, or mince through the field. What are the differences
among these ways of moving? Choosing your verbs carefully will allow
your readers to imagine more vividly the exact image you have in mind.
Precise Nouns
Just as vivid verbs help your readers imagine the action more clearly,
precise nouns allow them to visualize the people, places, things, and
ideas in your writing. Is the man in your story a fellow, a gentleman, a
bloke, a guy, or a churl? Is the house a cottage, a chalet, a farmhouse, or
a bungalow? Aim for the most precise noun you can find.
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colorful Modifiers
Modifiers are words that add meaning to or change the meaning of
nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. Adjectives and adverbs are two
common kinds of modifiers. Using precise and colorful adjectives and
adverbs adds color and intensity to your writing.
Adjectives modify nouns, telling specific details about them.
examples
While modifiers can
enliven your writing, too
many modifiers will bog it down.
Consider whether you can delete
a modifier by making the noun or
verb it modifies more precise.
Tip
dark, lone spot
intense gaze
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
examples
limp gingerly
practically nonexistent
wander far away
Prepositional phrases can also serve as modifiers:
examples
The mannequins with their empty, eyeless faces, frozen in their stiff
poses, presented an eerie sight in the dark, deserted warehouse.
When using a thesaurus,
be sure to check a
dictionary or ask someone if you
are unsure of the connotations of
the synonyms you find.
Tip
Using colorful modifiers, you can let your readers know if the world
inside your head is frenzied, bizarre, tranquil, or silent. You can tell
them whether the woman turned suspiciously, eagerly, or angrily
toward the man beside her. Interesting modifiers bring your writing to
life.
Just for Fun
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE B
Rewrite the following sentences using vivid verbs, precise nouns, and
colorful modifiers to paint a clear picture of each scene.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Someone walked into a house in a place in America.
The weather was bad.
People moved into the building for the event.
A creature appeared.
The children played in a play area.
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
Write a poem about the color
purple. Use a dictionary or
thesaurus to help you find words
to express your feelings about this
color.
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 30
Word of the Week
mangled (ma4> [email protected]) v., to
injure with deep disfiguring
wounds; to spoil or make
incoherent
Daina wanted to wear her green
sweater, but it had been mangled
in the dryer and was beyond
repair.
The word mangled is a Middle
English word that comes from
the Anglo-French words mangler
and mahangler, perhaps also
from mahaigner meaning “to
maim.” The sentence above has a
literal meaning, while a statement
such as “She mangled my heart”
contains a figurative one.
While being able to
identify and utilize
figurative meanings is important
for readers and writers, overusing
figurative meanings in your work
can confuse your readers. Using
an appropriate combination of
literal and figurative language in
your work will add vibrancy and
interest to your writing without
detracting from clarity.
Literal and Figurative Meanings
Understand the concept
Understanding the difference between figurative and literal meanings
is an essential communication skill. A literal meaning is the concrete
or common meaning of a word or phrase, while a figurative meaning
goes beyond the literal or concrete meaning. Someone who does not
understand the difference between literal and figurative meanings will
stumble over figurative words and phrases. Consider the following
examples:
example
My stomach fills with butterflies when he enters the
room.
literal meaning: The speaker eats butterflies when the
person arrives. (incorrect)
figurative meaning: The speaker feels nervous when
the person arrives. (correct)
Writers use figurative meaning to create vivid, memorable images that
engage the imaginations of their readers. Figurative meaning enables
writers to explain ideas in new and inspiring ways.
example
Tip
literal: The cool water satisfied my thirst.
figurative: The cool water revived my body and spirit.
Some important terms in understanding literal and figurative meanings
are metaphors, similes, idioms, and personification. All are examples
of figurative language. A metaphor is a comparison between two
dissimilar items. A simile is a comparison between two dissimilar items
using the words like or as. Personification is the description of a nonhuman object as if it were human. An idiom is an expression specific
to a particular language that cannot be understood literally. The first
example in this lesson is an example of an idiom, since it makes no
sense that a person would literally have butterflies in their stomach.
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Analyze each of the following sentences to determine if the sentence is
literal or figurative. In your notebook, explain the literal meaning of the
figurative sentences by writing an alternative, literal version. Make sure
that the alternative sentence retains the original sentence’s meaning.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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The children sat on a sofa of grass.
The sofa had grass stains on it.
My lawyers had a field day with the defendant.
The lawyer was walking through the field.
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
The ice cubes have melted.
He melted in her presence.
His mind raced over the answers.
Everyone raced to be first in line.
Truth flows from my pen.
The pen belonged to my father.
ExErcIsE B
Write a short paragraph about your day in the space provided below.
Do not use any figurative meanings.
Now, rewrite the paragraph and incorporate figurative meaning into
your writing.
Which paragraph do you prefer? Why?
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 31
Word of the Week
tremulous (trem> [email protected] [email protected])
adj., characterized by trembling;
affected with timidity; such as is or
might be caused by nervousness
or shakiness
The tremulous puppy was
soothed after the vacuum
stopped and the house was quiet
once again.
The word tremulous is an
example of a colorful modifier.
Synonyms of tremulous include
aquiver, shaky, and trembling.
Remember to be aware of
different connotations when using
synonyms.
An extended metaphor
is a point-by-point
presentation of one thing as
though it were another. The
description is meant as an implied
comparison, inviting the reader
to associate the thing being
described with something that is
quite different from it.
Tip
Figurative Language
Understand the concept
While vivid verbs, strong adjectives, and precise nouns help to create
rich and enjoyable text, other techniques can be used to make writing
more interesting. Figurative language describes words and phrases
that are intended to be understood imaginatively rather than literally.
Writers use figurative language to make their writing more colorful and
descriptive.
example
The mountain kept its back against the blizzard as we
cowered against it like children tucked behind their
mother’s apron.
In this example, the mountain sounds like a caring mother figure, but
the writer is not implying that the mountain is the speaker’s actual
mother. Instead, the reader should understand that the mountain
provides shelter, much like a mother figure. This example contains
more than one kind of figurative language. The most common types of
figurative language are as follows:
Personification is a figure of speech in which something not
human—an animal, object, place, or idea—is given human qualities or
characteristics. The example above contains personification in that the
mountain has human emotions or motivations (protectiveness).
examples
The old barn glowered at the children.
The car coughed and sputtered, choking as it died.
We wanted to hear the bells sing before we left.
A simile is a comparison using the word like or as. It usually suggests
an imaginative similarity between two unlike things. In the example at
the top of the page, the comparison of the subjects to children cowering
behind an apron is an example of a simile because it uses the word like.
examples
I’m as hungry as a bear.
Norah sings like an angel from heaven.
The morning air is crisp like dried leaves and ice
crystals.
Imaginative comparisons that do not use the words like or as are called
metaphors. Metaphors compare two unlike things and often appear as
noun phrases—for example, the phrase “heated argument” could also
be written as “the argument was heated.”
examples
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I’m a hungry bear.
Norah is an angel from heaven when she sings.
The morning air is dried leaves and ice crystals.
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Try It Yourself
Use sensory details in
your work to make it
more descriptive and interesting.
Sensory details are words or
phrases that describe how things
look, sound, smell, taste, or feel.
Tip
ExErcIsE A
Identify each of the following examples as either a simile (S) or a
metaphor (M). Then rewrite each simile as a metaphor and each
metaphor as a simile..
1. He was as lost as a rat in a maze.
2. My friend is a raving lunatic.
3. It was a vast forest, populated by evergreens as tall as
mountains.
4. I want to prove to my friends that I am like Babe Ruth on
the field.
5. She was a cat, leaping from rooftop to rooftop.
ExErcIsE B
Illustrate your understanding of the lesson by rewriting the following
sentences using figurative language. At least two of your sentences
should include personification.
1. Hector was a good singer.
2. The house was old.
3. The train could not stop.
4. The fire destroyed the mall.
5. Nisrene had been waiting for six hours.
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
LEssON 32
Word of the Week
ingenious (in j7n> [email protected]) adj.,
showing or calling for intelligence,
aptitude, or discernment; marked
by cleverness and originality
We always knew Margo was
smart, but her creation was
ingenious.
The word ingenious comes from
the Latin words ingeniosus and
ingenium, which mean “natural
capacity.” Synonyms include
inventive, creative, and original.
You can learn new
vocabulary by listening
to people talk. The key is to pay
attention to how words are used
in context.
Tip
Expanding Your Word Knowledge
Understand the concept
All of the word study activities you’ve done this year have helped you
to expand your word knowledge, unlock the meanings of new words,
and apply your word skills to new situations. Now you need to take
responsibility for applying this knowledge to your daily life.
Continue to read and listen actively and to keep track of new words
you discover. Remember the following tips that can help you build your
vocabulary:
When you encounter an unfamiliar word, use one of these
techniques to determine its meaning
• Keep a word study notebook
• Use PAVE to learn and practice using new words
• When you encounter an unfamiliar word, use the following
techniques to determine its meaning:
– Examine context clues
– Break the word into its parts
– Check for diagrams, footnotes, and other text support
– Look the word up in a dictionary
– Ask for help
Try It Yourself
ExErcIsE A
Use one or more of the strategies above to determine the meaning of
the underlined word in the sentence below. Then, on your own paper,
create a word study notebook page for the word. Include the word’s
definition, pronunciation, and origin, along with an example sentence
or drawing to help you remember it.
Rather than try to talk over her students, Mrs. Karasarides stood
quietly at the front of the room until the kerfuffle died down.
Become a collector of exotic, colorful words, and talk about the
words you are learning. Discussing the meanings of new words will
help you remember them. Not only will you be able to express more
precisely what you mean, but you will be able to entertain your friends
with unusual terms. You will also be helping to preserve the English
language in all its variety.
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Try It Yourself
Once you learn a new
word, try to use it several
times within the next few days
so that you become comfortable
with it.
Tip
ExErcIsE B
Here are some quirky words to add to your vocabulary. Write a
sample sentence for each word.
1. finagle: get by indirect means or by trickery
2. glabrous: smooth, even
3. bursiform: purse-shaped
4. puce: brownish-purple
Just for Fun
Create a word study website.
Sites such as geocities.yahoo.
com and www.cybersoup.com
offer free webspace for personal
and educational pages. You can
include lists of unusual words,
words that have interesting
sounds, word games, slang
dictionaries, and many other word
wonders.
5. carp: nitpick or complain about trivial things
6. sully: soil, stain, or defile
7. majuscular: a large letter, such as a capital
8. purfle: decorate the edge or border
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Name: ____________________________________________________ Date: __________________
Time Out for Test Practice
Using Word Attack skills on standardized Tests
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
from Silent Spring
by Rachel Carson
The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction between living things and
their surroundings. To a large extent, the physical form and the habits of the earth’s
vegetation and its animal life have been molded by the environment. Considering
the whole span of earthly time, the opposite effect, in which life actually modifies its
surroundings, has been relatively slight. Only within the moment of time represented
by the present century has one species—man—acquired significant power to alter the
nature of his world.
During the past quarter century this power has not only increased to one of
disturbing magnitude but it has changed in character. The most alarming of all man’s
assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with
dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable;
the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living
tissues is for the most part irreversible. In this now universal contamination of the
environment, chemicals are the sinister and little-recognized partners of radiation in
changing the very nature of the world—the very nature of its life. Strontium 90, released
through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to earth in rain or drifts down as fallout,
lodges in soil, enters into the grass or corn or wheat grown there, and in time, takes
up its abode in the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly,
chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens lie long in soil, entering into living
organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they
pass mysteriously by underground streams until they emerge and, through the alchemy
of air and sunlight, combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and work
unknown harm on those who drink from once pure wells. As Albert Schweitzer has
said, “Man can hardly even recognize the devils of his own creation.”
_____ 1. Interaction most likely means
A. back and forth action or effect.
B. exchange of goods.
C. avoidance.
D. conversation among two or more
parties.
_____ 2. A synonym for magnitude is
A. depth.
B. size.
C. government.
D. building.
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_____ 3. A synonym for lethal is
A. loyal.
B. damaging.
C. deadly.
D. significant.
_____ 4. The word that comes closest to the
meaning of irrecoverable is
A. pollution.
B. universal.
C. irreversible.
D. sinister.
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_____ 5. Alchemy most likely means
A. supernatural power.
B. reference to literature or history.
C. incredible danger.
D. method of transformation.
Analogies
_____ 1. GOOD : ANGELIC ::
A. bad : poor
B. glad : joyous
C. mean : human
D. sweet: musty
_____ 4. CONQUER : SUBJUGATE ::
A. esteem : respect
B. slander : vilify
C. discern : observe
D. ponder : deliberate
_____ 2. GRIEF : DOLEFUL ::
A. melancholy : hopeful
B. greed : successful
C. anger : wrathful
D. reaction : involuntary
_____ 5. MUFFLE : SILENCE ::
A. cover : report
B. sound : alarm
C. cry : hear
D. stymie : defeat
_____ 3. POLYGLOT : LANGUAGE ::
A. teacher : students
B. handyman : odd jobs
C. polygamist : children
D. mentor : drills
sentence completions
_____ 1. Unruly people will often become
_____ if they are treated with _____
by those around them.
A. angry…kindness
B. calm…respect
C. peaceful…abuse
D. dangerous…love
_____ 2. British _____ in India resulted
in widespread nonviolent _____
throughout the country.
A. investment…revolt
B. oppression…cooperation
C. racism…reform
D. colonialism…uprisings
_____ 4. Although reviewers considered his
work _____ when it first appeared,
the writer is now _____ for his
literary accomplishment.
A. insignificant…revered
B. derivative…dismissed
C. brilliant…lauded
D. lucid…vilified
_____ 5. As a staunch _____ of our right to
leisure time, Jed had few _____.
A. proponent…friends
B. advocate…defenders
C. opponent…duties
D. defender…equals
_____ 3. _____ believe that war is _____.
A. Hawks…futile
B. Protesters…urgent
C. Pacifists…unnecessary
D. Generals…archaic
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Answer Key
Lesson 1: Keeping a Word Study
Notebook, page 1
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary. Students should include the
pronunciation, origins, definition, and a sentence
illustrating the meaning of the word they have
chosen. They may also include a drawing.
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary.
Lesson 2: Word Study Skills in Reading,
page 3
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1. The word fetal probably refers to the unborn
baby.
2. The words pregnant and development gave
clues to the word’s meaning.
E x e r c ise B
1. exist together relatively peacefully
2. set in motion
3. badly adapted or poorly suited to an
environment
4. a chord consisting of four notes (with an
interval of a perfect fourth between first and
last note)
5. the study of speech sounds
E x e r c ise C
1.
2.
3.
4.
fragment, portion
a net for catching fish
having a smooth, rich flow
a woman’s ornate cap popular in the late
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries
5. deficient in brightness; dull, gloomy
Lesson 3: PAVE—Predict, Associate,
Verify, Evaluate, page 5
Try It Yourself
Responses will vary. Definitions for each word
are given.
1. to disqualify oneself to avoid conflict of
interest
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2. a vigorous or rapid projection of many
things at once
3. lying down
4. modest, free from ostentation or elegance
5. animal life
Lesson 4: Using Context Clues, page 7
Try It Yourself
1. The author uses examples to indicate that
archetypal means “an idea shared among
members of a culture or other group.”
2. The author uses restatement to define cairns
as “monuments consisting of piled stones.”
3. The second clause clarifies that escalated
means “became greater.”
4. A cause and effect clue indicates that
if anthropologists can’t make sense of
something, that thing is extremely puzzling.
Enigmatic must mean “very puzzling.”
5. The examples indicate that amphibians are
animals that are born in water but live on land.
Lesson 5: Using Context Clues, page 9
Try It Yourself
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
angered
natural; innate
depressed
moving clumsily
avoiding the point
studied
chaos; frenzy
hesitant
completely unaware
highly regarded
Time Out for Test Practice, page 11
Using Context Clues
1. C. declare again as valid
2. B.having confidence in and exercising one’s
own powers
3. D. call to remembrance
4. A. marked by danger or insecurity
5. D. growing rapidly
6. B. quality of enduring
7. A. legacy; tradition
8. C pursuit of or search for something
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9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
B. shine coming from within
D. custom-made
D. vague
A. calm
A. fastener
B. fashionable
B. easy
C. pretended sickness
A. extreme poverty
D. apologetic
B. instinctive
C. theory
Lesson 6: Reference Materials for
Vocabulary Words, page 13
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1. wallow: to roll about in mud or filth; to be
stuck or mired in a situation or state of mind
that is difficult to get out of
2. mortify: to destroy the strength or vitality of;
to severly embarrass
3. chasm: a deep, steep-sided valley; a large
difference of opinion
4. advocate: (v) to promote an idea, to speak
or argue in favor of something; (n) a person
who promotes an idea or cause
5. cliché: a tired or trite phrase or expression;
something that has become commonplace
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary. Possible answers are given.
1. detrimental
definition: something that causes damage or
harm
synonyms: harmful, damaging, injurious,
hurtful, risky
2. lament
definition: to express regret
synonyms: mourn, grieve, bemoan, rue,
deplore
3. synthetic
definition: something that is not natural or
real
synonyms: artificial, fake, mock, imitation,
unnatural
4. mentor
definition: a teacher or advisor who takes
a particular interest in the training and/or
success of a student or young person
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synonyms: counselor, tutor, guide, teacher,
advisor
5. eloquent
definition: well-spoken; expressive
synonyms: articulate, ardent, fluent,
poignant, passionate
6. fiasco
definition: a total mess of a situation
synonyms: debacle, disaster, mess, shambles,
calamity
7. profound
definition: having intellectual depth and
insight
synonyms: philosophical, thoughtful,
weighty, deep, serious
8. exhilaration
definition: a state of excitement and
happiness
synonyms: delight, elation, joy, exultation,
euphoria
Lesson 7: Words with Multiple
Meanings, page 15
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Sentences will vary. Definitions are given.
1. n., an aromatic spice derived from nutmeg
n., a heavy, often spiked staff or club used in
the Middle Ages
2. v., to erect and fix firmly in place
n., slope
3. adj., marked by considerable departure from
the original; extreme
n., root
E x e r c ise B
1. (k5m> paund) adj., composed of the union
of two or more things
([email protected] paund>) v., make larger or of greater
intensity
2. (en> [email protected]) n., opening through which one
enters
(in trans>) v., to carry away with delight,
wonder, or rapture
3. (mi> [email protected]) n., unit of time comprised of onesixtieth of an hour
(m8 n2t>) adj., extremely small
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Lesson 8: Review of Synonyms and
Antonyms, page 17
Word Meanings
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary. Sample responses are given.
1. synonyms: annoyed, miffed; antonyms:
soothed, calmed
2. synonyms: youthful, juvenile; antonyms:
elderly, old
3. synonyms: grin, leer; antonyms: frown,
grimace
4. synonyms: little, tiny; antonyms: large,
gargantuan
5. synonyms: alter, modify; antonyms:
reinstate, preserve
E x e r c ise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ordeals
irresponsible
cheap
deeply
seriousness
Lesson 9: Connotation and Denotation,
page 19
Try It Yourself
1. Strong-willed is more positive than stubborn,
which has a negative connotation.
2. Flighty has a negative connotation similar
to unreliable, whereas unpredictable is
more neutral and can even be positive, as in
someone who is not boring.
3. Solitude has a negative or positive
connotation, while loneliness is almost
always negative.
4. Selective has a positive connotation—as in
someone who is careful about what he or
she eats, reads, and so on—while picky has a
negative connotation.
5. Arrogant has a very negative connotation,
whereas self-confident has a positive
connotation.
Time Out for Test Practice, page 21
Connotation and Denotation
1. D. talkative
2. B. eager
3. A. travel
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4. B. dismantle
5. D. want
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B. purse
D. analyze
C. scarce
D. bizarre
C. conservative
C. hefty
A. irate
A. overindulgent
Lesson 10: Spelling Correctly, page 22
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1. balmy
letters that form long e sound: y
definition: mild; soothing
2. decipher
letters that form long e sound: e
definition: to figure out what something
means
3. keen
letters that form long e sound: ee
definition: eager; sharp
4. tedious
letters that form long e sounds: e and i
definition: boring; dull; tiresome
5. leaping
letters that form long e sound: ea
definition: springing free
E x e r c ise B
1. vain
letters that form long a sound: ai
definition: useless; excessively interested in
one’s own appearance
2. gale
letters that form long a sound: a
definition: strong wind
3. array
letters that form long a sound: ay
definition: a display or range of something
4. convey
letters that form long a sound: ey
definition: to communicate information
5. heinous
letters that form long a sound: ei
definition: shockingly evil
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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E x e r c ise C
1. f sound
forest, cliff, laugh
2. sh sound
shining, chute, vacation, cushion, schnauzer
3. j sound
jam, gerbil
Lesson 11: Spelling Patterns I, page 24
E x e r c ise A
irresponsible
gradually
cooperate
actually
unnecessary
skiing
1. the y is preceded by a consonant; the y is
preceded by a vowel
2. A. shabbier
B. boyish
C. airily
D. flying
E. employer
F. coyly
E x e r c ise C
1. the suffix begins with a vowel; the suffix
begins with a consonant
2. A. infringing
B. irately
C. remoteness
D. distributed
E. recuperation
F. arrangement
3. because the e makes the c or g sound soft
rather than hard
4. because otherwise they would be confused
with dying and singing
Lesson 12: Spelling Patterns II, page 27
Try It Yourself
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
sopranos
crutches
apartment complexes
Tuesdays
bullies
videos
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
crises
tomatoes, peppers, chives
analyses
sheep, children
alumni, c’s, s’s.
E x e r c ise C
weird, shrieked, neighbor, disbelief
chief, siege, believed, beige
conceited, succeeded, receding
proceed, conceded, exceed
field, intercede
Lesson 13: Spell-Check Software and
What It Fails to Do, page 29
E x e r c ise B
E x e r c ise A
E x e r c ise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Try It Yourself
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. trenches
8. personalities
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary.
E x e r c ise B
When researching an author, keep in mind
that it takes time to find a quality, informative
site among the clutter and gigantic mass of the
Internet. Web browsers are a great place to start;
most of the sites you will find there will be well
organized and in-depth. The best sites are often
those that the authors put together themselves.
When a writer creates a home page, you can
often find personal messages and anecdotes that
allow you to get a real sense of who he or she is.
Good secondary sites include those authorized by
the author or his or her agent, literary societies,
publishers, and fans of the author.
Time Out for Test Practice, page 31
Spelling
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
A. calendar
B. competitive
A. embarrasses
B. extraordinary
B. attach
A. heroes
A. mischievous
B. temperature
A. humorous
B. repetition
A. weird
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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
B. recommends
A. indispensable
A. surprised
B. harass
A. eligible
A. cemetery
A. feminine
B. conscience
A. amateur
A. parallel
B. vengeance
A. sponsor
A. privilege
B. committee
4. interfaith: several faiths or religions joined
or considered together
5. midtown: middle of a town or city
6. unknown: not known
E x e r c ise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
fatherhood: the condition of being a father
southerner: one who is from the South
relationship: the state of relations
preparedness: the quality of being prepared
scholarly: characteristic of a scholar
hopeful: full of hope
E x e r c ise C
Responses will vary.
Lesson 14: Morphemes—The Building
Blocks of Words, page 33
Try It Yourself
Lesson 16: More about Prefixes, page 37
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary. Sample responses are given.
1. proceed, progress, provision, prologue
2. prospect, introspection, spectacle, spectator
3. project, reject, interject, conjecture, eject
4. specify, dignify, vilify, magnify, glorify
Sentences will vary. Definitions are given.
1. area before the room
2. glow or good feeling that lasts after
something is over
3. something written after one is dead
4. an indicator before (in this case before the
disease culminates in death)
E x e r c ise B
E x e r c ise B
E x e r c ise A
1. stup, root, stun
–ify, suffix, make or cause to be
cause to be stunned
2. pro­, prefix, before or forward
tract–, root, draw or drag
draw forward
3. serv, root, serve
–itude, suffix, quality or state of
state of having to serve
4. sheep, base word, animal that tends to follow
–ish, suffix, like
–ly, suffix, in such a manner
acting in the manner of a sheep
Lesson 15: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes,
page 35
Sentences will vary. Definitions are given.
1. to turn away or apart from something
2. to work together
3. to turn or move in separate directions
Lesson 17: More about Suffixes, page 39
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
pollution
adoptee
frigidity
bachelorhood
correspondence
defendant
amateur
E x e r c ise B
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1. semiannual: half-year or occurring twice per
year
2. disassemble: to take apart or the opposite of
assemble
3. bimonthly: every two months
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
perishable
vigilant
contemptible
asteroid
cosmic
crossly: resembling someone who is irritable
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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7. recklessly: resembling someone who is
acting in a heedless manner
8. toward: in the direction of
E x e r c ise C
Sentences will vary. Words are given.
1. glorify
2. standardize
3. motivate
4. hasten
5. familiarize
Lesson 18: Word Origins, page 42
Try It Yourself
Word definitions and origins will vary slightly;
sentences will vary.
1. sequester: to set apart; segregate
origin: [Middle English sequestren, from
Anglo-French sequestrer, from Latin
sequestrare, meaning “to hand over to a
trustee,” from sequester meaning “third
party to whom disputed property is
entrusted, agent,” from secus meaning
“beside, otherwise;” akin to Latin sequi
meaning “to follow”]
2. banal: lacking originality, freshness, or
novelty
origin: [French, from Middle French “of
compulsory feudal service, possessed in
common, commonplace,” from ban]
3. bestow: to put to use, to put in a particular
or appropriate place
origin [Middle English from be- + stowe
meaning “place”]
4. clammy: being damp, soft, sticky, and
usually cool; lacking normal human warmth
origin: [Middle English, probably from
clammen “to smear, stick” from Old English
clæman; akin to Old English clæg or “clay”]
5. ecology: a branch of science concerned with
the interrelationship of organisms and their
environments
origin: [Greek Ökologie, from öko-/eco- +
-logie/-logy]
6. harmony: tuneful sound; the combination of
simultaneous musical notes in a chord
origin: [Middle English armony, from
Anglo-French armonie, from Latin
harmonia, from Greek, “joint harmony,”
from harmos “joint”]
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7. hence: from this place; away
origins: [Middle English hennes, henne,
from Old English heonan; akin to Old High
German hinnan “away,” and Old English hēr
“here”]
8. jeopardy: exposure to or imminence of
death, loss, or injury; danger
origin: [Middle English jeopardie, from
Anglo-French juparti, jeuparti alternative,
literally “divided game”]
9. legacy: a gift by will, especially of money
or other personal property; something
transmitted by or received from an ancestor
or predecessor or from the past
origin: [Middle English legacie “office of
a legate, bequest” from Anglo-French or
Medieval Latin; Anglo-French office of a
legate, from Medieval Latin legatia, from
Latin legatus]
10. zeal: eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit
of something
origin: [Middle English zele, from Late Latin.
zelus, from Greek zēlos]
Lesson 19: Root Families, page 44
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Sentences will vary. Definitions and explanations
are given.
1. take back; recall
2. cause to react; cause to call out
3. marked by or given to forceful, persistent
outcry; tending to call out forcefully
4. one that pleads the case of another; one that
gives voice to someone else’s interests
5. hobby; unpaid “calling”
E x e r c ise B
1. bene: good
benefactor: one who does good things for
someone else
benign: not harmful
benediction: blessing; something that
promotes goodness or well-being
2. mal: bad
malpractice: performing one’s job or
practice badly
malefactor: one who does ill toward another;
a criminal
malignant: causing harm
malnourished: poorly fed
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3. dyn: force, power
dynamic: energetic; forceful
dynamo: someone who is energetic and
forceful
dynamite: a powerful explosive
dynasty: a powerful group or family that
maintains power over a long period
4. ferv: boil or bubble
fervent: exhibiting or marked by great
intensity of feeling
fervid: marked by extreme intensity of
feeling
fervor: intensity of feeling
effervescent: bubbling, hissing, or foaming;
showing liveliness or exhilaration
5. greg: flock or herd
congregate: gather together
segregate: separate according to certain
features
gregarious: friendly
Lesson 20: Greek and Latin Roots,
page 46
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Predicted meanings will vary. Actual meanings
are given.
1. cryptology: the study of secret codes
2. epistemology: the study or theory of the
nature and grounds of knowledge
3. etymology: the study of word origins
4. gerontology: the study of aging
5. pathology: the study of disease
6. theology: the study of religious faith,
practice, and experience
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary.
E x e r c ise C
1. olig: few
archy: ruler, ruling class
Oligarchy is rule by a small number of
people, usually for selfish purposes.
2. leg: law
The legislature is the group of people
responsible for making laws.
3. pop: people
A populist is one who advocates for the
common people.
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4. cracy: form of government
A plutocracy is a government by the
wealthy.
5. crat: leader, member, or supporter of a
certain group or class
A technocrat is one who believes in the
management of society by technical experts
Lesson 21: Using Word Parts to Unlock
Meaning, page 48
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Think alouds will vary.
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary. Dictionary definitions
provided below.
1. prototype—an original model on which
something is patterned
2. invalidating—to make invalid, to weaken or
destroy the cogency of
3. despicable—deserving to be despised
4. entrenched—to place within or surround
with a trench, especially for defense; to
establish solidly
5. recriminations—a retaliatory accusation
Lesson 22: The Evolution of Language,
page 50
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1. The man was very much in debt; he couldn’t
even afford a new pair of shoes.
2. You’d better listen to your mother’s advice;
she knows what she’s talking about!
3. Initially, I trusted the peddler to deal
honestly with me, but eventually I
recognized he was a con man.
4. Perhaps Jon will stop by on his way home, or
perhaps he won’t.
5. The peddler asked to speak with the man of
the house, but only the wife was available to
speak with him.
E x e r c ise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
eponym
acronym
eponym
eponym
borrowed word
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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E x e r c ise C
1. leaning toward but not quite wrong
2. event where everyone is trying to impress
and court favor with everyone else
3. unlicensed assistant teachers
4. small shop
5. conversation consisting of technical terms
Time Out for Test Practice, page 53
Prefixes and Suffixes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
A. half
A. not
B. three
A. too little; lacking
B. later; after
B. before; first
A. –ize
A. micro–
A. in–
C. pre–
D. retro–
B. –en
Root Families
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
root: dict; C. to say
root: scrib/scrip; D. to write
root: port; A. to carry
root: fin; B. end
root: aud; D. to hear
root: viv/vit; B. alive
D. uncertain how to act or proceed
D. one who assumes complete control
D. involving two variables
A. disturbed state
C. divide into three equal parts
B. of more than one voice
Lesson 23: Spanish Words in English,
page 55
Try It Yourself
1. from the Spanish guaba, guayaba, perhaps
from Taino
2. from the Spanish hamaca from Taino
3. from the Spanish huracán from the Taino
hurakán
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4. from the Spanish el largato, meaning “the
lizard,” from el meaning “the” plus largato
meaning “lizard,” assumed to come from
vulgar Latin lacartus, from Latin lacertus,
lacerta
5. from the Spanish cucaracha, meaning
“cockroach,” from cuca, meaning
“caterpillar.”
6.–10. Sentences will vary. Etymologies and
definitions are given.
6. from American Spanish pinto, meaning
“spotted,” from obsolete Spanish, assumed
to be from vulgar Latin pinctus; a horse or
pony with splotches of white and another
color
7. from the Spanish incomunicado, from the
past participle of incomunicar, meaning “to
deprive of communication,” from Latin in–
plus comunicar, meaning “to communicate,”
from Latin communicare; without means of
communicaton
8. from Mexican Spanish sarape; a colorful
woolen shawl worn over the shoulders,
especially by Mexican men
9. from Spanish, from the feminine of junto,
meaning “joined,” from the Latin junctus,
past participle of jungere, meaning “to
join”; a council or committee for political or
governmental purposes, especially a group
of persons controlling a government after a
revolutionary seizure of power
10. from the Spanish guerrilla, from the
diminutive of guerra, meaning “war,” of
Germanic origins akin to Old High German
werra, meaning “strife”; a person who
engages in irregular warfare, especially as a
member of an independent unit carrying out
harassment and sabotage
Lesson 24: English Words from French,
page 57
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Connections will vary. Etymology and definitions
are given.
1. Etymology: Middle English from Middle
French covrefeu, referring to a signal given
to bank the hearth fire, from covrir, meaning
“to cover” and feu, meaning “fire,” from
Latin focus, meaning “hearth.”
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Definition: a regulation meaning that certain
people must be off the streets by a certain hour
or businesses must close by a certain time
2. Etymology: Middle English sege, from Old
French meaning “seat; blockade,” from
segier, meaning “to seat, settle,” assumed to
be from vulgar Latin sedicare, from Latin
sedāre, meaning “to sit.”
Definition: a military blockage of a place to
force it to surrender; a persistent or serious
attack
3. Etymology: from Middle English virtu, from
Old French, from Latin virtut, meaning
“strength, manliness, virtue,” from vir,
meaning “man”
Definition: conformity to a standard of
right; morality
4. Etymology: from Middle French perjurer,
from Latin perjurare, from per, meaning “for
the worse” plus jurare, meaning “to swear.”
Definition: to swear under oath to
something that is untrue
E x e r c ise B
1. Once we had told our dinner companions
that we admired their clothes, we began to
eat.
2. I looked for the book, only to discover that
it had been stolen! Luckily, my friend helped
me in discovering the thief.
3. The peonies bloomed all around the house,
hiding the large French doors that led into
the garden.
Lesson 25: English Words from
German, page 59
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Predicted meanings will vary. Definitions are
given.
1. line of extravagant talk; pitch
2. took the goods of by force
3. barren; desolate
4. broken
E x e r c ise B
Sentences will vary. Etymologies and meanings
are given.
1. from German Blitz, meaning “lightning,”
and Krieg, “meaning “war”; war conducted
with great speed and force
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2. from German Schaden, meaning “misfortune,”
and Freude, meaning “joy”; enjoyment
obtained from the troubles of others
3. from German dumm, meaning “dumb,” and
Kopf, meaning “head”; blockhead
4. from German, from Old High German
farboten, past participle of farbioten,
meaning “to forbid,” from far, meaning “for”
plus bioten, meaning “to offer”; not allowed
5. from German from Fliegerabwehrkanonen,
from Flieger, meaning “flyer,” Abwehr,
meaning “defense,” and Kanonen, meaning
“canons”; criticism or opposition
Lesson 26: Register, Slang, and
Colloquialisms, page 61
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary. Students should provide
advice and offer suggestions that make the letter
more formal.
E x e r c ise B
1.–6. Responses will vary.
Lesson 27: Idioms, page 63
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1.–5.
Responses will vary.
E x e r c ise B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ahead of time
pounding the pavement
cut to the chase
break the news to
pick up the pace
Time Out for Test Practice, page 65
Borrowed Words in English
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
N. kitsch
K. déjà vu
F. burro
A. angst
R. poncho
I. conquistador
O. lasso
H. cocoa
S. rendezvous
B. vogue
T. wanderlust
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
C. bizarre
Q. patio
D. blitz
P. omelet
G. canyon
M. gourmet
J. coyote
L. flak
E. buffet
Idioms and Colloquialisms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
A. bring up a topic of dispute
B. gossip; have a casual conversation
D. hearty eater; glutton
C. small amount of money
A. teach me how things are done
B. elaborate, showy presentation
B. start all over again
B. quick temper
D. get ahead of oneself
C. in the same predicament
B. reap the consequences of one’s actions
A. very active, social person
Lesson 28: Vocabulary Questions on
Standardized Tests, page 67
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
1.
2.
3.
4.
C. briefly.
A. explain.
A. fancy
C. request
E x e r c ise B
1. C. muster…malicious
2. A. dramatic…imperceptible
3. B. garish…censure
E x e r c ise C
1. D. anger : fury
2. C. windmill : electricity
3. B. smiley : goodwill
Lesson 29: Writing and Word Choice,
page 70
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary somewhat. Have students
compare their responses to those of their
classmates.
© EMC Publishing, LLC
0080-0090_Gr09_vocab&spelling-AK.indd 89
1. Resentful generally refers to someone’s
feelings toward a particular person or group,
whereas bitter and cynical refer to someone’s
personality more generally. Of these latter
two, bitter may have the more negative
connotation.
2. Inexplicable is the strongest of these terms,
followed by bewildering and then confusing.
3. Exhausted is the most extreme of the three
terms, followed by tired and then fatigued.
4. Forlorn is the most extreme of these terms,
followed by lonely and then alone.
5. Exultant is the strongest of the three terms.
Victorious refers to a victory over someone,
whereas triumphant wouldn’t necessarily
imply an opponent.
E x e r c ise B
1.–5.
Responses will vary.
Lesson 30: Literal and Figurative
Meanings, page 72
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Possible sentences provided.
1. figurative / The children sat on a mound of
grass.
2. literal
3. figurative / My lawyers easily made the
defendant look guilty.
4. literal
5. literal
6. figurative / He was in love with her.
7. figurative / His mind evaluated the answers
quickly.
8. literal
9. figurative / I only write the truth.
10. literal
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary.
Lesson 31: Figurative Language, page 74
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Rewritten sentences will vary.
1. simile; He was a rat in a maze.
2. metaphor; My friend is like a raving lunatic.
3. simile; It was a vast forest, populated by
mountain-tall evergreens.
Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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4. simile; I want to prove to my friends that I
am Babe Ruth on the field.
5. metaphor; She was like a cat, leaping from
rooftop to rooftop.
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary.
Lesson 32: Expanding Your Word
Knowledge, page 76
Try It Yourself
E x e r c ise A
Responses will vary. Kerfuffle means “tumult.”
E x e r c ise B
Responses will vary.
Time Out for Test Practice, page 78
Using Word Attack Skills on
Standardized Tests
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A. back and forth action or effect.
B. size.
C. deadly.
C. irreversible.
D. method of transformation.
Analogies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B.
C.
B.
B.
B.
glad : joyous
anger : wrathful
handyman : odd jobs
slander : vilify
stymie : defeat
Sentence Completions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
90
B. calm…respect
D. colonialism…uprisings
C. Pacifists…unnecessary
A. insignificant…revered
D. defender…equals
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Exceeding the Standards: Vocabulary & Spelling
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