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THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE BUILDINGS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 390-402, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_040
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE
BUILDINGS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Maksym A. Votinov
Department of architectural design and drawing bases, Faculty of Architecture, Design and
Fine Arts, O.M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Kharkiv, 61002,
Ukraine
Olga V. Smirnova
Department of Architecture of Buildings and Structures and Design of Architectural
Environment, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Fine Arts, O.M. Beketov National
University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
Sofya S. Bronnikova
Department of architectural design and drawing bases, Faculty of Architecture, Design and
Fine Arts, O.M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Kharkiv, 61002,
Ukraine
Daria S. Chubarova
Department of Architecture of Buildings and Structures and Design of Architectural
Environment, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Fine Arts, O.M. Beketov National
University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
ABSTRACT
The development of innovative buildings in the urban environment around the
world is rapidly becoming increasingly widespread. Today, there are many
publications on the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment, but
despite this fact, there is no research and model which would study the process of
forming a synergistic effect of innovative buildings in the urban environment. In
addition, there is no research that evaluates the synergistic effect in terms of open
systems “innovative buildings - urban environment”. This urges the research issue.
This research paper aims at creating a synergetic model for the development of
innovative buildings in the urban environment. The principle of adaptation when
dealing with the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment is
considered from the standpoint of synergetics, the principles (groups) of formation
and individual elements included in the model are suggested; the specifics of
architectural developments in the future is determined. The principle of adaptation
from the standpoint of synergetics when considering the development of innovative
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The Development of Innovative Buildings in the Urban Environment
buildings in the urban environment is a special process that occurs under structural
adaptability (dynamics), and the dynamic equilibrium of the interacting elements of
innovative buildings subordinate to the principle of least interference. The principle
of the least mutual interference of elements in the development of innovative buildings
in the urban environment, based on the theory of structural adaptability of materials,
is to minimize their interference. It is established that structural elements of
innovative buildings are characterized by an organization with a maximum function
of probability of their occurrence (self-organization) under the condition of constant
energy absorption and dissipation at the appropriate level in the urban environment,
therefore, on the basis of synergistic principles, a model of the development of
innovative buildings in the urban environment, which represents information on
possible restructuring in their structural elements. The use of this model allows
constructing the buildings of the future taking into account the proposed principles in
the urban environment. The application of the software method using modern
computer technology allows for modeling of innovative buildings, which will be new
architectural objects of the urban environment, thus opening an opportunity to
manage the entire architecture of the urban environment. Formation of innovative
buildings in the urban environment allows determining the specifics of architectural
developments in the future. New architectural buildings in the urban environment in
case of application of the synergetic model will have expressed artistic images with
complex self-organizing structures in combination of traditional forms and various
existing non-linear forms.
Key words: Synergetic Model, Innovative Buildings, Urban Environment,
Architectural Developments, Structural Elements, Ensembles, Principles.
Cite this Article: Maksym A. Votinov, Olga V. Smirnova, Sofya S. Bronnikova and
Daria S. Chubarova, The Development of Innovative Buildings in the Urban
Environment, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(03),
2019, pp. 390-402
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
1. INTRODUCTION
The development of innovative buildings in the urban environment around the world is
rapidly becoming increasingly widespread [1-8]. At the present time, the architecture of
buildings and structures has an instant reaction to any innovation in various social spheres of
life [9-16]. On the basis of the introduction of modern nanotechnologies, they construct
superstrong and lightweight structures [17-19], and the use of new principles of genetic
engineering allows the creation of modern construction materials with unique physical and
mechanical properties that can be applied directly in the construction process. For modern
architecture, which can be considered as an open system, the integration of all new processes
that arise in the world in various spheres of the economy is typical, without rejecting all the
building principles that have been acquired over the past millenniums.
The modern stage of society’s development is characterized by the extraordinariness of
contrast and ambiguity [20, 21]. All the problems that arise in nature and in human economic
activity, and along with this, constantly advancing information technologies lead to a chaotic
process of social consciousness and cultural thinking. In such a situation characterised by
uncertainty and entropy, modern societies need new ideological guidelines, improved plans
and strategies aimed at further development [22, 23]. It is possible to predict and create an
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Maksym A. Votinov, Olga V. Smirnova, Sofya S. Bronnikova and Daria S. Chubarova
image of the future subject to a thorough understanding of the processes that are taking place
today.
When predicting the image of the future in the present, the existing architecture quite
clearly makes some adjustments that manifest themselves in human activity in a very diverse
nature [24, 25].
Human activity in architecture includes both art and science, both theoretical and
practical. Art, along with architecture, represents new opportunities with great potential [26,
27]. The process of understanding, studying and analyzing the modern architectural process
allows making a forecast of further trends and the main vectors of the direction of
development, establishing a model of the near future of the architecture and finding out the
components of such a model that reflects the image of a part of world culture and the whole
world.
Different approaches, models and specialized software are used to explain the principles
of the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment [1, 2, 27, 28]. One of
these approaches is the post-classical scientific paradigm, which reflects the most urgent and
adequate response to present-day obsolescent processes. In the post-nonclassical scientific
paradigm there is a science - synergetics - founded by H. Haken. Synergetics studies
connections between structural elements of complex open systems. Such structural elements
are capable of the process of self-organization. Self-organization is inherent in most of the
existing natural and artificial systems. These systems include, among other things, the
architecture of the urban environment, which is formed by a variety of buildings and
structures.
The advantages of synergetics include the scientific-and-conceptual, as well as theoretical
and methodological apparatus, which is characterized by the universality of the initial data
and the results obtained in one scientific field and their convertibility into another sphere [27,
28].
Principles of synergetics can be applied in the architecture of the urban environment,
because the urban environment is a complex process of interaction of structural elements, and
refers to multistructure systems with continuous development [27, 28].
Synergetics allows referring the architecture of the urban environment to open dynamic
dissipative systems, that is to systems with self-development, self-sustainability and selfcontrol with the main purpose - the vital functions of a human and all local society. The
forecast of the images of the architecture development in the urban environment should be
based on the emerging socio-spatial needs of a human to the internal environment of his daily
life and the entire process of his life activity.
In works [1-3], the synergetic effect of an industrial cluster is considered as a quasi-effect,
which has a complex nonlinear nature and consists of a number of different effects. The
authors study the formation of a synergistic effect in an industrial cluster, as well as
indicators of its economic evaluation. Based on the proposed approaches to the description of
the process of forming the synergetic effect in the industrial cluster based on determination of
the effects of various kinds (economic, social, ecological, etc.), an approach based on the
“added value” concept is suggested. For economic evaluation, researchers consider the
synergistic effect of multiplicative accelerated clustering. As a result, a scheme for the
formation of the synergistic effect of the industrial cluster has been developed.
On the basis of the analysis of the structure and functions of the system of sustainable
urbanization [5-8], the theory of synergetics is presented and the system of synergy of
sustainable urbanization with five subsystems is built: demographic changes, economic
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development, spatial structure, quality of environment and social development. Based on the
example of sustainable urbanization in Henan province, a mathematical quantitative model
for measuring the levels of the subsystem and the degree of synergy of the system in the
period from 2006 to 2015 was created. The results corresponded to the real situation and
showed that, over time, sustainable urbanization in Henan developed towards a more
harmonious and orderly state, although the overall synergy level was low. It has been found
that this model is a solid basis for scientific judgment and effective decision-making in
coordinating sustainable urbanization.
Work [9] presents the structure of the Sustainable Society Index (CSI), which includes
indicators in the environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainability of the city was
determined as a spatial unit, which maximizes economic and social benefits with relevant
environmental constraints and socio-economic justice. Based on the definition, five distinct
forms are proposed as the basis for evaluating the sustainability of the city, using the concept
of two types of indicators: limitation and maximization indicators. Limitation indicators
evaluate the sustainability of cities based on relevant criteria from the point of view of
environmental sustainability and socio-economic justice. Two aspects of cities are also
evaluated - limitations and benefits without comparisons in terms of strong sustainability.
They argue in [10, 11] that the model of “smart cities” is a solution contributing to
sustainable development and high quality of life due to smart management of natural
resources through joint action and engagement. The paper presents a critical review of such a
model and an attempt to apply smart urban technologies in modern cities, in particular, the
new practices of eco-cities are considered as examples of smart city initiatives. The obtained
results on the issue of urban planning and development ate related to the integration of smart
city technologies and their possible implications for the formation of an artificial environment
for a prosperous and sustainable future of cities.
In [12-14], the method of choosing indicators of sustainability of cities is provided. The
analysis of urban maintenance is used to analyze the scope of work for the departments
concerned, and indicators of sustainable urbanization are filtered out. The study shows that
the method is a possible and effective tool that helps responsible persons to choose indicators
of sustainable urbanization. In [15], they present an alternative model for evaluating
sustainable urbanization by studying the relationship between urbanization and urban
sustainability. The model allows comparing different methods of urbanization and thus
facilitates the exchange of successful experiences. A study of the hybrid matrix method for
evaluating sustainable urbanization is presented in [16], which shows that this method is an
effective tool for understanding the indicators of urban sustainability and formulating
appropriate strategies for urbanization directions to increase stability, and in [17-19] energy
efficiency of cities and eco-cities is described.
In [20], the study of the AUSURT synergistic system was studied at the spatial level,
which consists of four subsystems: land use, traffic conditions, population and underground
space. Through the example of a railway transit project in Shenzhen, a model of successive
levels of synergy is used to calculate the degree of order of subsystems in 1999, 2005 and
2015. The study shows that the degrees of the order of subsystems increases with different
speeds, and all of them develop into an ordered state, that is, when the degree of synergy of
the system increases to 0.505 in 2015 from 0.179 in 2005 - the US dollar growth is
encouraged. Research findings may reflect the laws of the synergistic evolution of AUSURT,
providing scientific judgment and rational references for decision-making for joint planning.
The main results of the research [21-26] show that the use of positive synergism enhances
existing urban components and creates new ones. They improve the quality of processes
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through development of the economic potential of cities and territories. A smart city
management is organized according to different city management models. A model for the
strategic development of the urban environment can help achieve the synergy effect. The true
synergistic effect in a smart urban environment is a change-oriented system. The authors
suggest their views on the synergy of intelligence in a “smart city” in the 21 st century, which
is reflected in the interaction of a human and artificial intelligence.
Today, there are many publications on this subject [1, 2, 6-8, 27, 28], but despite this fact,
there are no studies and models, including those studying the process of forming the
synergetic effect of innovative buildings in the urban environment. In addition, there is no
research that evaluates the synergistic effect in terms of open systems “innovative buildings urban environment”.
This research paper aims at developing a synergetic model for the development of
innovative buildings in the urban environment. To do this, it is necessary to consider, from
the standpoint of synergetics, the principle of adaptation when considering the development
of innovative buildings in the urban environment, to propose the principles (ensembles) of the
formation and the individual elements that will be included in the model; to determine the
specifics of architectural developments in the future.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
From the standpoint of synergetics, the principle of adaptation when considering the
development of innovative buildings in urban environment is a special process that occurs
under structural adaptability (dynamics) [29, 30], and the dynamic equilibrium of mutually
interfering elements of innovative buildings is subject to the principle of least interference.
The principle of the least interference of elements in the development of innovative
buildings in the urban environment, based on the theory of structural adaptability of materials
[30], is to minimize their interference.
In an open system, which includes innovative buildings, since they are in the urban
environment, the existence of a universal “stabilizer” is required. Such a “stabilizer” will be
responsible for changing the parameters of buildings and for the influence of the urban
environment in case of acceleration of changes.
The interference of buildings with the urban environment is based on the formulation and
implementation of physico-mechanical and physico-technical reactions that stabilize the
external influence of the urban environment on the structural elements of innovative
buildings.
Let’s write the entropy balance equation for the local area of innovative buildings in the
urban environment [30, 31]:
[ ]
where
– entropy inflow rate into the area of innovative buildings;
- velocity of entropy outflow from the area of innovative buildings to the urban
environment;
[ ] - entropy growth rate the of the inner area of innovative buildings.
With the introduction of innovative buildings, self-organizing dissipative processes
intensify in their elements; these processes result, when exposed to the urban environment, in
ordered structures [32]. The entropy that occurs as a result of interference with the urban
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environment is continuously “pumped out” from the structural elements of innovative
buildings.
In order to achieve the structural elements of innovative buildings of a dynamic stationary
state in the urban environment, the following condition shall be met:
[ ]
When applying the normal distribution law [30] for the development of innovative
buildings, the random value of such a development in the urban environment is equal to
∑
where – integral functions;
– the total value of the random variable;
and the maximum of the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment is
equivalent to minimizing the partial information entropy
Since the value of information entropy is approximately equal to the dispersion of the
[ ], there will always be an organization of
random value of the development of
ensemble structures with structural entropy ( ) in the structural elements of innovative
buildings that ensures the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment.
Structural-functional rearrangements of innovative buildings in the urban environment
with the preservation of their optimal structural state is due to the continuous consumption of
free energy, with the continuous entropy generation [33].
The organization of structural elements of innovative buildings in the urban environment
from the standpoint of synergy [34] is the distribution of ensembles of elements, which
consists of an appropriate number of factors, each solving certain local problems. In case of
accidental changes in the local conditions of the urban environment, the probabilistic
participation of structural elements in the relevant ensembles і, each being in equilibrium
with the urban environment and being the object of multichannel regulation, which contains a
certain number of simultaneously functioning structural elements.
The purpose of functioning is manifested in maximizing the function of individual
structural elements of innovative buildings in the urban environment.
All ensembles (
̅) are the structure of elements of innovative buildings with
multi-link regulation in the urban environment. Moreover, the spatial orientation of the
ensembles of innovative buildings is characterized by the dependence on the conditions of the
interaction of certain elements with the urban environment.
In creating a synergetic model for the development of innovative buildings in the urban
environment, the ensembles (principles) will be:
- engineering and technical ;
- ecological and aesthetic ;
- volumetric planning .
The double index in the designation of ensembles is used for convenience, because the
principles are combined: engineering and technical, environmental and aesthetic, volumetric
and planning.
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In turn, the ensembles of a synergetic model for the development of innovative buildings
in the urban environment will include separate elements:
- constructivity ;
- processability ;
- energy efficiency ;
- eco-friendliness ;
- natural integration ;
- architectonicity ;
- scale ;
- mobility ;
- multifunctionality ;
- informativeness .
It should be noted that the number of individual elements in the ensemble of the
synergetic model of the development of innovative buildings in the urban environment may
vary.
To implement a synergetic model for the development of innovative buildings in the
urban environment, a software method with the use of computer technologies can be used.
3. FINDINGS
Based on the foregoing, we will analyse the state of transformation of the structural elements
of innovative buildings when interfering with the urban environment.
Let us assume that the investigated ensemble
with single-type elements consists of
corresponding energetic states of the individual elements of the innovative buildings of the
urban environment.
The transformational processes of innovative buildings of the urban environment have a
kinetics, which can be described through a stochastic differential equation
(
)
(
( )
)
where – accordingly established energetic state;
̅
̅
–instant values of the internal process of accumulated energy , with the
studied function , which represents the growth rate of such energy and the studied function
, which is the process of such energy dissipation.
The structural element of innovative buildings with a definite ensemble
in the urban
environment is characterized by the dynamic constancy of the stationary state in which it is
located
[
]
( )
or:
[
(
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)]
396
[
(
)]
[
]
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( )
The Development of Innovative Buildings in the Urban Environment
The characteristic of the random
manifests itself in the intensive functioning of the th
structural element (
)̅ , which belongs to the ensemble of innovative buildings (
̅).
The nature of the influence of each individual structural element of innovative buildings
is manifested in the increase, and finding the th element in the urban environment is in the
interval of (
). Then one can write a fair inequality of mathematical expectation in the
form
[
]
[
]
( )
[
]
[
]
( )
and for dispersions
Which indicate uneven and unstable process of functioning for the urban environment.
With increasing instability of the process of functioning of the structural elements of
innovative buildings, one can write the probability function of the formation of such elements
belonging to the ensemble of innovative buildings (
̅) in the conditions of the urban
environment in the following form
( )
(
∫ [
)
]
( )
That is, this function is a reflection of the probability of the occurrence of the th
structural element belonging to the ensemble for the time interval from the moment of
formation to the corresponding time .
Then we denote the value of as
∑
and write (6) in the form
( )
(
∫ [ ]
)
( )
In the process of formation of ensembles of structural elements of innovative buildings in
the conditions of the urban environment there is an opportunity to apply superaddivity rules.
Then we write for a case of large value of time, when
condition of superaddivity
during operation in the conditions of the urban environment
( )
(
)(
)
( )
( )
The expressions (4)-(8) point to the following: the course of reorganization of the
structural elements of innovative buildings in the urban environment is the end of the process
of their self-organization.
If the condition (8) is met, and when introducing integral functions of the form
( )
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[ ( )
( )
( )]
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( )
Maksym A. Votinov, Olga V. Smirnova, Sofya S. Bronnikova and Daria S. Chubarova
where ( ) is the same ensembles of innovative buildings
moment of t,
the expression (7) can be rewritten in the following form
( )
(
∫
[∑
]
for the corresponding
)
(
)
The completion of the process of constructing innovative buildings in urban environments
is characterized by the above expression.
We write the mathematical expectation in the following form:
[∑
( ) ( )]
(
)
A condition for the maximum occurrence of structural elements of innovative buildings
under the equilibrium instability of their functioning in urban environment has the form
( )
[∑
( ) ( )]
(
)
(
)
with a convex function that goes to the minimum value.
Using the provisions of the work [30], we can write such a relation
( )
∑
[ ( )]
The functional ( ), which is a convex function, is characterized by the belonging of the
[
] with minimization of the functional (15).
optimal plan
When taking into account the structural entropy:
∑
where
( )
( )
∑
( )
(
)
– the probability of unbalanced state of the structural elements of
innovative buildings in the conditions of the urban environment;
the expression (13) provides for the following: each condition of the urban environment
is characterized by the state of optimal organization of ensembles of elements of
innovative buildings with structural entropy ( ), which tries to maximize the probability
function of the occurrence of structural elements (10).
The change of conditions of the urban environment is characterized by the
disorganization of ensembles of innovative buildings with the subsequent organization of
new structural elements. Disorganization of the ensemble of innovative buildings is
characterized by the proportionality of the degree of differences between these changes in
urban environments.
4. DISCUSSION
The development of a synergetic model for the development of innovative buildings in the
urban environment was based on the principles of the adaptability of open systems. A
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The Development of Innovative Buildings in the Urban Environment
synergetic model was developed with principles for the formulation of provisions that do not
contradict each other and include engineering, technical, ecological, aesthetic, volumetric and
planning principles (ensembles).
The analysis of the state of transformation of structural elements of innovative buildings
in interaction with the urban environment has shown that under the creation of ensembles
(principles) of the elements of innovative buildings in the conditions of the urban
environment subjected to the superaddivity rule, their ensemble structures are reorganized,
which is the basis for the completion of the organization (or self-organization) of these
structures.
Structural elements of innovative buildings are characterized by an organization with a
maximum function of the probability of their occurrence (self-organization) under the
condition of constant absorption and dissipation of energy at the appropriate level in the
conditions of the urban environment.
Each change in the conditions of the urban environment is accompanied by a new state of
optimal organization of probabilities of ensembles of innovative buildings with the
corresponding structural entropy, and the establishment of a new state of the organization
with the new conditions of the urban environment leads to a change in the spatial distribution
of local conditions of this environment on the structural elements, which are in equilibrium
with the corresponding ensembles of innovative buildings. Changing the conditions of the
urban environment leads to disorganization of ensembles of innovative buildings with the
subsequent organization of new structural elements. At the same time, disorganization of the
ensemble of innovative buildings is characterized by the proportionality of differences
between these changes in the conditions of the urban environment.
On the basis of synergetic principles, a model for the development of innovative buildings
in a city environment is obtained, which presents information about possible rearrangements
in its structural elements.
5. CONCLUSIONS
On the basis of the developed synergetic model of the development of innovative buildings in
the urban environment, the buildings of the future can be formed taking into account the
proposed principles. The application of the software method using modern computer
technology allows for the modelling of innovative buildings that will be new architectural
objects of the urban environment. This, in turn, allows managing the entire architecture of the
urban environment.
Formation of innovative buildings in the urban environment allows determining the
specifics of architectural developments in the nearest, and, probably, remote future.
Architectural urban environment, which includes various buildings and structures, should
be created to meet the spatial needs of people to the environment of their life.
New architectural buildings in the urban environment in the application of the synergetic
model will have expressed artistic images with complex self-organizing structures with the
combination of traditional forms and various existing non-linear forms.
In the future, the implementation of the program of the developed synergetic model of the
development of innovative buildings for the specific conditions of the urban environment is
required.
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Maksym A. Votinov, Olga V. Smirnova, Sofya S. Bronnikova and Daria S. Chubarova
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