164 Bilingual Suplemental KEY TERMS Flashcards Exercise Active Vocabulary The words a learner can understand and use independently. Alphabetic Writing System A writing system in which each symbol represents a phoneme of the language is an alphabetic system. Phonology The study of the sound systems in a language is known as phonology. An example would be to identify all the sounds that “a” makes. Morphology Morphology is the structure of meaningful units and patterns in words. An example is:“talk” is one morpheme, and “talked” has 2 morphemes “talk” and “ed”. Bound Morpheme A morpheme that cannot stand alone as an individual word, but can be used only in combination with other morphemes is a bound morpheme. Syntax The manner in which words and other structural elements of a language are arranged to construct sentences is called syntax. Lexicon The terms used in a particular profession, subject or style: vocabulary. Semantics Semantics is the study of meaning; some words can have multiple meanings. Discourse Conversations or verbal expression in speech or writing are known as discourse. Function Communicative competence theory has given rise to communicative language teaching involving social function of language. This can include requesting, telling a story, expressing joy or disappointment and expressing an opinion. Register Ways of using language that may vary according to purpose, situation, audience, and the social characteristics of the speaker. Registers are casual, formal, frozen, consultative, or intimate. Social language This refers to the ability to carry on a conversation in familiar, predictable face-to-face situations. Usually developed by the time a child enters school. Academic language This refers to the ability to understand and produce increasingly complex oral and written language. As students progress they are required to understand linguistically and conceptually demanding texts in the content areas (mathematics, social studies, science, and literature). nterrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing The relationships between listening, speaking, reading, and writing during development are complex relationships of mutual support. Practice in one process contributes to the overall base of second language knowledge. It is important to provide exposure to functional meaningful uses of both oral and written language. Interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing The relationships between listening, speaking, reading, and writing during development are complex relationships of mutual support. Practice in one process contributes to the overall base of second language knowledge. It is important to provide exposure to functional meaningful uses of both oral and written language. Language proficiency Proficiency in language is assessed to determine a students’ ability to function in the language. Proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and composition in the English language is the goal of English as a Second Language Programs. Linguistics Linguistics refers to the structural aspects of language. Psycholinguistics This is the study of the relationship of language and the mind. The area of psycholinguistics includes how language is acquired and processed in the human mind. Nonlinguistic This includes gestures, facial expressions, and body language and their relationships to a language. Dialect It is a variation of a language used by a particular group of people. Sociolect A variety of language related to a specific social class. Idiolect This refers to an individual’s particular speech. Language This type of language is characterized by a well-ordered system of rules that each adult member of the language community comprehends in speaking, listening, and writing. Written language Activities should focus on language acquisition through materials that are meaningful, personalized, or culturally relevant. Oral language Oral language should focus on cooperation, open-ended communication, interaction, and the teacher should act as a facilitator. Affective The area of development encompasses social, emotional, and personality characteristics and the development of self-concept which includes positive identity with a student’s cultural and language heritage. Cognitive Relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity (such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering). Developmentally Appropriate These are instructional practices that are age appropriate for the learner. The practices support cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development. Idiomatic expressions Expressions that are peculiar to or characteristic of a given language. Idiomatic expressions are difficult to translate literally, so this can pose a problem for L2 learners. Stages of first language development * Crying – cries of hunger, distress, etc. * Babbling – first exploring every sound humanly possible, then to echolalic which are the sounds common to the language the child hears * Telegraphic speech-abbreviated speech, accompanied by gestures - The stages of language development are universal and progress from the simple to the complex. Second language acquisition People learn a second language by using what they already know about their first language and by going through some of the same stages of first language development. Stages of language acquisition Level I Pre-Production pictures to communicate - Minimal comprehension, no verbal production. Uses gestures or Level II Early Production - Limited comprehension, one to two word responses, short phrases Level III Speech Emergence speech - Increased comprehension, simple sentences, some errors in Level IV Intermediate Fluency - Very good comprehension uses more complex sentences, engages in conversation and produces connected narrative Level V Proficiency - Very good comprehension with near native speech, few, if any, errors in speech, understands complex language Cognates Cognates are words that are related in meaning and form to words in one or more languages due to their common historical morphemic source. An example, animal in English and animales in Spanish are cognates. Expressive language Language that is generated in the form of speaking, writing, or signing (sending messages) is expressive. Receptive language The ability to understand a message (receiving a message) is receptive language. Code switching The alternate use of two languages interchangeably or simultaneously that occurs among bilinguals. It includes any switch between two languages at the level of words, sentences, or blocks of speech. Affective filter Controls the extent to which an individual internalizes input by converting it into learning. It has been described as an imaginary filter in the brain and when raised it may negatively influence language acquisition, academic success, and classroom behavior and action. Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching * Vocabulary an essential component of reading proficiency * Based on applied linguistics theory and practice * Begin with spoken language * Language is practiced situationally * Simple grammar taught before complex grammar * No translation allowed * Accuracy in pronunciation, grammar is crucial * Learner listens and repeats Communicative Language Teaching * Communicative proficiency: meaning is paramount * May use native language for clarification * Communication encouraged from beginning * Language has categories of functional and communicative meaning, as well as grammatical and structural features * Course content reflects needs of students * Learner-centered approach Total Physical Response * Language taught through motor activity * Verbs are the focus * Stimulus-response view of learning * Oral proficiency at first * Imperative drills (commands) are major activity * Learners are listeners and performers * Reduce stress * First and second language learning similar * Silent period The Silent Way * Learner should discover and create, problem solve * Uses colored rods and charts * Learner is active, teacher is silent for most part * Vocabulary is central * Near-native fluency, correct pronunciation, mastery of prosodic elements * Lessons planned around grammatical items and related vocabulary Community Language Learning * Based on Counseling-Learning Theory; Rogerian * Affective realm: teacher responsible for secure learning environment * Language alternation: present in native language, then in target language * Interaction between learners, between learners and others (teacher or peers) * Mostly oral proficiency * Content based on what learners want * Learners reflect on feelings about language class Natural Approach based on “traditional” approaches: communication without relying on native language meaning, vocabulary, communication based on Krashen’s Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis comprehensible input, Monitor Hypothesis, low affective filter, natural order, silent period designed for beginning learners Suggestopedia ties to yoga and Soviet psychology decoration, furniture, comfortable arrangement of classroom reclining chairs, dramatic presentation of readings with music music and musical rhythm central; Baroque music preferred 30 days, 10 units, 4 hours/day, 6 days/week Dialogues are focus, translated to native language Imitation, question and answer, role play Notional-Functional pragmatics of language organized around functions of language: agree, argue, question, compliment, express emotions learn communication strategies for various situations notional categories of language: time, quantity, space, matter, etc. Sheltered English to facilitate access to core curriculum for L2 learners intermediate level of English required slow but natural levels of speech clear enunciation, short sentences controlled vocabulary visuals frequent comprehension checks low level of anxiety cooperative learning should be integral part content is not watered down SDAIE Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English Strategies that have been developed to foster second language development and academic learning by using the second language for instruction making sure it is comprehensible to second language learners. SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol This model of sheltered instruction offers teachers a model for lesson planning and implementation that provides English language learners with access to grade-level content standards. Cooperative Learning The process of grouping where small groups (3 to 5) work tougher to achieve mutual learning goals. Promoting Literacy Promote literacy in the L1 and L2 by providing a print-rich environment, opportunities for collaboration, engaging literature in a meaningful way and opportunities for writing purposefully. Features of a Supportive L2 Classroom Classrooms that are characterized by the following features will support second language acquisition. 1. The classroom should provide a positive and comfortable learning environment. 2. The focus in the classroom should be on using language to learn about something else. 3. The classroom should provide for frequent opportunities for interactions between teachers and individual students. 4. There should be planned opportunities for meaningful interactions between peers. 5. Children need to become problem solvers rather than recipients of information. 6. Language in the classroom should model new ways to express meaning. Best Practices for L2 Part 2 • Many literacy-related skills and strategies learned in the first language (L1) transfer to the second language (L2) • Use language during instruction that is comprehensible and meaningful to students • Use non-verbal cues that include gestures, facial expressions, dramatic play, and physical responses • Create an instructional program that meets the needs of your students. • Use peer tutoring, small group instruction, and include parents and community leaders as role models. Content-based ESL instruction Content-based ESL provides a dual curriculum; the focus is on acquiring content knowledge with language development also comprising a major component. The subject matter and objectives are basically the same as those for all other students, but the delivery system is modified. Current ESL methodology is used to ensure the comprehension of the content for all students regardless of language level.Content-based ESL is an effective approach for acquiring English. Language is best acquired when students are using it to learn something other than language. ESL students use it to negotiate meaning with their peers and teachers in a meaningful context. This approach encourages the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills and requires the use of higher order thinking skills. Effective Classroom Management When designing a system of classroom management, be aware of the cognitive and learning styles of your students. Some groups can handle an authoritarian style of teaching, while others would respond to a more democratic style of teaching. Allow for open communication and encourage oral participation. Create a spirit of positive interdependence where students work well together in small group settings. Teaching strategies for a variety of ESL environments and situations • Use standards-based instruction. This will help you focus on high expectations for all students • Use sheltered or (SDAIE) Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English. This type of teaching focuses on grade appropriate, cognitively demanding, core curriculum. • Use cooperative learning. It is an instructional organizational strategy in which students work collaboratively in small groups to achieve academic and social learning goals. • Use thematic instruction. Use themes or topics as focal points for organizing curriculum content. Challenge students but support and encourage them. Scaffolding When children are learning a first language, parents sometime help young children verbally elaborate on a topic, thereby facilitating communication at a more sophisticated level. When a parent provides a scaffold, elaborating on what the child has said, they are unconsciously modeling linguistic and conversational patterns through natural social interactions with the child. The same process can take place in the classroom with a second language learner acquiring English. The teacher will encourage interactions and then support and elaborate therefore scaffolding for the L2 learner. Speaking and Oral Language Opportunities • When learning a second language, oral language plays a key role. • When students work and play together, their conversations are based on concrete, here and now topics of interest. • Interactions are opportunities for L2 learners to negotiate meaning through requests for clarification, reference to objects at hand, and other face-to-face communication strategies. • The language used in the interactions becomes comprehensible and usable as input for second language acquisition. Linguistic environment The environment should support L2 acquisition. Give instructions clearly and precisely. Use open-ended questions and encourage responses. Provide activities where the language is predictable or repetitive Use activities that involve real conversation and focus on meaning. Rely on cooperative learning. Conversational support The environment should be relaxed and encouraging. Make sure to use activities which require real conversation. Use whole class and small group activities where the L2 learner can join in as much as possible. Give extended time for responses. Providing comprehensible input for language minority students 1. Use visual aids and manipulatives. 2. Speak slowly and clearly, emphasizing key words. 3. Give visual directions using gestures. 4. Model the task. 5. Plan hands-on activities. 6. Plan units based on students’ interests. 7. Plan thematic units of study. 8. Integrate all areas of the curriculum. 9. Plan lessons that incorporate and provide for all learning styles. 10. Use literature that has pattern, repetition, and that is predictable. 11. Structure classroom and lessons to provide for cooperative teamwork. Transfer of language skills from L1 to L2 People learn a second language by using what they already know about their first language and by going through some of the stages of first language development. Content area knowledge, concepts, and skills can be transferred to another language. When a child is literate and educated in their first language, they will transfer those skills to their second language. Individual differences People acquire a second language and are influenced by many factors. Personality traits can influence L2 acquisition. Literacy experiences in the L1 will influence L2 acquisition. Age may influence L2 acquisition. Learning a language as a child generally means native-like pronunciation. Cultural background Whether a child is immigrant or native born, each child brings his/her own history and culture to the classroom. Be sensitive to cultural differences and recognize that some students may not wish to be identified as different from their classmates. Learning styles Learning styles have more influence than may be realized. One's preferred styles guide the way they learn. They also change the way one internally represents experiences, recall information, and even the chosen words. Planning for different learning styles represented in a classroom can assist the teacher in targeted, instructional planning that anticipates the learning styles and helps to make modifications that are cross-culturally sensitive and can be effective in reducing the need for re-teaching. Providing appropriate feedback Feedback should focus on meaning, not grammar, syntax, or pronunciation. It should be given frequently and be presented in a comprehensible manner. Teachers should provide students with prompts or strategies and use activities and tasks students can complete. Indicate when students are successful and assign activities that are reasonable and not frustrating. Allow the use of native language responses, when the context is appropriate. Be sensitive to common problems in second language acquisition. Cognitive Style - Field independent learners 1. Prefer factual information 2. Prefer individual activities 3. Independent learning activities 4. Analytical processing 5. See the teacher as a resource, not a model Cognitive style - Field sensitive learners 1. Socially perceptive 2. Like a supportive environment 3. Attentive to persons and things in surroundings 4. Responsive to external directions 5. Like personal interactions with the teacher Constructivism This is a belief that learning takes place based on the process of stage change brought about as the child constructs knowledge. Effective literacy strategies In literate societies, literacy development begins well before a child enters school. Exposure to environmental print, modeling the forms and functions of print, reading, writing, and verbal interactions all provide models for literacy development. Literacy development The ability to read and write with high levels of proficiency through the effective use of grammatical, syntactic, graphophonic, semantic and pragmatic systems is literacy development. Daily routines Daily routines enhance awareness of the forms and functions of print. The use of routines in the classroom can highlight for your students how literacy serves everyday purposes. High-frequency words Words that are used often in text are high frequency words. Beginning readers will build a vocabulary of recognized sight words and high frequency words. Early literacy goals Any student; regardless of age, who is beginning to read and write in English needs to develop: • Awareness and appreciation of the variety of purposes reading and writing serve in everyday life. • Understanding of relationships between print and oral language, including the alphabetic principle. • Knowledge of print conventions, such as left-to-right, top to bottom, sequencing. • Knowledge of specific sound/symbol correspondence, or phonics • Ability to recognize a growing number of sight words Biliteracy The ability to read and write with high levels of proficiency in two languages through the appropriate and effective use of the grammatical, syntactic, graphophonic, semantic, and pragmatic systems of two languages. Bloom’s Taxonomy This is the structure of learning from the simple to the complex. Benjamin Bloom developed a schedule of applications of learning moving from the lowest level of thinking to the highest: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analyzing, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Pre-teach vocabulary Select the vocabulary that is essential for the lesson. Introduce the words (3 to 6) at a time. Don’t overload the student with long lists of vocabulary. Link prior knowledge Use what students already know by relating instruction to the student’s own experiences. Use brainstorming or clustering activities to develop a frame of reference for cognitively demanding material. Hands-on Use a variety of manipulatives, demonstrations, and experiments that allow the students to touch and use. The materials LEP students need “hands-on” experience to complement and support the lesson and to help them better understand abstract ideas. Always move from the concrete to the abstract. Realia Actual physical objects Visual support LEP students need visuals (pictures, videos, demonstrations, charts, etc) to help them understand abstract ideas. Content area learning The teaching of reading and writing skills in both L1 and L2 are fundamental to full development of cognitive-academic language proficiency. These can be taught in the content areas as well as the ESL classroom. Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) Academic language which takes approximately 5 to 7 years to acquire. It is known as classroom English. This is the kind of proficiency required for abstract, analytical thinking and the expression of complex meaning, with limited support from external context. Basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) This is conversational language which relies heavily on nonlinguistic cues and context clues, gestures, intonation, and shared knowledge. It is primarily social and may take two to three years to acquire. Formative Assessment The ongoing assessment that teachers use to assess the process of learning is formative assessment. Teachers can use this information to make decisions about what needs to be taught. Informal Assessment This refers to alternate forms of assessment that can be used in conjunction to formative assessment. They may include portfolio assessment, writing samples, anecdotal records, and checklists. Diagnosis The process of determining or analyzing a students’ performance level or level or language proficiency. Proficiency Implies a high degree of competence achieved through training and practice. Assessment of language can help to determine level of proficiency. Tests used in ESL programs in Texas • BINL (Basic Inventory of Natural Language) – A language test often used for initial assessment • BSM (Bilingual Syntax Measure) – A language test often used for initial assessment • IDEA (Idea Language Proficiency Test) – A language test often used for initial assessment • LAS (Language Assessment Scale) – A language test used for initial assessment Chapter 89 Chapter 89 includes the Commissioner’s Rules concerning Limited English Proficient students. It describes the plan for educating limited English proficient students in Texas. LPAC Language Proficiency Assessment Committee. Districts are required to establish and operate a language proficiency assessment committee. The local board will have on file policy and procedures for the selection, appointment, and training of members of the LPAC. HLS - Home Language Survey This survey is required of every student enrolling in Texas public schools. Two questions are required. “What language is spoken in your home most of the time?” “What language does your child (do you) speak most of the time?” The HLS is used to establish the student’s language classification for determining whether the district is required to provide a bilingual or ESL program. ELL English Language Learner NEP Non-English Proficient NES Non-English speaker. A student who has little or no proficiency in the English language. CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse students PHLOTE Primary Home Language Other than English Assessment for Bilingual and ESL Programs The orderly process of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting student performance, ideally from multiple sources over a period of time. Rubric Numerical scale that is used for scoring. It includes a range of benchmarks, achievement, or proficiencies. Self assessment Student’s monitor their own progress by using anecdotal reflections, checklists, or evaluation rubrics. Sheltered English This type of instruction develops lessons according to LEP students’ proficiency in English. English instruction in subjects other than language can provide a rich source of comprehensible input for LEP students. LEP identification Each state determines the criteria for identifying LEP students. A Home Language Survey is used to identify LEP students. Exit To determine if a student can exit a bilingual or ESL program, a district will determine the criteria for assessing academic success, test and the LPAC authorizes exit. Monitoring Once a student has exited a program, the LPAC will continue to monitor a student to determine the student’s academic success on state performance assessments and success in the classroom. The importance of native language "The native language serves as the foundation for English language acquisition. Cognitive skills transfer from one language to another. Students literate in their first language will apply these skills to the second language”. (TEKS) Lau v. Nichols The decision found that LEP students were denied an equal education because their instruction was given in a language they could not understand. The court ruled that school districts “must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open instructional programs to these students”. (1974) Bilingual Education Act The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) (81 Stat. 816), also known as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1967 (Pub.L. 90–247), approved by the 90th United States Congress on January 2, 1968, and was the first United States federal legislation recognized the needs of limited English speaking ability (LESA) students. It was introduced in 1967 by Texas senator Ralph Yarborough and was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on January 2, 1968. While some states, such as California and Texas, and numerous local school districts around the country already had policies and programs designed to meet the special educational needs of elementary and secondary school students not fluent in the English language, this act signaled that the federal government now also recognized the need for and value of bilingual education programs in U.S. public education. The BEA was passed on the heels of the Civil Rights movement, and its purpose was to provide school districts with federal funds, in the form of competitive grants, to establish innovative educational programs for students with limited English speaking ability. First bilingual school In 1694, German-language school is founded in Germantown, Philadelphia. 1974 Lau v. Nichols Suit by Chinese parent in San Francisco leads to ruling that identical education does not constitute equal education under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. School districts must take affirmative steps to overcome educational barriers faced by non-English speakers. Established that the Office for Civil Rights, under the former Department of Health, Education and Welfare, has the authority to establish regulations for Title VI enforcement. A Supreme Court ruling that impacted language minority students. 1982 Pyler v. Doe Under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, the state does not have the right to deny a free public education to undocumented immigrant children. A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1974 Serna v. Portales The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Spanish surnamed students’ achievement levels were below those of their Anglo counterparts. Ordered Portales Municipal Schools to implement a bilingual/bicultural curriculum, revise procedures for assessing achievement, and hire bilingual school personnel. A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1978 Clintorn v. Brentwood The Federal District Court for the Eastern District of New York rejected the Brentwood School District’s proposed bilingual program on the grounds that it would violate “Lau Guidelines” by unnecessarily segregating Spanish-speaking students from their English-speaking peers in music and art. The court also objected to the program’s failure to provide for exiting students whose English language proficiency was sufficient for them to understand mainstream English instruction. A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1978 Rios v. Reed The Federal District Court for the Eastern District of New York found that the Pastchogue-Medford School District’s transitional bilingual program was basically a course in English and that students were denied an equal opportunity by not receiving academic instruction in Spanish. The court wrote: “A denial of educational opportunities to a child in the first years of schooling is not justified by demonstrating that the educational program employed will teach the child English sooner than a program comprised of more extensive Spanish instruction.” A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1981 Castaneda v. Pickard Reputed to be the most significant court decision affecting language minority students after Lau. In responding to the plaintiffs’ claims that Raymondville, Texas Independent School District’s language remediation programs violated the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) of 1974, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals formulated a set of basic standards to determine school district compliance with EEOA. The “Castaneda Test” includes the following criteria: (1) Theory: The school must pursue a program based on an educational theory recognized as sound or, at least, as a legitimate experimental strategy; (2) Practice: The school must actually implement the program with instructional practices, resources, and personnel necessary to transfer theory to reality; (3) Results: The school must not persist in a program that fails to produce results. A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1983 Keys v. School District #1 A U.S. District Court found that a Denver public school district had failed to adequately implement a plan for language minority students—the second element of the “Castaneda Test.” A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. 1987 Gomez v. Illinois The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that State Education Agencies are also required under EEOA to ensure that language minority students’ educational needs are met, by demonstrating that the educational program employed will teach the child English sooner than a program comprised of more extensive Spanish instruction. A Federal Court decision that impacted language minority students. Theoretical foundations of ESL education There are three prominent theoretical frameworks to be considered when discussing language acquisition and development: Behaviorist, Nativist and Interactionist theories. Behaviorist One of three prominent theoretical foundations of ESL education. The behaviorist point of view says that language learning is determined by stimuli from the environment. Children reproduce language, or what they think they hear which is reinforced by attention from parents, caregivers, or others. The behaviorist perspective supports the premise that second language learners acquire language through imitation, repetition, and reinforcement of syntax and morphology. Interactionist One of three prominent theoretical foundations of ESL education. Interactionist theorists combine nativist and behaviorist beliefs. This would support the premise that language is a product of both genetic and environmental factors. Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition Acquisition/Learning Distinction “Picking up” a language versus conscious linguistic knowledge of language Natural Order of Acquisition People acquire language in a predictable order. Monitor Hypothesis Language learning only serves to “edit” speech that has been acquired. Fluency comes from acquired, not learned, language. Input Hypothesis A person acquires language through comprehensible input: the message. Attitude Hypothesis Certain personalities and motivations enable some people to perform better in language acquisition Aptitude Hypothesis This hypothesis correlates with ability of an individual to learn language. Filter Hypothesis Less anxiety and stress present in the classroom causes input to be readily received. L1 Hypothesis Known structures in L1 are substituted when L2 structures are unknown. Individual Variation Individuals vary in how much they monitor L2 output. i+1 Comprehensible input that contains one or more structures the next step above what is readily understood. Foreign language Refers to studying a language in a manner that is devoid of practical application and practice in real situations. Dialogues, folklore, history, etc. may be the content used in learning the non-native language. Communicative competence Includes language that is needed to handle various situations; it is deliberately taught to students. Students create and/or memorize that language appropriate for such language-use situations as ordering in restaurants, talking to the principal or applying for a job. Natural approach The method whereby language is deliberately taught as a prerequisite to lesson understanding. The vocabulary is taught with concrete referents and movements at first, visuals later, and with verbal descriptions eventually. The lessons are contrived. An attempt is made to have these lessons emphasize the language of real classroom and community situations. Sheltered Refers to the teacher’s attempt to help students learn the crucial concepts of a discipline in a protected manner. Language is adjusted to a simpler syntactical level; vocabulary is controlled; pacing of instruction is slowed; and conceptual load regulated. Remedial reading-like techniques are employed in making the language of lessons comprehensible. Structured immersion A program in which teachers deliberately help students come to understand prefabricated lessons and the language used to explain them. Only one language is used. Teachers plan for the active participation in lessons by speakers of a second language. Immersion Takes place in a single language environment, in which attempts are made to help the child or student make sense of situations, lessons, and experiences. Focus is on the language in each lesson. Little attention is paid to the language of the lesson. Submersion Takes place in an environment in which only one language is used. The child or student is in a sinkor-swim situation in which no attempt is made to help that individual understand either the language that is heard or the situational context in which it is employed. Lessons can be both linguistically and cognitively demanding. Bilingual Education Bilingual Education is school instruction using two languages, generally a native language of the student and a second language. The amount of time that each language is used depends on the type of bilingual program, its specific objectives, and student’s level of language proficiency. English as a Second Language ESL refers to programs that provide instruction in English. Dual language It is an educational setting where all students are expected to attain literacy in two languages. These programs may also be identified as two-way bilingual education. Content instruction is provided in both languages; literacy in both languages is an expectation for all students. Transitional programs Promote monolingualism in English. Additive Bilingual Education Program models that aim to maintain and develop students’ native language, as well as develop students’ second language. The primary goal of these program models is high levels of bilingualism and biliteracy by adding another language to the students’ linguistic and cognitive repertoire. Additive bilingual programs include dual language, maintenance, developmental, and heritage language programs. Program Models for SLLs Native Language and English Bilingual Immersion Programs Dual Language Two-way immersion Two-way bilingual Enrichment These programs are for English language students (who speak the same language) and native English speaking students. These programs are considered to be additive because they support both bilingualism and biliteracy in L1 and English. Maintenance Developmental Enrichment Heritage language These programs are for English language students who speak the same language. (ie. Spanish speakers learning English). These programs are considered to be additive because they support bilingualism and biliteracy in L1 and English. Transitional --Early exit These programs are for English language students who speak the same language. They are considered subtractive because they support the linguistic outcome of monolingualism in English. Transitional -- Late Exit These programs are for English language students who speak the same language. These programs are considered subtractive because they promote the linguistic outcome of monolingualism in English. ESL (English as a Second Language) This program was designed for English language learners who speak the same language or speak different languages. Types of ESL Programs Self-contained Some ESL programs are designed to meet the needs of second language students by assigning them to a classroom where there are other L2 learners and a teacher who is certified to teach ESL. Types of ESL Programs Pull-out This type of program is designed to serve second language students by taking the students from the regular classroom and teaching them in a small group where there are other L2 students with similar proficiency. Types of ESL Programs Submersion This program is also known as “sink-or-swim.” Students are placed in mainstream English classrooms regardless of the different languages they speak. Advocacy To speak in favor of an issue. A bilingual or ESL teacher will become an advocate for second language learners and the programs designed to support second language development. Cultural diversity This is the presence of different cultural groups in an area. Cultural diversity affects the classroom and creates a climate in both the diversity and the similarities of groups and individuals are appreciated. Linguistic diversity The presence of different language groups in an area. Affective (Feelings) The instruction in the classroom should instill confidence, self assurance, and a positive identity with a students’ cultural and language heritage. Acculturation A process whereby an individual or group of individuals incorporates one or more cultural traits of another group. but does not give up its own way of life. This does not mean the loss of the original cultural identity. Cultural bias Good intentions, but lacking a solid foundation of cultural knowledge can cause cultural bias. Teachers must educate themselves on culture to avoid bias. Stereotyping This is the idea that all members of a cultural group are the same. It usually promotes negative feelings about a particular culture or group. Prejudice An attitude about others which is formed unfairly, and discrimination, the behavior arising from prejudice, go hand in hand. Ethnocentrism Members of one cultural group believe their way of life is better than that of any other group. Respect for diversity The teacher knows how to use diversity inside and outside the ESL classroom to create an environment that nurtures a sense of community, respects differences, fosters an appreciation of their own culture and the culture of others. Assimilation A group of people gives up most of their culture and way of life and take on the culture of another group. Bicultural identity The development of cultural values and socialization practices of the majority culture and the culture of the student is bicultural identity. It is the ability to cope with the differing demands of more than one culture. Self-esteem A second language student should have pride in regards to language and culture. Self-esteem is pride in oneself. Inhibition Second language students may restrain or hold back when using a second language. The environment or perceptions of fear may cause inhibition. Motivate This means to stimulate to action or provide with an incentive. Second language students need to be motivated to learn the L2. Many factors influence motivation. Home / school community environment In regards to second language acquisition, the home/school/community relationship should support the acquisition of the second language. It should also support literacy development in the L1 ARD Admission, Review, and Dismissal committee as established for students in special education. Affective Programs These programs make it possible for a student to move gradually from cognitively undemanding tasks for which the materials are heavily context embedded, offering many clues, to cognitively demanding tasks for which the materials are context reduced, offering few clues. Communicating with families It is a responsibility of our schools and teachers to foster an open-door policy at school and take an active role in maintaining home-school communication. Community Resources Use community resources to expand the knowledge base of students and explore new areas of interest with teachers and parents. Community representatives can also keep the school informed of issues and upcoming community events. Cross-cultural competence This is the ability to understand and follow the cultural rules and norms of more than one system. The ability to respond to the demands of a given situation in a culturally acceptable way is known as cross-cultural competence. Audio-Lingual Method uses native speaker combines structural linguistics and behaviorism language learning is habit formation begin with spoken language mechanical aspects stressed: drill and practice accurate pronunciation, mastery of grammatical structures Prior knowledge Consists of information and experiences a learner has and uses to relate to new information. Prior knowledge enhances comprehension. Imaginative process It refers to the use of creative drawing, painting, collage, photography, and other art forms to help explore the possibility of understanding the world through its images and symbols. Cognitive process It refers to the ways of processing information and developing self awareness as it relates to the exploration of the environment though movement, sight, sound, and taste. Comprehension Understanding the meaning of spoken language and written language often through the use of a taxonomy such as Bloom's. Fluency The ability to read text-sources with speed, accuracy, voice expression, and adequate comprehension. Invented Spelling Young students write words the way the words sound. An example would be a first grade student spelling was as “wuz” and kitty as “kti”. Predictable Books Books that allow the reader to predict text meaning from pictures and frequency of word patterns used in the text. Semantics Acquiring the literal or inferential meaning of text-sources. Sight Words Words used very often that students can pronounce instantly on sight without using other decoding strategies (examples are: the, them, mom, when, etc.). Story Map A graphic representation of the various elements presented in narrative text-sources. Thematic Units Instructionally generated learning activities that center on an umbrella topic of interest (pumpkins, bats, apples, butterflies, etc.) with a variety of content areas brought to relate to that topic. Top-down/Bottom-up Model Top-down model suggests that the learner predicts meaning of a word and then identifies a word; the bottom-up model suggests that the learner first identifies a word then considers the meaning of the word. Whole Language An instructional philosophy of teaching and learning that teachers use to incorporate a more natural approach to assist students in gaining literacy skills (students learn through experiences, integration of various contents, etc.). Native Language / Primary Language The language a student learned in the home. Primary language (first language) is also referred to as L1. Target Language / Second Language A second language that is being acquired or learned. For English language learners in the United States, the target language is English. L2 is the target language a student learns. The importance of native language “The native language serves as the foundation for English language acquisition. Cognitive skills transfer from one language to another. Students literate in their first language will apply these skills to the second language.” (TEKS) Lau v. Nichols Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. The decision found that LEP students were denied an equal education because their instruction was given in a language they could not understand. The court ruled that school districts “must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open [their] instructional program to these students.” (1970) Plessy v. Ferguson Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. Upheld bilingual programs as a means of integration (1982) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. The Supreme Court ordered school desegregation. (1954) First bilingual schools Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. In 1694, German-language school is founded in Germantown, Philadelphia. Lau Remedies Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. The office of Civil Rights task force issues the Lau Remedies, requiring bilingual education as a remedy where districts have violated English learners’ civil rights. TITLE III Part A Applies to knowledge of legal and philosophical foundations of bilingual education. The original and first Bilingual Education Act of 1968 was subsumed in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 as Title III. Among numerous purposes of Title III, the following are the most significant: 1. To help ensure that children who are limited English proficient attain English proficiency and meet the same challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards as all children are expected to meet; 2. To assist all limited English proficient students to achieve at high levels in core academic subjects; 3. To develop high quality language instruction programs designed to assist state educational agencies in teaching limited English proficient children; 4. To assist state educational agencies and local educational agencies to develop and enhance their capacity to prepare limited English proficient children to enter all-English instructional settings; 5. To streamline language instruction educational programs into a program carried through formula grants to state educational agencies and local educational agencies. Title III Or the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act, of the federal No Child Left Behind Act replaced the ESEA’S Title VII (the Bilingual Education Act). It replaced the system of federally administered, competitive grants for school programs with “formula grants” administered by state agencies. A formula grant provides funding to states based on the number of limited English proficient and immigrants reported by each state, similar to the formula grant funding that is carried out under Chapter I for economically disadvantaged children. The pedagogical emphasis of the new title is on English, rather than the cultivation of bilingualism. LEP Limited English Proficient Home Language Survey A survey conducted by the district administered in English and Spanish or other languages as determined by the district. The survey asks what language is spoken in the home and what language the child speaks most of the time. Identify Each school district shall identify limited English proficient students based on criteria established by the state. Assess Each school district shall assess achievement for essential skills and knowledge in accordance with the Texas Education Code, Chapter 39. Placement After a student has been identified and assessed, students will be placed in an appropriate bilingual or English as a second language program. Cultural diversity Representation of several cultural groups in one area would be referred to as culturally diverse. Assimilation A process whereby an individual or group of individuals completely take on the traits of another culture, leaving behind the ancestral culture. Bicultural identity The development of cultural values and socialization practices of the majority culture and the culture of the student. It is the ability to cope with the differing demands of more than one culture. It does not mean giving equal time to both cultures in terms of behaviors. Subtractive Bilingual Education Program models that aim to replace students’ native language with a second language. The primary goal is monolingualism in the second language. This is accomplished by subtracting the home language from the students’ linguistic and cognitive skills. Subtractive program models include transitional, structured English immersion, and newcomer centers. Bilingual - Additive Programs Immersion Programs Dual language Two-way immersion Two-way bilingual Enrichment Programs for English language students (who speak the same language) and native English speaking students. These programs are considered to be additive because they support both bilingualism and biliteracy in L1 and English. Maintenance - Additive Programs Developmental Enrichment Heritage language Programs for English language students who speak the same language (i.e. Spanish speakers learning English). These programs are considered to be additive because they support bilingualism and biliteracy in the L1 and English. Transitional -- Early Exit Programs for English language students who speak the same language. They are considered subtractive because they support the linguistic outcome of monolingualism in English. Transitional -- Late Exit These programs are for English language students who speak the same language. These programs are considered subtractive because they promote the linguistic outcome of monolingualism in English. English as a Second Language Programs All programs in this category are considered subtractive because they promote monolingualism in English. Newcomer Centers English language learners in these centers may speak the same or different languages. They are designed to promote survival English and are for short term placement. Best Practices for Second Language Instruction (Part I) When designing effective language and literacy instruction for second language learners (L2), be sure you include the following: •Create an academically challenging environment •Have high expectations for learning and achievement •Facilitate the development of essential language skills at the students level of proficiency in English •Support the development of literacy skills at the student’s level of proficiency in English •Provide second language learners with meaningful opportunities to use English and interact with peers. Best Practices for Second Language Instruction (Part II) When designing effective language and literacy instruction for second language learners (L2), be sure you include the following: •Develop literacy through instruction that builds on language, comprehension, print concepts, and the alphabetic principle. •Many literacy-related skills and strategies learned in the first language (L1) transfer to the second language (L2) •Use language during instruction that is comprehensible and meaningful to students •Use non-verbal cues that include gestures, facial expressions, dramatic play, and physical responses. •Create an instructional program that meets the needs of your students. •Use peer tutoring, small group instruction, and include parents and community leaders as role models. Use ESL strategies in content area instruction •Activate and build background knowledge. Link student’s experiences to information that is relevant to content instruction. •Use graphic organizers, charts, objects, manipulative, and other visuals, videos, or pictures to help students better comprehend structure and content. •Encourage students to participate in oral discussions to help enhance comprehension. •Allow English language learners to express their thoughts in their native language. This practice allows students to participate and use all of their language resources. Dual language Refers to a model where all students are expected to attain literacy in two languages. These programs may also be identified as two-way bilingual education. Content instruction is provided in both languages; literacy in both languages is an expectation for all students. Two-way bilingual education/ immersion Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages. Maintenance Programs Promotes the maintenance of both the L1 (first language) and L2 (second language). Transitional Programs Promotes the monolingualism in English Appropriate Instructional Environment The learning environment in the Bilingual or ESL classroom should be: •Learner-centered with active engagement of the learner •Rely on cooperative learning •Such that allows for learner choice •Designed for opportunities of open communication and for students to negotiate meaningful language exchanges •Such that allows ample verbal interaction with peers and authentic learning experiences •Such that allows recognition of culture and language Inappropriate Strategies/ Concurrent translation Concurrently translating each line of a message is an ineffective manner of delivering instruction. Delivery includes stating everything twice, once in English (the target language) and once in the native language (L1). The language learner will wait for the translation and thus not learn English (the target language). Language Experience Approach Students can build on stories that are dictated individually, in small groups or as a whole class. The students are able to read their own stories with minimal difficulty because they know the content and the meaning. Reciprocal Reading Comprehension Strategies The strategy teaches students how to make predictions about reading. It also includes asking clarification questions and summarizing. This strategy has shown to improve the reading comprehension of students with reading problems and those students who are English Language Learners (ELLs). Pattern Language and Predictable Books Pattern language or predictable books, songs, and poems are appropriate for developing readers and second language learners. The learners hear songs, poems and stories and they become comfortable with both oral and written language. Preview/Review This strategy provides students with comprehensible input by presenting a brief synopsis and review of the lesson in the students’ native language before and after the concepts are presented in the second language. Total Physical Response (TPR) This method of language teaching relies on teachers’ and students’ physical movements to teach and learn vocabulary and concepts in the second language. Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers are effective tools to organize and remember information and concepts. They may also be referred to as Advance Organizers. Sensitivity to diverse cultural backgrounds A major focus of bilingual programs is the development of positive inter-social and intercultural relationships between the members of the two language groups. This also includes developing relationships with parents, community members, students, and teachers. Regional language differences The differences may reflect differences in language history. There may be references to regional dialects and stereotypes. Paralinguistics The study of behaviors that contribute to linguistic communication. This would include behaviors such as body movements and voice pitch, duration, tone, and loudness. Linguistic Describes the structural aspects of language. Much of the basic vocabulary needed to examine language acquisition and language proficiency comes from the field of linguistics. Bilingualism The ability to speak and understand more than one language. Multilingualism The ability to speak and understand more than two languages. Cultural Mismatch This model suggests that members of minority groups do not succeed in school because the characteristics of their culture are incongruent with those of the mainstream group and the school system. Scaffolding The use of supporting aids and activities that enables the student to perform tasks that would otherwise be too complex for his or her abilities. Neurolinguistics The study of language and the brain. Neurolinguists study brain development and function and how language abilities are linked. Sociolinguistics The study of how language works in society. Sociolinguists study the language dynamics of interactions between people. It takes into consideration dialect differences and differences in the use of register. Similarities between L1 and L2 Learning Both: Are predisposed Are developmental, have stages Are at a subconscious level Need context embedded experiences, acquired through actual use Have higher levels of receptive language than productive language Need extra-linguistics clues Are processes Focus on communication/meaning Need appropriate feedback and collaboration Require positive reinforcement Thrive in informal atmospheres Cognition The process of thinking that creates opportunities for problem solving, critical thinking, logical inquiry, operations, concepts, and mental images. Multiple Intelligences Research that has been to study the ways student’s manifest their cognitive strengths in a variety of ways. Multiple Intelligence theory goes beyond the traditional determination of intelligence based on intelligence quotient (IQ) measures. Language variation Language is flexible, is responsive, and changes constantly. Since language is dynamic, it is possible to change to meet the communication needs of the speaker. Register The use of different varieties of language, depending on the setting, their relationship to the person to whom they are speaking, and the function of the interaction. A register is the situationally appropriate form of the language. Registers include frozen, formal, casual, consultative, and intimate. Dialect A variation of a language used by particular groups of people. Regional dialects often have specific distinct vocabularies. Phonics Involves instruction in how the sounds of spoken language are represented by letters and spelling. Phonological Awareness The ability to recognize the sounds of spoken language and how they can be blended together, segmented, and manipulated. It does not involve print. It begins before students have learned a set of letter-sound correspondences by using manipulatives. Syntax The manner in which words and other structural elements of language are arranged to construct the sentences of a language. Semantics The study of linguistic meaning. Pragmatics The study of the use of language in the context of social and related interactions. Alphabetic Principle The understanding that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. It is the key to learning to read in many languages, including English and Spanish. Context clues Information from surrounding words, phrases, sentences, illustrations, and syntax that can be used to help determine meanings of words. Listening and reading comprehension Ability to understand spoken and written language. Scaffolding A teaching technique used to promote the use of language and the development of understanding. This may require reducing the linguistic demands of instructional and assessment materials so that students can make connections and demonstrate what they know and understand. It includes open-ended questioning, one on one conversations, and access to natural language interactions. Strategies Plans that readers use and apply when hearing texts, reading aloud, or when reading independently. Cooperative Learning An instructional strategy that facilitates a social and linguistically interactive learning environment. Students work in groups to accomplish tasks. The group structure promotes natural interactions and draw from the individual knowledge and talents of learners assigned to the group. Cooperative learning facilitates communication, content mastery, and team building and motivation. Theories There are several prominent theoretical frameworks to be considered when discussing language acquisition and development. Behaviorist The behaviorist point of view says that language learning is determined by stimuli from the environment. Children reproduce language, or what they think they hear which is reinforced by attention from parents, caregivers, or others. The behaviorist perspective supports the premise that second language learners acquire language through imitation, repetition, and reinforcement of syntax and morphology. Nativist This theory maintains that children are born with an innate capacity to acquire language. Nativists believe that humans are genetically predisposed to acquire and transmit language. Chomsky (1957) contends that the human brain has a built-in mechanism called the language acquisition device (LAD) that infers the rules of languages when triggered by the stimulation of spoken language. Once activated, children discover the regularities of language and begin to internalize the rules of grammar. Nativists believe language is acquired and not learned. Interactionist Interactionist theorists combine nativist and behaviorist beliefs. This would support the premise that language is a product of both genetic and environmental factors. Constructivist A theoretical perspective in which an individual’s prior experiences, beliefs, and knowledge influence the interpretation and understanding of experiences. The focus is on how knowledge is constructed rather than on products that are produced. Constructivism allows students to engage in inquiry and discovery. Language Status The relative standing or position of a language in regards to the majority culture. Self-esteem A second language student should have pride in regards to language and culture. Self-esteem is pride in oneself. Inhibition Second language students may restrain or hold back when using a second language. The environment or perceptions of fear may cause a learner to shy away from participation. Motivation The ability to stimulate to action or provide with an incentive is known as motivation. Second language students need to be motivated to learn the L2. Many factors influence motivation. Home / school community environment In regards to second language acquisition, the home/school/community relationship should support the acquisition of the second language. It should also support literacy development in the L1. Cognates Similarities of words in one language to the form and definition of words in a different language. (e.g.”animals” (English) and “animales” (Spanish). Effective developmentally appropriate ESL strategies ESL An acronym for English as a Second Language. An educational setting where instruction for second language learners is provided primarily in English. When needed, a word or two in a student’s native language may be used to enhance understanding, but the target language is English and English should be used as the language of instruction. ESOL The acronym for English for Speakers of Other Languages; the acronym is used interchangeably with English as a Second Language Literacy development The ability to read and write with high levels of proficiency through the effective use of grammatical, syntactic, graphophonic, semantic and pragmatic systems. Biliteracy The ability to read and write with high levels of proficiency in two languages through the appropriate and effective use of the grammatical, syntactic, graphophonic, semantic, and pragmatic systems of two languages. Formal literacy assessment Standardized tests, discrete point tests and integrative tests may be used to assess literacy. Informal literacy assessment Observation, anecdotal records, and interviews can be used to assess levels of literacy. Transfer of literacy competency from L1 to L2 Students will transfer their knowledge and experiences in the first language to the second language. Content area knowledge, concepts, and skills can be transferred to another language. Stages of Language Proficiency Preproduction Early Production Speech Emergence Intermediate Fluency Advanced Fluency Preproduction A stage of language proficiency. A receptive stage where very little language is being produced. Learners are trying to make sense of the new environment and language. They can communicate with gestures and actions. Early Production A stage of language proficiency. Learners at this stage speak, but are limited to words or short phrases. The receptive vocabulary is developing, but is still limited and characterized by the ability to answer short questions with one to two word responses. Speech Emergence A stage of language proficiency. Learners at this stage can speak in longer phrases and complete sentences. There may be errors in syntax. They may not be able to express all that they know about a topic. Intermediate Fluency A stage of language proficiency. Learners continue to develop fluency. They are able to engage in conversations and produce connected narrative. The errors are usually of style or usage. They are able to understand higher levels of content information and use more academic language. Advanced Fluency A stage of language proficiency. Learners have achieved a high level of language usage. They are effective communicators both orally and in writing. They are comfortable with using the new language in social and academic settings. Prior knowledge links Both bilingual and ESL programs promote utilizing students’ knowledge of the world as a starting point and resource for learning. BINL (Basic Inventory of Natural Language). A language test often used in initial assessment and placement. BSM (Bilingual Syntax Measure). A language test often used in initial assessment and placement. IDEA A language test often used in initial assessment and placement. LAS (Language Assessment Scales). A language test often used in initial assessment and placement. Native Language An individual’s primary, first, or home language (L1). Comprehensible input New language information that an individual is able to understand because efforts have been made to draw on the individual’s cognitive and linguistic abilities as well as to accommodate his or her cognitive and linguistic needs. Comprehensible Content in the L2 There are several approaches of instruction used that incorporate the use of academic language and the teaching of content. Reciprocal Teaching When students and teacher share the responsibilities of discussing concepts. It is an instructional activity that is centered on shared dialogue that takes place between the students and the teacher. The dialogue is structured and includes predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing. Monitor Learning about how we learn a language and gaining a conscious knowledge of its syntax and usage, can serve as a monitor, or editing, function. Silent Period Stephen Krashen describes a period of time which may last as long as six months after entering school when a student does not attempt to speak orally. The student will listen and receive information, but will not speak. The amount of time varies from student to student. This is a natural stage of beginning second language acquisition that can be observed in second language learners. It is described as a receptive stage where the learner listens to messages in the environment, but produces none of the new language. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) This is conversational language which relies heavily on nonlinguistic cues and context-gestures, intonations, and shared knowledge. It is primarily social rather than intellectual. It may take a language learner 2 to 3 years to develop. Guarded vocabulary Language in which the speaker makes a conscious effort to enunciate words, simplify sentence structure, speak a little more slowly, emphasize key information, and pause momentarily between sentences and main ideas. Content Standards Definition of what students are expected to know and demonstrate the understanding in a particular content area. This includes the knowledge and skills that need to be taught in order for a student to reach mastery. Standards may be found at the national, state, or local level. The standards for Texas can be found on the Texas Education Agency website. TEKS Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills have been developed by the Texas Education Agency. English Language Arts (ELA) Standards The standards were developed for English Language Arts to identify the standards that should be taught to promote literacy. They include the descriptions of appropriate materials, instructional strategies, and technology. These standards include oral language, phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, literacy development, decoding, and word analysis. They also address the areas of reading fluency, comprehension, written communication, writing conventions, and assessment. Spanish Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEK) The language arts curriculum in Spanish or other languages are used to promote L1 literacy. The TEKS outline the required prerequisite knowledge at each grade level that is necessary for students to attain content knowledge. Assessments for Bilingual and ESL Programs Anecdotal Observation Observation Anecdotal Record Checklist Observational chart Portfolio Rubric Self assessment Anecdotal Observation Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Reflection of student’s progress based on the analysis of the teachers’ observation. Observation Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Observe students’ academic, linguistic, social, and performance behaviors. Observe students as they work in small groups, pairs, or alone. Anecdotal Record Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Running record of observed behavior or behaviors over a period of time. Checklist Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. List designed to record students’ behaviors or criteria that the teacher observes and comments on. Observational chart Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. List of criteria or behaviors that the teacher observes and records. Portfolio Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Samples of students work collected over time that shows growth and development. Rubric Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Numerical scale that is used for scoring. It includes a range of benchmarks, achievement, or proficiencies. Self assessment Assessment used in Bilingual and ESL programs. Students monitor their own progress by using anecdotal reflections, checklists, or evaluation rubrics. Sheltered English Sheltered instruction is an approach to teaching English language learners which integrates language and content instruction. The dual goals of sheltered instruction are: to provide access to mainstream, grade-level content, and to promote the development of English language proficiency. CALLA Approach An instructional approach. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach is an instructional model developed by Chamot and O’Malley (1987, 1994) for content and language learning that incorporates student development of cognitive learning strategies. SIOP Model An instructional approach. The Sheltered Instructional Observation Protocol (SIOP) was developed for English language learners as a model for sheltered instruction. The SIOP operationalizes sheltered instruction by offering teachers a model for lesson planning and implementation that provides ELLs with access to grade-level content standards. Technology Provide computer-assisted instruction, including tutorial software, to increase opportunities for practice and feed-back. It includes using tools to assist students with word processing and to provide writing opportunities. Content Area Strategies The following helps provide comprehensible input for second language learners: Use visuals aids and manipulatives Speak slowly and clearly, emphasize key words Give visual directions using gestures Model the task Plan hands-on activities Plan units based on students’ interests Plan thematic units Integrate all areas of the curriculum Plan lessons that incorporate and provide for all learning styles Use literature that has pattern, repetition, and that is predictable Structure classroom and lessons to provide for cooperative teamwork Formative Evaluation This type of evaluation is associated with the primary collection of data/information that is analyzed and reported and can be used to help determine placement of a student in an educational setting. The data is collected for the purpose of instruction and learning. Summative Evaluation This type of evaluation is used at the end of a unit, lesson or content class to assess student learning. It can also be used as the final collection of data that is analyzed and reported to gauge program effectiveness. Standards-based Assessment This type of assessment involves planning, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of a student’s performance according to the Bilingual/ESL, national, state, or local standards.