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Ecology Guided Notes

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Ecology Guided Notes
To be used with Ecology PowerPoint
Name:_______________________
Ecology: the study of how living things ___________ of with their physical environment
Ecological Organization
An organism is living thing
Anything that possesses all of the ________________ of _________
Species: a group of __________ that can mate & produce a _________ offspring
Population: all the members of a __________ that live
in one place at one time.
How many zebras are apart of the population?______
Community: a collection of ________________ populations in an area
Ecosystem: includes all of the organisms &
the non-living environment.
True or False Community members must interact to
maintain balance.
Biosphere: the portion of the earth where all life exists. A 13 mile band that surrounds
earth. 6-7 miles into the ________________ & 6-7 miles deep into the __________
Put the Order of Ecological Organization
from smallest to largest:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
What does an ecosystem need to be self-sustaining?
1. A constant source of ___________ is supplied.
2. Living things use this energy and
convert into _________ molecules
3. A cycling of materials between
organisms and their environment
Resources
Organisms with similar needs may compete with
each other for resources like:
1. ________________________
2. ________________________
3. _______________________
4. ________________________
Limiting Factor:
anything that makes it more difficult for a
species to live, grow, or reproduce in its environment
Acclimation: when organisms _____________ to change
Range of Tolerance: the ability of an organism to
withstand __________ in their environment.
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors: _____________ factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive
and reproduce
What are three examples of abiotic factors?
1. ________________________
3. ________________________
2. ________________________
4. ________________________
What abiotic factors limit vegetation at higher altitudes?
1. ______________________
3. ____________________
2. ________________________
4. _______________________
Biotic Factors: ______ factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive & reproduce
Examples: other organisms - ____________, food source
Can an abiotic factor such as RAIN affect many biotic factors?
Rain - ________ - ________ - _________
Nutritional Relationships
Define Autotroph: organisms that synthesize their own __________
from inorganic molecules
Define Heterotroph: ____ ______ synthesize their own food and are dependent on other
organisms for their food
Types of Heterotrophs
Saprophyte: include those heterotrophic plants, fungi,
and bacteria which live on __________ matter (a.k.a. decomposers or detritivores)
Herbivores: _____________- eating animals
Omnivores: consumes both ____________ & _______________
Carnivores: _____________- eating animals
Types of Carnivores
______________: animals which kill and
consume their other animals (prey)
__________: animals which are killed by predators
A _________________________ is an animal that feeds on other animals that they have
not killed. A good example of this would be a ___________, ____________ &
_____________.
Symbiotic Relationships
Symbiosis: living together with another organism in ___________ association
Types of Symbiosis
Commensalism: one organism is ____________ and the other is _____________
What is an example of commensalism? Barnacles on
_______________
Define Mutualism: _______ organisms benefit from the association
(+,+)
What is an example of mutualism? Nile crocodile & Egyptian plover
Parasitism: the organism benefits at the __________ of the host (+,-)
What is an example of parasitism? ___________________________________________
Summary of Symbiotic Relationships
Fill in the proper term with its corresponding picture
Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
Food Chain: a _________ pathway of feeding relationships among organisms that involves
the transfer of energy.
Food Web: _______________ food chains in a community
Below fill in organisms from the food web:
______________________ Make their own food
______________________  Herbivores
______________________  Carnivores
______________________  Break down organic waste and dead organisms (Ex. Bacteria)
Trophic levels
An organism’s position in a sequence of energy transfers

There is a ________ in the overall energy as you
move up in __________ levels.

There is much more ______ in the __________
level in a food web than at the __________ levels

Approximately ____% of ingested nutrients is
passed on to the next trophic level to build new tissue
Why is the % of energy passed on to the next trophic level
so low?
1. Energy is lost in the form of __________
2. Some animals _________ from being eaten & just die.
Their energy in their bodies do not pass to a higher energy level.
3. Some animal parts can not be eaten.
Cougar eats deer, can not extract energy from _______, __________ or ________
Biomass
Biomass: _________________________________________________________
Less or More biomass can be supported at each trophic level.
***The total mass of carnivores in an ecosystem is less than the total mass of the
producers.***
Label the following Biomass Pyramid with the following terms: producers, tertiary consumers,
secondary consumers and primary
Level A: _____________________
consumers
Level B: ______________________
Level C: ______________________
Level D: _____________________
Terrestrial Energy Pyramid
Complete the Energy Pyramid using the
following organisms:
Eagles, Green Plants, Heat, Mice, and
Snakes
Succession
Succession: a gradual process of change and ___________ of populations in a community.
What causes an environment to be changed? When the environment is
______________________
These changes cause rapid or gradual changes in an ecosystem.
Ecosystems change until ______________ _________________ is formed.
Primary Succession: The development of plant
communities in an area that has not never supported life.
Examples: __________ _________, _________
________ or ___________.
The Start of Primary Succession
•
Pioneer Organism: the first organisms to inhabit a given location
(example: _________ on bare rock)
Breaks down rock into __________
The following is an example of Primary Succession:
1. water plants at pond edge
2. sedges and sediments begin to fill pond
3. sphagnum moss and bog shrubs fill pond (cranberries)
4. black spruce and larch
5. birches, maple, or fir
.
Secondary Succession: is the change of species that follows disruption of an existing
community
created by natural __________ or ___________ activity.
Occurs in areas that previously contained life and ___________!!!
Example: forest fire at Yellowstone National Park
The following is an example of Secondary Succession:
1. ______________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? Primary succession takes
place on _______, whereas Secondary succession takes place on ___________.
Is this primary or secondary succession?
____________________________________
Define Climax Community: _______________________________________________

Populations remain ___________________and exist in __________________ with
each other and their environmen

ecosystems may reach a point of stability that can last for ___________________
_________________________________________________________________
_
A climax community persists until a catastrophic change alters or destroys a major biotic or
abiotic resource
(examples: forest fires, abandoned farmlands, floods, areas where the topsoil has been
removed)
After the original climax community has been destroyed, the damaged ecosystem is likely to
recover in stages that eventually result in a stable system similar to the original one.
Biomes
Define Biome: a large region characterized by a specific type of climate & certain ______
and __ communities. A certain biome may exist in more than one location on earth.
Biomes are ___________________________ or ______________________________.
Biomes are dependent on the following three things:
1. _________________________________
2. _________________________________
3. _________________________________
Terrestrial Biomes
In general. _________ __________ biomes.
Characterized by climax _________________________. Have characteristic
_________(plants) and _________ (animals).
Tundra
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics: long & extremely cold winters
permanently frozen subsoil
Location:
Taiga
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics:
Location: south of the tundra & north of temperate forest
Temperate-Deciduous Forest
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics: moderate precipitation, cold winters, warm summers
Location: South of taiga
Tropical Forest
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics: heavy rainfall(300 inches/year), constant warmth
Biodiversity: The size of 2 football fields may have 300 species of
trees
Location: near the equator
Grasslands
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics: rainfall and temperature vary greatly,
strong winds
Grasslands: also known as prairies, steppes, savannas & pampas.
Location: interior of continents
Desert
Climax Flora:
Climax Fauna:
Characteristics:
Extreme temperature. Hot days cool nights.
Temperatures may have a 50 degree drop.
Aquatic Biomes
What is the largest ecosystem on Earth? _______________________________________
How much of the Earth's surface is covered with water? __________________________
What are two reasons why aquatic biomes are more stable then terrestrial biomes?
1.
______________________________________________________________________
2.
______________________________________________________________________
What are the two types of aquatic biomes?
1. ________________________________
______________________________
2.
Give 4 examples of freshwater biomes: ____________, _____________,
______________, & ___________
2 Types of Lakes:
1. Eutrophic - rich in ___________ matter & vegetation
___________ water
Bacteria feed on decomposing matter &
uses up all the oxygen, killing all life.
2. Oligotrophic - __________ organic matter & vegetation
Clear water.
•
Wetlands: aka ___________ & marshes
an area of land that is covered by water for a
certain amount of time during the year.
Why are wetlands so important?
filters out ____________
controls ___________
stopover for migratory birds
recreational
Where does plant production occur in this aquatic environment?
______________________________________________
____________
Where does plant production not occur?
_______________________________________
Why?__________________________________________
_____________________________________
Competition
Competition: occurs when two different species or organisms living in the same environment
(habitat) utilize the same limited resources
What are some things organisms compete over?
________________________, ______________________, ______________________,
________________________, ________________________, and
________________________.
When does competition become more intense? __________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
Habitat:
A place where an organism lives out its life. It is an organism’s home, their address.
Niche:
The organism's role in the community.
How an organism meets its need for food, shelter,
how it survives & reproduces. Interactions with biotic & abiotic factors.
Material Cycles
What happens to materials in a self-sustaining ecosystem? ________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
Can the same materials be reused? _____________________
Water Cycle
In the provided space, fill in the proper terms that make up the Water Cycle.
Carbon-Oxygen Cycle
In the provided space, fill in the proper terms that make up the Carbon-Oxygen Cycle.
Nitrogen Cycle
Why do organisms need nitrogen? ____________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
***Living things cannot use nitrogen gas in the air***
How do living things obtain nitrogen? ______________________________________
What is Nitrogen-Fixation? ________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
What type of organism can “fix” nitrogen so it can be used by other
Alfalfa
living things? _____________________________
In what type of plant can these organisms be found?
__________________________________
In the provided space, fill in the proper terms that make up the Nitrogen Cycle.
Nitrogen Gas (N2)
Nitrogen fixation
Animals
eating
plants
Decomposition
Nitrogen-fixing
bacteria in plant roots
Soil
bacteria
Biodiversity
Evolutionary processes have resulted in a diversity of organisms and a diversity of roles in
ecosystems.
Define Biodiversity: ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
Increased biodiversity does four things. What are they?
1.
______________________________________________________________________
2.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
3.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__
4.
______________________________________________________________________
Define Monoculture: _____________________________________________________
Monoculture leaves an area more vulnerable to predation or disease. Why?
______________________________________________________________________
__
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