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A STUDY ON HRD CLIMATE PRACTISED IN SELECT PUBLIC SECTOR MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING INDUSTRIES IN KARNATAKA

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 441-449. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_045
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
A STUDY ON HRD CLIMATE PRACTISED IN
SELECT PUBLIC SECTOR MANUFACTURING
AND PROCESSING INDUSTRIES IN
KARNATAKA
Savitha. K.M
PhD Research Scholar, Department of Management, Karpagam Academy of Higher
Education, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Dr.A.Martin Jayaraj
Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education,
Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
ABSTRACT
The success of acountry always depends on the potential human resources
harnessed to achievepersonal, organisational and national goals. In the case of a
developing nation, public enterprises play a vital role in globalisation and face alot of
constraints in competing with multinational companies.So, there is need of a sound
HRD climate.This influenced the researcher to conduct “A study on HRD Climate
practised in select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing Industries in
Karnataka”. Thestudy is focussed on the HRD climate in general and a select public
sector undertakings in Karnataka in particularto analyse various factors influencing a
conducive working climate and employee-satisfaction in select public sector
undertakings. It also analyses the existing HRD climate practised in the select public
sector units and their contribution to productivity, by identifying the prevailing
problems in implementing HRD climate and suggesting better strategies for
implementing HRD climate toreach optimum productivity.
Keywords: HRD Climate, Manufacturing industry, Karnataka
Cite this Article: Savitha. K.M and Dr.A. Martin Jayaraj, A Study on Hrd Climate
Practised In Select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing Industries in
Karnataka, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3),
2019, pp. 441-449.
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441
[email protected]
A Study on Hrd Climate Practised In Select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing
Industries in Karnataka
1. INTRODUCTION
AnOrganisation‟s success depends on itsemployees‟ skills and motivation. Talented and
competent employees are a great asset to an organisation. Optimisation of the human resource
takes place, when there is a highly conducive HR climate in an organisation. Employees can
make full contribution performing to their potential for achieving the goals of the
organisation.
Human capital is an important area of investment in an organisation. An organisation
cannotbuild human resource overnight. Moreover, human resource, skills, knowledge and
attitude cannot be made available easily. It is the responsibility of the organisation to improve
and develop the readily available human resource. When manpower is not managed properly,
it results in less productivity, and, sometimes, may also lead to zero productivity. It may also
turn the employees fromperforming assets to non-performing assets, or even, aliability, to the
organisation. In order to address this issue, authorities set new strategies of HRD to improve
the efficiency of both managerial and non-managerial employees. Hence, the present study is
focussed on, “A study on HRD climate practised in select Public Sector Manufacturing and
Processing Industries in Karnataka”,
1.1. Objectives


To study the HRD climate in general and a select public sector undertakings in
Karnataka in particular.
To analyse the factors influencing a conducive working climate and employeesatisfaction in the select public sector undertakings.
1.2. Literature Review





In 2002, Gopa and Padmakali analysed the impact of job satisfaction and HRD
climate in the selected public sector organisations. The outcome of the study
showeda positive relationship between job satisfaction and HRD climate, which, in
turn,could improve the performance of the organisation.
In 2004, Singh conducted a study to measure the impact of Human resource
policieson Organisational performance. It revealed that the HR practices like
sound recruitment practices, multi-tasking, job rotation and decentralised decisions
influenced factors of organisational performance.
In 2011, Solkhe and Chaudhry did a study on the public sector undertakings to
find out the HRD climate. The outcome of the study revealed that managers hada
positive attitude in the HRD practices, when compared to the middle level
executives, showing that there was a need of imparting knowledge about HRD
climate among the middle and junior level executives.
In the year 2014, Sangeeta Trehan and Karan Setia conducted a research on
“Human resource management practices and organisational performance”. The
researchers discussed the way internal and external factors influencedHRM
practices and impactedthe organisational performance. It was found that focussed
training, reward-based performance and team cohesiveness were sound HR
practices influencing the organisational performance. It was found that a
significant relationship existed between the human resource practices and
organisational performance.
Benjamin (2011) conducted a study titled “An Assessment of Human Resource
Development climate in Rwanda-oriented telecommunication and Insurance
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442
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Savitha. K.M, PhD, and Dr.A. Martin Jayaraj


Companies. The outcome of the studyrevealed a congenial HRD climate. It was
also revealed that the HRD climate of the telecommunication sector was more
favourable than that of insurance companies.
Beulah Viji Christiana (2012), researched on “Employee Perception on Human
Resource Practices and Organisational Citizenship behaviour in private sector
banks”. The result of the study proved that there was a significant relationship
between career development and performance appraisal with organisational
commitment.
Solkhe and Chaudhary (2011) analysed the HRD climate and job satisfaction in
public sector firms. The studyshoweda positive relationship between job
satisfaction and HRD climate, which, in turn, improved the organisational
performance.
1.3. Research Methodology
The researcher has chosen companies like HMT, ITI, KAPL and MangaloreRefinery and
Petrochemicals Limited, Karnataka for the study.
1.4. Tools used for Data collection
The researcher has adopted well administered questionnaires to collect data.
1.5. Sampling Technique
The respondents of the study are employees of the organisations and the researcher has
adopted the systematic random sampling technique.
1.6. Sample size
Using Cochran‟s formula, the sample size is calculated, and the sample size is 117.
1.7. Tools used for data analysis
The collected data are analysed using the SPSS, and findings are drawn.
2. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It is inferred that, in HMT Company, 24% of the respondents are male and 5% female, in ITI
Company, 24% are male and 6% female andin KAPL Company, 15% are male and 3%
female.
With respect to the Mangalore refinery, 19% are male and 4% female. Hence, the total
number of respondents is117, where a majority of the respondents (82%) are male and 18%
female.
It is inferred that, in HMT Company, nearly 11% are aged below 35 years, 14% between
35and45 and 4% above 45. In ITI Company, nearly 11% are aged below 35 years, 14%
between35 and 45 and 5% above 45. In KAPL Company, nearly 7% are aged below 35 years,
9% between of 35 and 45 and 3% above 45. In Mangalore Refinery, nearly 8% are aged
below 35 years, 11% between 35 and 45 and 4% above 45. Hence, in total, nearly 36% are
aged below 35 years and 48% between 35 and 45. Nearly 16% of the respondents are aged
above 45 years. Hence, it can be concluded that more respondents are below 45 years.
It can be inferred that, in HMT Company, nearly 11% of the respondents haveless than 10
years of experience, and 14% between 10 and 20 years and 4% 20 years. In ITI Company,
nearly 11% of respondents have less than 10 years of experience, 14% between10 and 20 and
5% above 20. In KAPL Company, nearly 7% of the respondents have less than 10 years of
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A Study on Hrd Climate Practised In Select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing
Industries in Karnataka
experience, 9% between 10 and 20 and 3% above 20. In Mangalore Refinery, nearly 8% have
less than 10 years of experience, 11% between 10 and 20 and 4% above 20. In total, nearly
half of the respondents (48%) have between 10 and 20 years of experience, andonly 16%
more than 20.
Not
Rarely
Sometimes Mostly Always
S.No
Criteria
Total
true
true
true
true
true
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Top management goes out of
its way to ensure that
employees enjoy their work
Management believes that
important resources are
people and should be treated
well
Managers view the
development of subordinates
as an important part of their
jobs
Personnel policies facilitate
employee‟s development
Management is interested to
invest considerable time and
resources to ensure employee
development
Managers take active interest
insubordinates and assist
them to learn their job
Employees lacking skills are
helped to gain competence,
and not left unattended
Managers believe employees
can be changed and
developed at any stage of life
Employees are helpful to one
another
Employees are not reluctant
to discuss personal problems
with managers
The working environment is
very conducive in acquiring
new knowledge and skills
Managers guide their
employees and prepare them
for future responsibilities
Top management identifies
and utilizes employee
potential.
Promotions are based on the
suitability of the candidates
rather than bias
Organisation mechanism
0
8%
33%
42%
17%
100%
0
33%
34%
25%
8%
100%
0
25%
67%
8%
0
100%
8%
8%
42%
42%
0%
100%
0
17%
42%
41%
0
100%
0
8%
17%
67%
8%
100%
0
8%
17%
67%
8%
100%
0
0%
50%
42%
8%
100%
0
17%
50%
25%
8%
100%
0
8%
75%
17%
0
100%
0
8%
33%
42%
17%
100%
0
33%
34%
25%
8%
100%
0
25%
67%
8%
0
100%
8%
8%
42%
42%
0
100%
0
17%
42%
41%
0
100%
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444
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Savitha. K.M, PhD, and Dr.A. Martin Jayaraj
S.No
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Criteria
rewards employees‟ good
work and contributions
Employees good work are
appreciated by the Managers
Performance appraisal reports
are based on adequate
information and objective
assessment without any bias
Employees do not have any
fixed opinion about one
another
Employees are encouraged to
experiment on new methods
and ideas
Managers help the employees
learn from the mistakes,
rather than punish them
Employeesareinformedof
their weaknesses in a nonthreatening way
Employees usebehavioural
feedback seriously for
development
Employees take effort to find
out their strengths and
weaknesses from Managers
and other employees
Employees take sponsored
training seriously and try to
learn from the programs
Training programs are given
opportunities for the
employees to experiment with
what they have learnt
Employees are giventraining
based onthe need
People trust oneanother in the
work place
Employees are not reluctant
to express or discuss their
feelings with the managers
Managers are not reluctant to
express their feelings totheir
subordinates
Employees are encouraged to
take initiative and given a
free hand to work without any
instruction
Delegation of authority is
Not
true
Rarely
true
0
8%
17%
67%
8%
100%
8%
17%
67%
8%
0
100%
0
0
50%
42%
8%
100%
0
17%
50%
25%
8%
100%
0
8%
75%
17%
0
100%
0
8%
33%
42%
17%
100%
0
33%
34%
25%
8%
100%
0
25%
67%
8%
0
100%
8%
8%
42%
42%
0%
100%
0
17%
42%
41%
0%
100%
0
8%
17%
67%
8%
100%
8%
17%
67%
8%
0
100%
0
0
50%
42%
8%
100%
0
17%
50%
25%
8%
100%
0
8%
75%
17%
0
100%
0
8%
33%
42%
17%
100%
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445
Sometimes Mostly Always
Total
true
true
true
[email protected]
A Study on Hrd Climate Practised In Select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing
Industries in Karnataka
S.No
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Criteria
quite common in this
organisation
When managers delegate
authority to employees, they
use it as an opportunity for
development
There is a high degree of
team spirit in the work
environment
Employees discuss problems
openly and try to solve them
instead of gossiping
Career opportunities are
given toemployees by
managers in the organization
Future plans are
communicated to the
managerial staff to
developemployees‟ growth
This organization insists on
employee welfare
Job rotation facilitates
employee development in the
organisation
Working environment is
highly satisfactory, which
influences employee retention
Theorganisation‟sHRD
climate leads to better
productivity.
Weighted Average
Not
true
Rarely
true
Sometimes Mostly Always
Total
true
true
true
0
33%
34%
25%
8%
100%
0
25%
67%
8%
0
100%
8%
8%
42%
42%
0
100%
0
17%
42%
41%
0
100%
0
8%
17%
67%
8%
100%
8%
17%
67%
8%
0
100%
0
0
50%
42%
8%
100%
8%
17%
67%
8%
0
100%
0
0
50%
42%
8%
100%
2%
14%
46%
33%
5%
100%
Source: Primary Data
3. ANALYSIS ON RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES ON HRD CLIMATE
Theresponses from several employees are combined to measure the HRD climate, which
brings changes in the organization‟s HRD practices. The opinions of the respondents are
analysed, and the weighted averages of all the responses are mentioned above. The outcome
of the analysis shows that, 5% of the employees found the HRD climate statements always
true, 33% mostly true and 46% sometimes true. 14% of the respondents foundthe statements
rarely true, and very few (2%) not at all true. It can be concluded from the above analysis, that
the HRD climate in this research study is moderate and neither good nor bad.
4. FACTOR ANALYSIS
Factor analysis is a class of procedure, which is used for summarization and data reduction. It
is an interdependent technique, in which interdependent relationships are examined without
making a difference between dependent and independent variables. This technique is used,
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Savitha. K.M, PhD, and Dr.A. Martin Jayaraj
when the researcher is interested in identifying a smaller number of factors, from alarge
number of observed variables.
Extraction Sums - Squared
Loadings
Initial Eigenvalues
Component
Total
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14.16
8
9.009
6.915
4.536
3.037
1.503
.542
.190
.094
Variance Cumulativ
Total
%
e%
Rotation Sums - Squared
Loadings
Variance Cumulativ
Total
%
e%
Variance Cumulativ
%
e%
35.421
35.421
14.168
35.421
35.421
9.964
24.911
24.911
22.523
17.288
11.341
7.592
3.758
1.356
.476
.234
57.944
75.232
86.573
94.166
97.924
99.279
99.755
99.990
9.009
6.915
4.536
3.037
1.503
22.523
17.288
11.341
7.592
3.758
57.944
75.232
86.573
94.166
97.924
7.699
7.625
5.473
4.501
3.906
19.248
19.062
13.683
11.254
9.766
44.159
63.220
76.904
88.157
97.924
Source: PrimaryData
5. INFERENCE
It is inferred that Eigen values can be identified as proportionate to the total variance of all the
variables. The study includes 40 variables to measure the HRD climate, as, it is being reduced
to 6 factors, using factor analysis tool. Out of 9 parameters shown, only 6 parameters were
found to be having Eigen values greater than 1. Hence, 97% of the data can be represented by
these 6 parameters. These parameters are extracted based on the Eigen values.
KMO and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser -Meyer-Olkin
Sampling measure
0.86
Bartlett's Test of Sphercity
Approx Chisquare
df
Sig
3.16E+03
561
0.00
Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin (KMO) test of sampling adequacy is recommended, when the
accepting values are greater than 0.5. The measure value of >0.9 is considered “marvellous”,>
0.8 “meritorious”,> 0.7 middling,> 0.6 “mediocre”,> 0.5 “miserable” and < 0.5unacceptable.
Hence, from the above table, it can be inferred that the KMO value is 0.86, and hence,
sampling adequacy and the Bartlett‟s test, used to test the null hypothesis, show that there is
no correlation between the variables. The significance value shownin, the above table is less
than 0.05, and hence, there is correlation between the variables.
It can be concluded that based on the factor analysis techniques, the number of factors is
being reduced as follows:
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A Study on Hrd Climate Practised In Select Public Sector Manufacturing and Processing
Industries in Karnataka
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Factor 5
Factor 6
Employee Development
Collaboration and Teamwork
Employee Welfare
Openness
Employee Feedback mechanism
Autonomy
6. CONCLUSION
It can be concluded from the study on HRDclimatepractised in select public sector
manufacturing and processing industries in Karnataka that the factors influencing HRD
climate are identified, which are Employee Development, Collaboration and Team work,
Employee welfare, Openness, Employee feedback mechanism and Autonomy. It is
recommended that these are the factors required for the effective HRD climate of the select
public sector firms in Karnataka. It is inferred that the HRD climate is moderate in select
public sector organisations in Karnataka. The future study can be conducted for different
service sectors in different regions for further development of research.
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Savitha. K.M, PhD, and Dr.A. Martin Jayaraj
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