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Neuro Lab Bible

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Longitudinal Fissure
Contains the ACA and Falx Cerebri
Superior
Frontal Sulcus
Precentral
Sulcus
Central Sulcus
PostCentral
Sulcus
Superior
Frontal Gyrus
Middle Frontal
Gyrus
Precentral
Gyrus
Primary Motor Cortex - BA 4
Postcentral
Gyrus
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
BA 3,1,2
Connected to Broca’s via Arcuate
fasciculus
Middle Frontal
Gyrus
Precentral Central Sulcus Postcentral
Wernicke’s Area
Speech Comprehension
Gyrus
Gyrus
BA - 22,39,40
Supramarginal
Gyrus
Inferior Frontal
Sulcus
Pars orbitalis
Angular
Gyrus
Pars opercularis
Pars triangularis
BA 44
BA 45
Inferior Frontal Gyrus
Pars Opercularis + Pars triangularis = Broca’s Area
Damage —> Broca’s Aphasia (“Telegraph Style Speech”)
Lateral
Sulcus
a.k.a Sylvian fissure
Contains the MCA
Primary Auditory Cortex
BA 41/42
Superior
Temporal
Gyrus
Contains Primary Auditory
Cortex - BA 41,42
Superior
Temporal
Sulcus
Middle
Temporal
Gyrus
Lateral
Sulcus
Inferior
Temporal
Gyrus
Connects posterior frontal lobes,
parietal lobes, + ant. temporal lobes
Genu of
the Corpus
Callosum
Body of
the Corpus
Callosum
Cingulate
Gyrus
Anterior nucleus of the
thalamus projects here via
internal capsule.
Cingulate
Sulcus
Marginal Sulcus
Splenium of the
Corpus Callosum
Connects Occipital Lobes
Connects
Anterior Frontal Lobes
Septum
Pellucidum
Cingulate Gyrus:
Receives axons from anterior nucleus of the
thalamus via the internal capsule.
Divides lateral ventricles
Fornix
Connects Hippocampus to Mammillary Bodies, Part of Papez Circuit
Outputs fibers to the hippocampus and cortex via
the cingulum bundle.
Primary Motor Cortex for the leg Supplied by the ACA
Paracentral
Lobule anterior
Central Sulcus
Paracentral
Lobule posterior
Primary Somatosensory cortex for the leg +
genitals - Supplied by the ACA
Marginal Sulcus
Parieto-occipital
Sulcus Contains the PCA
Cuneus
Inferior C/L Visual
Field - BA 17 Lesion produces C/L
inferior
quadrantanopia Supplied by PCA Receives input from
parietal optic
radiation.
Superior C/L Visual Field - Lesion Produces C/L
Superior Quadrantanopia - Supplied by PCA Receives input from Meyer’s Loop (Temporal
Optic Radiation)
Lingual
Gyrus
Calcarine
Sulcus
Olfactory
Bulb
From telencephalon - Adult neurogenesis Mitral cells (2nd order neurons) are main
output - Synapses in Glomeruli - Sends axons
to olfactory tract
Olfactory Trigone
Site where medial and lateral olfactory
stria separate. One goes to piriform
cortex and the other goes through the
anterior commissure to the other
primary olfactory cortex.
Olfactory
Tract
Uncus
Contains the Amygdala
Parahippocampal
Gyrus
Contains the Hippocampus.
Hippocampus receives axons from
entorhinal cortex and cingulum bindle via
the parahippocampal gyrus.
Affected by Alzheimer’s. Affects Semantic
Memory.
Lateral Olfactory Pathway - axons project
to IPSILATERAL primary olfactory cortex,
amygdala, entorhinal cortex
Medial olfactory Pathway - axons project
IPSILATERALLY to the basal limbic
structures (e.g. medial septal nucleus)
and others arise from the
CONTRALATERAL anterior olfactory
nucleus (via ant. commissure)
Adult neurogenesis in the Dentate region.
Supplied by Internal Choroidal Artery.
Septum Pellucidum
3rd From Diencephalon
Ventricle
(space)
Stria Medullaris
Thalami
Contains Cholinergic neurons from
basal forebrain nuclei to habenula
Genu of Corpus
Collusum
Habenular Nuc.
Cerebral
Aqueduct
Fornix
From Mesencephalon, w/in midbrain
(space)
Anterior
Commissure
4th
Ventricle
(space)
Interventricular
Foramen (Foramen
of Monro)
Hypothalamus
From Rhombencephalon
(Metencephalon +
Mylencephalon)
Mammillary Body
Basal Forebrain Nuclei to
Habenular Nucleus via Stria
Medularis Thalami - Cholinergic
Neurons (ACh)
Interthalamic
adhesion
Thalamus
Hypothalamic
sulcus
Anterior
commissure
Pineal
gland
Connects olfactory nuclei,
anterior temporal lobes, and
amygdala
Secretes Melatonin.
Regulated by the
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.
Posterior
commissure
Communication between
pretectal nuclei for pupillary
light reflex. Lesion results in
light-near dissociation.
Hypothalamus
Mammillary body
Receives input from hippocampus via
fornix. Output to anterior nucleus of
thalamus via mammillothalamic tract.
Composed of Emboliform + Globose Nuclei - Connects
to Paleocerebellum (spinocerebellum) - intermediate
zone
Interposed Nuclei
Dentate
Involved with the Pontocerebellum
(Neocerebellum) - lateral zone APPENDICULAR ATAXIA
- Consists of most of the cerebellar
cortex
- Coordinates movements
- Main input is from the sensory + motor
cortices
Folia
Medial Lemniscus
Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
Interpeduncular
fossa
CN I
Optic N - SSA
CN III
Oculomotor N
GSE - Oculomotor Nucleus
GVE - Edinger Westphal
Trigeminal N.
- GSA - Chief Sensory Nucleus of V (Face Touch)
- GSA - Spinal Nucleus of V (Face Pain/Temp)
- GSA - Mesencephalic Nucleus (Jaw
Proprioception)
- BE - Motor Nucleus of V (M. of Mastication)
CN V
Trochlear N.
GSE - Trochlear Nucleus
-UP + IN; Head tilt AWAY
-Trouble descending stairs
CN IV
Abducens N.
- Abducens Nucleus
CN VI GSE
Lesion -> head turn to
affected side.
Inferior pontine
sulcus
CN VII
CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear N.
- SSA - Vestibular + Cochlear Nuclei (many)
CN VII - Facial N.
- BE - Facial Nucleus
- GVE - Superior Salivary Nucleus
- GSA - Chief Sensory Nucleus of V
- GSA - Spinal Nucleus of V
- SVA - Nucleus Solitarius
Glossopharyngeal n.
BE - Nucleus Ambiguus
SVA - Nucleus Solitarius
GVE - Inf. Salivatory Nucleus
GSA - Chief Sensory Nucleus of V
GSA - Spinal Nucleus of V
CN XII
Inferior Olivary Nucleus
- Motor intentions to cerebellum on “Climbing
Fibers”
- Synapse on Purkinje Cells and DCN
- Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
Olive
Pyramid
Contains Corticospinal Tract
Anterior median
fissure
Contains Anterior Spinal Artery
Decussation of
the pyramids
Hypoglossal N.
- GSE - Hypoglossal nucleus
- Lesion -> Ipsilateral tongue deviation
CN IX
CN X
Uvula away from side
of lesion.
Vagus N.
SVA - Rostral Nucleus Solitarius
GVA - Caudal Nucleus Solitarius
BE - Nucleus Ambiguus
GSA - Chief Sensory Nucleus of V
GSA - Spinal Nucleus of V
GVE - Dorsal Motor Nucleus
CN XI
Spinal Accessory N.
BE - Accessory Nucleus
Visual
Reflexes Origination
of
tectospinal
tract.
Lesion results in Parinaud
Syndrome.
Superior
colliculus
Inferior
colliculus
Audition Receives fibers
from Superior
Olivary Nucleus
via lateral
lemniscus.
Sends fibers to
Medial
geniculate
nucleus via
brachium of the
inferior
colliculus.
CN IV
Superior
Cerebellar
peduncle
Contains 2nd order axons of Anterior
spinocerebellar tract from Spinal Border
Cells. DISTAL LOWER LIMB.
Facial
colliculus
Middle
Cerebellar
Peduncle
Contains fibers of facial nerve and
ABDUCENS NUCLEUS (GSE).
Inferior
Cerebellar
peduncle
Vagal trigone
Contains Dorsal Motor Nucleus (GVE)
Parasympathetic
Just a landmark.
Obex
Gracile tubercle
Contains Nucleus Gracilis
Posterior median sulcus
Contains Hypoglossal nucleus (GSE).
Hypoglossal trigone
Cuneate tubercle
Contains Nucleus Cuneatus.
- Touch, vibration, pressure,
proprioception from C1-T6.
- Contains 2nd order neurons of Medial
lemniscus tract. Receives input from DRG.
These cells axons go via IAF to ML to
VPL.
Medulla, caudal
Also contains axons of the Dorsal
spinocerebellar tract from
Clarke’s Nucleus heading to
inferior cerebellar peduncle.
Fasciculus
Gracilus
Nucleus gracilis
GSA - Touch - T7 +
Below
Also contains axons of
cuneocerebellar tract.
Fasciculus
Cuneatus
GSA - Touch - C1-T6
GSA - Touch - T7 +
Below
Nucleus
cuneatus
GSA - Touch - C1-T6
Spinal Tract
of V
GSA - Pain/
Temp from
Face
Spinal
Nucleus of
V
GSA - Pain/ Temp from Face
-2nd order fibers leave,
decussate, and ascend to
VPM via trigeminothalamic
tract
Pyramidal
Decussation
Rostral lesion results in bilateral paresis of
upper limbs.
Caudal Lesion results in bilateral paresis of
lower limbs.
Accessory
Nucleus
CN XI - GSE
Medulla, caudal
Nucleus gracilis
Cuneocerebellar Pathway-muscle spindle+GTO from upper limb+ neck
1st order soma = DRG - Fibers travel in fasciculus cuneatus
2nd order soma - Lateral (External) Cuneate Nucleus in caudal
medulla. Fibers travel rostrally via cuneocerebellar tract through the
inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum.
Nucleus cuneatus
Accessory (external/
lateral) cuneate
nucleus
Hypoglossal
CN XII - GSE nucleus
lesion results in tongue
Protrusion deviation to
same side.
Spinal Nucleus of V
GSA Pain - From face - Axons
from CN V, VII, IX, X
Nucleus
Ambiguus
A
GSA - Pain/Touch from C/L
body
T
BE - Voluntary Motor for CN IX, X
L
Corticospinal
axons
GSE from PMC to LMNs in ventral
horn.
Pyramid
Spinothalamic
tract
Inferior
olivary
nucleus
Medial lemniscus
Medulla, rostral
Tectospinal Tract
superior colliculus to superior spinal cord (Lamina VI, VII, VIII)
Medial Vestibular Nucleus
GSE for CN XII
Hypoglossal nucleus
4th ventricle
MLF
Solitary tract
GVE - Visceral
Motor
Lesion -> I/L
INO,
Abducens
Nuc. to
Oculomotor
Axons from CN VII, IX, X.
- SVA (rostral, taste) +
GVA (caudal, carotid
body + sinus)
Dorsal Motor
Nucleus
Afferent from CN VII - Involved in VOR
Nucleus Solitarius
From CN VII, IX, X.
- SVA (rostral, taste) + GVA
(caudal, carotid body + sinus)
Fibers from rostral NS to
Gustatory cortex on Insula.
Mossy fiber axons of
dorsal spinocerebellar
tract (from Clarke’s
Column) +
cuneocerebellar tract
(from external
cuneate nucleus)
- Supplied by PICA
Inferior
Cerebellar
Peduncle
A
T
Nucleus
Ambiguus
L
BE for CN IX, X
Corticospinal
Axons
Spinothalamic
tract
GSA Pain/Temp From Nucleus
Proprius (Lamina V) to VPL of
Thalamus
Inferior
olivary
nucleus
Neurons project from here to the
cerebellum as climbing fibers.
Pyramid
Medial lemniscus
GSA Touch from Nucleus Cuneatus +
Nucleus Gracilis to VPL of Thalamus
Medial Vestibulospinal Tract - medial + lateral inferior vestibular
nuclei → Cervical cord (lamina VII + VIII) - partial cross in
medulla
Rotation + lifting of head + rotation of shoulder blade. Changes
in posture + balance. Primarily inhibit MNs innervating extensors
+ neurons serving muscles of back + neck.
Pons
Lateral Vestibular Nucleus
Medial Vestibular Nucleus
Facial Colliculus
to lateral
Abducens GSE
rectus via CN
Nucleus VI.
Superior
Cerebellar
Peduncle
Contains Axons from
Anterior Spinocerebellar
tract (distal lower limb)
Central
tegmental
tract
Ascending axonal fibers
from the rostral nucleus
solitarius to the VPM.
Middle
Cerebellar
Peduncle
BE Axons for
Motor to
Muscles of
facial
expression +
stapedius via
CN VII
- Bell’s Palsy
L T
Facial
Nucleus Corticospinal Axons
A
Descending axonal fibers
from Red nucleus to
inferior olivary nucleus.
Spinothalamic
Tract
Medial lemniscus
Pons
Main
Sensory
Nucleus of
V
GSA Touch from face +
mouth via CN V, VII, IX, X
L
T
BE to muscles of mastication
+ tensor tympani via CN V3
Medial lemniscus
Lesion results in I/L jaw
deviation upon opening.
Motor
Nucleus of
V
A
Spinothalamic
Tract
Corticospinal Axons
Pons, rostral
Spinothalamic
tract
Medial lemniscus
L
T
A
Middle
Cerebellar
peduncle
Corticospinal Axons
Pontocerebellar fibers
Associated with the Corticospinal Tract and synapse within the
Dentate Nucleus. Lesion results in APPENDICULAR ATAXIA.
Associated with middle cerebellar peduncle.
Pons-midbrain junction
Inferior colliculus
Input bilaterally from superior olivary nucleus via
lateral lemniscus. Output the medial geniculate
Periaqueductal
Grey
Connects superior olivary nucleus to inferior colliculus.
Lateral Lemniscus
Medial Longitudinal
Fasciculus
Spinothalamic
tract
L
T
A
Medial lemniscus
Superior colliculus
Cerebral Aqueduct
Midbrain, caudal
Origin of Tectospinal Tract.
Innervates C/L Sup. Oblique w/ GSE via CN IV
Brachium of
inferior
colliculus
Trochlear
Nucleus
Periaqueductal
Grey
Spinothalamic
Tract
Connects Inferior Colliculus and MGN.
Medial Longitudinal
Fasciculus
Medial
Lemniscus
L
T
A
Corticospinal
Axons
Superior
Cerebellar
Peduncle
Substantia Nigra
Midbrain, caudal
Superior colliculus
Cerebral aqueduct
Periaqueductal
Grey
Oculomotor nucleus
Contains Occulomotor nucleus (GSE) + EdingerWestphal Nucleus (GVE- Para).
Spinothalamic tract
Medial lemniscus
L
T
Corticospinal Axons
A
Black because of production of
MELANIN.
Substantia nigra
Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons to Striatum originate in Pars Compacta.
SNc DEGENERATED in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.
Pars Reticularis receives Glutamatergic (Excitatory) neurons from the Subthalamic
Nucleus and sends GABAergic (Inhibitory) neurons to the Thalamus.
Pars Reticularis receives GABAergic neurons from Striatum.
Cerebral
peduncle
(Crus
Cerebri)
Origin of rubrospinal tract. Lesion above results in decorticate rigidity. Lesion at or below results in
decerebrate rigidity. Involved in proximal flexor musculature.
Midbrain, rostral
Red Nucleus
LGN
Corticospinal Axons
Within Cerebral Peduncle
Mammillothalamic Tract
Connects mammillary Bodies to anterior nucleus of thalamus.
3rd Ventricle
Fornix
Connects Hippocampus to mammillary bodies
Optic Tract
Rubrospinal tract = red nucleus to cervical cord (Lamina V-VIII) - Ventral tegmental decussation in
MIDBRAIN. Facilitates motor neurons that innervate flexor muscles. Functionally parallel to
corticospinal tract.
Pineal Gland Containing Brain Sand. Secretes melatonin.
Cirvumventricular organ. Part of epithalamus. Regulated
by suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Sensation from face (trigeminothalamic +
facial nucleus)
VPM
Sensation from body. ML
+ spinothalamic tracts.
Projects to primary
somatosensory cortex.
VPL
Internal
capsule,
posterior
limb
Left
Right
Dorsal
(posterior)
root
Sensory!
Posterior median sulcus
Posteriolateral sulcus
Posterior intermediate sulcus
Left
Posterior median sulcus
Dorsal (posterior) root
Fasciculus gracilis
GSA Touch - T7 + below
Fasciculus cuneatus
GSA - touch C1-T6 dermatomes
Right
Left
Right
Ventral
(anterior)
root
Anterior median fissure
Contains Anterior Spinal Artery
Anterior median fissure
Right
Left
Ventral
(anterior)
root
Conus
medullaris
L1/L2
Ends at L1/L2
Cauda
equina
Filum
terminale
Composed of Pia.
Fasciculus gracilis
Sacral Cord
Contained within Lumbar Vertebrae!!!
Te
Posterior Median Sulcus
Lateral
corticospinal
tract
Spinothalamic
tract
Anterior median fissure
Lumbar Cord
Fasciculus gracilis
Posteromarginal
Nucleus Lamina I
Lateral
corticospinal
tract
Substantia
gelatinosa
Lamina II
Lesion Results in Spastic
Paralysis
Lumbar
enlargement
Spinothalamic
tract
Lesion to Ventral horn results in Flaccid
Paralysis.
Spinal border cells (2nd order neuron of
anterior spinocerebellar tract) live here.
Anterior median fissure
Thoracic Cord
Fasciculus gracilis
Nucleus Posteromarginalis
Lateral
corticospinal
tract
Substantia
Gelatinosa
Intermediolateral
cell
column
Lateral
horn
Contains Sympathetic
Preganglionic Somas (B-fibers) in
intermediolateral cell column.
L
Found at Spinal Levels T1-L2.
T
A
Spinothalamic
tract
Central Canal
Enlargement results in syringomeylia.
Primarily affects the C5 dermatome.
Clarke s (Column) nucleus
2nd order neurons in the Posterior Spinocerebellar Tract. Located in Lamina VII from T1-S2
Receives input from DRGs in fasciculus gracilis
Cervical Cord
Fasciculus gracilis
Fasciculus cuneatus
Substantia
gelatinosa
Posteromarginal
Nucleus
Lateral
corticospinal
tract
Cervical
enlargement
Spinothalamic
tract
Contains Lower Motor Neurons for
brachial plexus. Both A-alpha motor
neurons (extrafusal fibers) and Agamma motor neurons (intrafusal
fibers). C5-T1
Anterior median fissure
Anterior White Commissure
Contains Spinothalamic 2nd order axons. First
Affected in Syringomelia.
Contains Anterior Spinal Artery from vertebral artery.
Ophthalmic Artery
Occlusion results in ipsilateral anopia.
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Occlusion results in loss of voluntary motor and sensation to contralateral lower
limb + genitals.
Middle
Cerebral
Artery
Occlusion results in loss of
voluntary motor + sensation
Anterior
Choroidal Artery
Anterior
Communicating
Artery
Aneurysm results in bitemporal
hemianopia.
Posterior
Communicating
Artery
Internal Carotid
System
Vertebral Artery
System
Posterior Cerebral
Superior Alternating / Weber’s / Medial
Artery Midbrain Syndrome - unilateral damage
to the ventral region of the midbrain
caused by occlusion of the PCA / Basilar
Arteries. Results in superior alternating
hemiplegia (ipsilateral oculomotor n.
palsy + contralateral hemiplegia).
If lateral tegmental areas are involved as
well, it results in the addition of ataxia
and is called Benedikt’s syndrome.
Superior Cerebellar
Frequently the cause of trigeminal neuralgia.
Artery Occlusion results in ATAXIA.
Anterior Inferior
Cerebellar Artery
(AICA)
Basilar Artery
Occlusion results in LATERAL PONTINE
SYNDROME.
Posterior Inferior
Cerebellar Artery
(PICA)
Vertebral Artery
Occlusion results in Lateral Medullary
Syndrome - (Wallenberg’s Syndrome)
Anterior Spinal Artery
Occlusion results in medial medullary syndrome (inferior alternating syndrome).
Anterior
Cerebral
Artery
Occlusion results in loss of
voluntary motor + sensation to
contralateral lower limb.
Internal Carotid Artery
Middle Cerebral Artery
Occlusion results in loss of sensation + voluntary motor to contralateral upper limb
+ face.
Middle
Cerebral
Artery
Anterior
Cerebral
Artery
Internal
Carotid
Artery
Posterior
Cerebral
Artery
Superior
Cerebellar
Artery
Basilar
Artery
Vertebral
Artery
Posterior
Cerebral
Artery
Occlusion results in Superior
Alternating (Weber’s) Syndrome
Superior
Cerebellar
Artery
Basilar
Artery
Vertebral
Artery
Posterior
Cerebral
Artery
Occlusion results in Superior
Alternating (Weber’s) Syndrome
Superior
Cerebellar
Artery
Basilar
Artery
Vertebral
Artery
Occlusion -> Superior Alternating (Weber’s) Syndrome
Posterior
Cerebral
Artery
AICA
Occlusion results in Lateral
Pontine Syndrome.
Superior
Cerebellar
Artery
Basilar
Artery
PICA
Occlusion results in Lateral Medullary
(Wallenberg’s) Syndrome.
Vertebral
Artery
Contains ACA.
Afferent From Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus. Efferent
to cortex and parahippocampal gyrus via cingulum
bundle.
Cingulate gyrus
Cingulum Bundle
Efferents from cingulate gyrus. Fibers to
parahippocampal gyrus.
Longitudinal fissure
Corpus callosum
Body
Septum pellucidum
Corona radiata
Lateral
ventricle,
anterior
horn
Caudate
nucleus
Huntington’s Disease will
have degeneration of
MEDIUM SPINY NEURONS
in the Caudate.
Part of the Striatum.
Associated with Association
cortex.
Internal
capsule,
anterior
limb
Contains Corticofugal and
thalamocortical fibers.
Putamen
Part of Striatum with
Caudate and part of
lentiform nucleus with
globus pallidus.
Associated with
SENSORYMOTOR cortex.
Caudate nucleus
Cingulate gyrus
Internal capsule,
anterior limb Corticofugal fibers.
Lateral ventricle,
body
Putamen
External
capsule
Extreme
capsule
Lateral Sulcus
Insula
Claustrum
Globus
Pallidus,
externum
Inhibitory input
from striatum +
GABA inhibitory
output on
subthalamic nuclei
Globus
Pallidus,
internum
Inhib by striatum, excited by
STN, inhibits Thalamus.
T
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
3rd ventricle
A subcortical Structure. Receives input from
olfactory tract. Communicates via anterior
commissure. Lesion -> Kluver-Bucy Syndrome.
Connected to the hypothalamus via STRIA
TERMINALIS.
Cingulate gyrus
Hippocampus to mammillary bodies.
Fornix
Caudate nucleus
Internal capsule,
posterior limb
Mammilothalamic Tract
Mammillary Bodies to Ant. Nucleus of
thalamus. Part of Circuit of Papez.
External capsule
Extreme
capsule
Putamen
Globus
Pallidus,
externum
Insula
Claustrum
Globus
Pallidus,
internum
Hippocampus
Lateral ventricle,
NMDA receptors are hekka important for LTP here.
CA1 region of hippocampus is the most vulnerable to
Pons
inferior horn
amyloid plaque formation in AD.
Hypothalamus (specifically
Anterior nucleus Receives input from mammillary
bodies via mammillothalamic tract
the mamillary body
of the thalamus and outputs to cingulate gyrus.
Cingulate gyrus
Internal capsule,
posterior limb
Corona radiata
Lateral
sulcus
Putamen
Insula
Dorsomedial
Nucleus of the
Thalamus
Limbic system relay circuit
Hippocampus
Bilateral Ablation will cause anterograde amnesia.
Allocortex (3 layers)
Pons
Lateral ventricle,
inferior horn
Substantia
Nigra Pars Compacta Degenerated in Parkinson’s disease.
Longitudinal fissure
Fornix
Thalamus
Caudate
Lateral sulcus
Hippocampus
Cerebral
aqueduct
Connects the 3rd + 4th
Ventricles. Occlusion here
would cause noncommunicating
hydrocephalus.
Lateral ventricle,
inferior horn
Middle cerebellar
peduncle
Medulla
Longitudinal fissure
Cingulate Gyrus
Corona
radiata
Corpus
callosum
Cingulate Gyrus
Longitudinal fissure
Genu of the corpus callosum Connects anterior frontal lobes
Caudate nucleus
Cingulate gyrus
Internal capsule,
Fornix
anterior limb
Globus pallidus
Putamen
Genu of Corpus Callosum
External capsule
Corticobulbar fibers
Insula
Claustrum
Internal capsule,
posterior limb
Extreme capsule
Corticospinal + sensory fibers.
Dorsomedial Nucleus
of the Thalamus
Relaying information from hypothalamus,
hippocampus, amygdala, to frontal + cingulate
cortex
Thalamus
Splenium of the
corpus callosum
Connects occipital lobes.
Lateral ventricle,
posterior horn
3rd ventricle
Hypothalamus
3rd ventricle
Mammillary Body
Hippocampus
Crus cerebri
a.k.a Cerebral peduncle
Hippocampus
Cerebral aqueduct
Receives input from the inferior
colliculus via the brachium of the
inferior colliculus. Output to I/L
primary auditory cortex (BA 41,42).
Medial geniculate
nucleus
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus
Receives input from the optic tract. Carries information
from the C/L visual field. Lesion results in C/L homonymous
hemianopia. Output to primary visual cortex (BA 17) via
optic radiation. Parietal radiation to cuneus carrying inferior
C/L visual field. Temporal Radiation (Meyer’s Loop) carries
C/L superior visual field.
Ending of Optic Tract (retinal ganglion cells end here). Thalamic relay of visual information.
Organized into layers depending on eye of origin + type of retinal ganglion cell axon:
2 magnocellular layers: input from M-ganglion cells “where pathway”
4 parvocellular layers: input from P-ganglion cells “what pathway”
Internal capsule,
posterior limb
Anterior Commissure
Connects amygdala, olfactory nuclei, anterior temporal lobes.
Medial geniculate
nucleus
Internal capsule,
posterior limb
Optic radiations
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus
Lesion results in C/L homonymous
hemianopia.
Hippocampus
Superior colliculus
Origin of tectospinal tract.
Medial geniculate nucleus
of tectospinal tract. Receives input
Superior colliculus Origin
from the optic tract.
Receives input from the inferior
colliculus via the brachium of the
inferior colliculus. Output to
primary auditory cortex via the
ACOUSTIC RADIATION.
Brachium of
inferior
colliculus
Connects inferior colliculus to the
medial geniculate nucleus.
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus
Inferior
colliculus
Receives input from superior
olivary nucleus via the lateral
lemniscus. Sends output to the
medial geniculate nucleus via the
brachium of the inferior
colliculus.
Incomplete damage -> Marcus
Gunn pupil (afferent pupil).
Optic nerve
results in bitemporal hemianopsia.
Optic chiasm Lesion
Decussation of temporal visual fields.
Optic tract
Lesion results in C/L
homonymous hemianopsia.
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus
Lesion results in C/L
homonymous hemianopsia.
Medial geniculate nucleus
Origin of medial vestibulospinal tract.
Medial vestibular nucleus
just the
vestibular nuclei
Medial
longitudinal
fasciculus
Cochlear nuclei
Lesion here results in I/L
sensorineural hearing loss.
Lesion results in I/L internuclear
opthalmoplegia. i.e. inability to adduct the
ipsilateral eye.
Tectospinal Tract
Originates in superior colliculus.
Medial Vestibulospinal Tract medial + lateral inferior vestibular
nuclei → Cervical cord (lamina VII +
VIII) - partial cross in medulla
Rotation + lifting of head + rotation
of shoulder blade. Changes in
posture + balance. Primarily inhibit
MNs innervating extensors +
neurons serving muscles of back +
neck.
Medial
vestibular
nucleus
Lateral
vestibular
nucleus
Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract Lateral vestibular nucleus of
medulla to all levels (Lamina
VII, VIII) - NO
DECUSSATION.
Facilitates 𝛂 + 𝛄-motor
neurons that innervate
extensor muscles. Maintains
posture, modulated by
activation of vestibular
apparatus or cerebellum.
May inhibit some flexor motor
neurons, but they mainly
facilitate spinal reflexes via
their excitatory influence on
spinal motor neurons
innervating extensors.
Extensor response of lower
limbs in both decerebrate +
decorticate rigidity.
Superior olivary
nucleus
Receives auditory info from cochlear nucleus and outputs to
inferior colliculus via the lateral lemniscus.
Performs LOCALIZATION of SOUND.
GSE to lateral rectus via CN VI.
Input from Paramedian Pontine Reticular
Formation. Output to C/L Oculomotor
nucleus via MLF.
Abducens nucleus
Lesion causes I/L internuclear opthalmoplegia.
Connects C/L Abducens nucleus with I/L oculomotor nucleus.
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Origin of tectospinal tract.
Superior
colliculus
GVE for pupillary light reflex to sphincter puppillae and
to ciliary muscle for accomodation via CN III
(oculomotor) and ciliary ganglion.
Edinger-Westphal
nucleus
Receives input from Inferior colliculus via brachium
of the inferior colliculus. Output to primary auditory
cortex (BA 41,42) (caudal superior temporal gyrus).
Medial geniculate
nucleus
Oculomotor
nucleus
GSE to eye muscles. CN III.
Lateral
geniculate
nucleus
Medial longitudinal
fasciculus
Lesion results in bitemporal hemianopia.
Optic chiasm
Parieto-occipital sulcus
Contains the PCA.
Processes the C/L inferior visual
field. Receives input from parietal
stream of optic radiation.
Cuneus
Lesion results in I/L anopia.
left superior quedrantanopia
Optic nerve
Lingual gyrus
Calcarine sulcus
Processes C/L Superior visual field.
Receives input from Meyer’s Loop
(Temporal stream of optic radiation).
Olfactory
Bulb
Olfactory
Tract
Olfactory
Trigone
Uncus
Parahippocampal
Gyrus
Periallocortex (4-5 layers).
Mammillary
Body
Cingulate Gyrus
Cingulate cortex is Periallocortex (4-5 layers).
Fornix
Cingulum Bundle
Fibers from cingulate cortex
to parahippocampal cortex
and on to entorhinal cortex
and hippocampus.
Hippocampus
Outputs to mammillary bodies via the fornix.
Degenerates (particularly CA1) in
Alzheimer’s due to accumulation of betaamyloid plaques derived from amyloid
precursor protein.
A site of adult neurogenesis.
Fornix
Uncus
Anterior
Commissure
Amygdala
Communication between amygdalae, anterior temporal lobes,
+ olfactory nuclei.
Fornix
Dorsomedial
Nucleus of
the Thalamus
Hippocampus
Cingulate Gyrus
Fornix
Hippocampus
Fornix
Hippocampus
Splenium of Corpus Callosum
Carries communication between the occipital
Posterior Horn
of Lateral
Ventricle
Hippocampus
Cingulate
Gyrus
Fornix
Carries fibers from the
hippocampus to the
mammillary bodies from the
hippocampus. Bilateral lesion
will result in minor
anterograde memory
disturbance.
Receives input from the anterior nucleus
of the thalamus and sends output to the
cortex and parahippocampal gyrus via
the cingulum bundle.
Anterior
Nucleus of
the Thalamus
Receives input from the
mammilary bodies via the
mammilothalamic tract and
projects to the cingulate cortex
via the internal capsule.
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