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PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE WITH WASTE GRANITE POWDER

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osInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 1957-1970, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_205
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE WITH WASTE
GRANITE POWDER
Kalyani Gaddam
Department of Chemical Engineering, GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam-532127,
(Andhra Pradesh) India
Lakshmi Adathodi
Department of Civil Engineering, RISE Group of Institutions, Valluru, Prakasam-523272,
(Andhra Pradesh) India
ABSTRACT
Granite dust is a waste material which produces during crushing and grinding
process of granite stone. Owing to increase the construction activities for different
regions and utilities scaring of natural resources is being forced due to its over
exploitation. Granite dust is such an alternative material which can be effectively being
used as replacement of natural sand. In this paper, Fine aggregate is replaced partially
by granite powder in the proportion of 20%, 25% &30% by weight. The research
highlights the compressive strength behavior of concrete cubes containing granite dust
associated with variable mixtures. The result revealed that the M25 grade is a good
quality option because of its high compressive strength associated with reasonable
amount of fine aggregates and granite dust ratio. Proper utilization of granite dust
would not just save the large amount of construction cost, but additionally would open
a new window for the economic sector of the mines and also reduces environmental
pollution.
Keywords: Granite Dust, Environmental Pollution, Natural sand, Compressive
Strength
Cite this Article: Kalyani Gaddam and Lakshmi Adathodi, Performance of Concrete
with Waste Granite Powder. International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 1957-1970
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1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays the development of building construction is increasing rapidly which is
continuously reducing the amount of aggregate in our country. Environment must be sustained
and protected not only by law but with our realization for next generation [1, 8]. The Indian
concrete industry is today consuming about 400 million tons of concrete every year and it is
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expected, that this may reach a billion tones in less than a decade. Concrete is a combination
of aggregate, water and cement. It is important to understand the fact that the non-renewable
resources are decreasing in time and an efficient recycling of the waste could provide a balance
between the resources consumed and waste produced. Sand is commonly used as fine aggregate
in concrete but is an exhaustible material and becoming expensive due to the excessive cost of
transportation from available sources [2, 9]. Due to the extensive use of concrete, the global
consumption of natural sand is very high. The demand for natural sand is quite high in
developing countries owing to rapid infrastructural growth which results supply scarcity.
Therefore, construction industries of developing countries are in stress to identify alternative
materials to replace the demand for natural sand [3,12] On the other hand, the advantages of
utilization of by-products or aggregates obtained as waste materials are increased in the aspects
of reduction in environmental pollution to gain cost effective waste management, reduction of
production cost as well as augmenting the quality of concrete [4] The available studies
regarding utilization of granite dust provide a strong recommendation for the use of this waste
as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete production. This would facilitate the
effective use of the solid waste to minimize the accumulation of the granite dust and reduce the
consumption of natural sand.
Granite dust is a waste material that is produced from granite stone industry in the form of
non-biodegradable fine powder during cutting and grinding process of granite [5]. Granite
industries produce a lot of dust and waste materials. The wastes from granite polishing units
are being disposed to environment which cause health hazard. This granite powder can be
utilized for the preparation of concrete as a partial replacement of fine aggregates [6, 7]. Granite
powder is produced by the process of cutting and polishing of granite and is exposed to
environment producing by health hazards. The open dumping of waste material involved a
substantial space presents terrible nature to the eye and causes potential health and
environmental hazards. Granite dust contains some chemicals which cause pollution to the air,
water, and soil. This is hard to quench and costly to clean up. The best approach for solving
the generated solid waste issue would be recycling and reusing of waste material produced
[10].
Now- a- days there are so many researches that has been done to improve and upgrading
the materials for concrete properties to be enhanced [11, 15]. The utilization of waste materials
as a replacement or additional in materials for producing the concrete can give a lot of benefits
to the humans and environment. The proposed concrete which is made up by replacing sand in
concrete by granite dust may help to reduce the shortage of sand as one of the constituent’s
material to improve the certain properties of modified concrete [13]. Many investigations
recommending to partially replacing sand with solid waste material by various percentages
may minimize the accumulation of waste in environment and reduces the consumption of sand
[14]. In the present work a series of tests are carried out to make comparative studies of various
properties to concrete mix prepared by using granite dust as partial replacement of sand. The
present study result reveals that the concrete cubes with granite dust developed higher strength
in compression, the concrete cubes with river sand as fine aggregates. The granite grains get
mixed with water and form a colloidal waste during the industrial process [16]. Water content
is severely reduced when the slurry is deposited due to factors like evaporation and the waste
becomes a dry heap consisting of non-biodegradable granite dust. Result highlights the strength
behaviour of concrete cubes containing granite dust as are partial replacement for fine
aggregate associated Portland cement and Coarse aggregates.
2. MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATION
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2.1. Cement
Approximate proportions of lime stone and clay play a major role in cement manufacture. After
these raw materials has been crushed and sieved, they are fed into a drum rotation at 2rpm into
which fuel is sprayed counter-current and temperature is about 500 degree Celsius. The most
common type of cement used in construction is Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS
12269-1987. For the present study, this type of cement (Ordinary Portland Cement) of grade
53 was typically used to prepare the concrete. The cement was fresh; uniform colored and was
free from lumps and foreign matter. This is the most common type of cement used in general
concrete construction as there will be no exposure to sulfates in the soil or in the ground water
and is also durable to face the environmental effects.
2.2. Fine Aggregate
Generally, when the sand is fine, smaller proportion of it is enough to get a cohesive mix, when
the sand is coarser, the greater has to be its proportion with respect to coarse aggregate. River
sand having density and fineness modulus (FM) of 2.51 was used. The specific gravity was
found 2.67 approximately. The locally available sand was used as fine aggregate for the
production of the concrete design mix. The specific gravity is noted as 2.62, 0.3% water
absorption recorded and fineness modulus was 2.78. Sand used for this study was of zone-II
which is satisfactory as per IS 383-1970. Particle which passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve is
known as fine aggregate and it was hard, chemically inert, durable, clean and free from adherent
coating, organic matter and so on. Any appreciable amount of clay balls, harmful impurities,
salts, coal or similar materials should not present in sand as they cause corrosion of metal or
affect adversely the strength, durability or the appearance of concrete.
2.3. Coarse Aggregate
Greater the size of coarse aggregates lesser is the surface area and lesser is the proportion of
fine aggregate required and vice versa. More surface area and greater proportion of fine
aggregates are required for flaky aggregates to get cohesive mix whereas rounded aggregate
have lesser surface area and require lesser proportion of fine aggregate to get a cohesive mix.
The aggregate of size up to 20 mm well graded cubical or rounded are desirable to prepare
concrete for the present study. Regarding the shape and grading, aggregates should be of
uniform quality. The desired featured coarse aggregates were obtained from local crushing
plant. 40% of the crushed coarse aggregates of maximum size 25mm IS sieve passes and
retained on 20 mm IS sieve and remained 20% of lower sieve sized aggregates were used in
the present study is satisfactory as per IS 383-1970.
2.4. Coarse Aggregate
Water is the key ingredient of concrete as it initiates the chemical reaction with cement and the
mix water should be completely free from chlorides and sulfates. Ordinary potable water used
throughout the investigation as well as for curing concrete specimens. This is the least
expensive but most important key ingredient of concrete. Too much water results in weak
concrete and too little water results in a concrete that is unworkable. The water that is used in
concrete should be clean, free from impurities like oil and harmful elements (alkali, acid and
other components). For making concrete, the water, which is fit for drinking, should be used.
The results of various tests on water were listed in table.
Table 1 Physical Properties of Water
S.No.
Parameters
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1.
2.
3.
4.
pH
Taste
Appearance
Turbidity(NTU)
7.10
Agreeable
Clear
1.75
2.5. Granite Dust
Granite dust is a waste material that produced from granite stone industry in the form of nonbiodegradable fine powder during cutting and grinding process of granite, which is exposed in
environment by health hazard, is used in the present study.
3. EXPERIMENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
3.1. Tests on Cement




Fineness
Normal consistency
Initial and Final setting time
Specific Gravity
3.1.1. Fineness of Cement by Sieve Analysis
The measure of size of particle of cement depends on fineness of cement which is expressed as
specific surface of cement (in sq. cm /gm.).The fineness of cement is an important factor in
determining the rate of gain of strength and uniformity of quality. It is measured in terms of
specific surface of the cement and can be calculated from the particle size distributions are
determined by one of the air permeability. We have used IS sieve No.9 (90 microns), as for
Indian standards as per IS-4031-1(1996), the percentage of residue left after sieving a good
Portland cement through IS sieve number 9, should not exceed 10 %.
3.1.2. Standard Consistency of Cement
Normal or standard consistency of any given cement sample is that water content which will
produce a cement paste of standard consistency. Consistence is determined by the Vacate
apparatus, which measures the depth of penetration in paste of a 10 mm diameter plunger under
its own weight. Normal or standard consistency is expressed as that percentage of water, by
mass of dry cement, corresponding to which a specified depth of penetration in paste is
achieved. Normal consistency varies from 26 to 33% for Portland cement. To determine the
water to cement ratios of specimens to be used, normal consistency of cement used and also to
determine the quality tests such as: compressive and tensile strengths, times of set, and
soundness tests, on the same cement. For finding out initial and final setting time, soundness
of cement and strength, a parameter known as standard consistency has to be used. The
objective of conducting this test is to find out the amount of water to be added to the cement to
get a percentage of normal consistency that is the paste of a certain standard solidity, which is
used to fix the quality of water to be mixed in cement before performing tests for setting time,
soundness and compressive strength. The test is required to be conducted in a constant
temperature (270 °C ± 20 °C) and constant humidity (90%).
3.1.3. Initial Setting and Final Setting
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In order that the concrete may be placed in position conveniently, it is necessary that the initial
setting time is not too quick and after it has been laid, hardening should be rapid that the
structure can be made use of as quick as possible. The initial set is a stage in the process of
hardening where the cracks that may appear will not be possible to re-unite. When the concrete
obtains sufficient strength and hardness, it is said to be finally set. For Portland cement, the
initial setting time should not be less than 30 minutes and final setting time should not be more
than 600 minutes. For quick cement, Initial setting time should not be less than 5 minutes and
final setting time should not exceed 30 minutes. The setting time is influenced by temperature,
humidity fair and quantity of gypsum in the cement.
IS Requirements
According to IS4031-5-(1988) the setting time of ordinary Portland cement when tested by
the Vicate apparatus method shall confirm to the following requirements.
 Initial setting time- not less than 30 minutes.
 Final setting time -not more than 600 minutes.
All concreting operations viz. mixing, transportation, placing and compaction of concrete
should be completed before initial setting time of cement.
3.1.4. Specific gravity of Cement
Specific gravity is normally defined as the ratio between the mass of volume of material to the
mass of an equal volume of water. One of the methods used to determine the specific gravity
of cement is by the use of a liquid such as water-free kerosene which does not react with
cement. A specific gravity bottle may be employed or a standard Le-Chatelier flask may be
used. Water, at a temperature of 73.4°F (23 °C).Specific Gravity is important for several
reasons. Some deleterious particles are lighter than the normal aggregates. Change of material
or possible contamination can sometimes indicated through tracking specific gravity.
Differences in specific gravity may be used to separate the deleterious particles from the normal
aggregates using heavy media liquid. The aggregate with high absorptive nature may result in
a low durability. In Portland Cement Concrete the specific gravity of the aggregate is utilized
to calculate the Percentage of voids and the solid volume of aggregates in computations of
yield. The absorption plays a major role in determining the net water-cement ratio in the
concrete mix. For the construction like water filtration system, slope stabilization project,
railway bedding, knowing the specific gravity of aggregates becomes critical.
3.2. Tests on Aggregate
The tests conducted to check the quality of aggregates are very important because of the
presence of higher percentage of use in the production of concrete. So when it comes to
aggregates, the quality really matters. Various tests which were done on aggregates are listed
below.
 Sieve analysis for fine and coarse aggregate
 Aggregate impact value
 Aggregate crushing value
 Specific gravity and water absorption of Coarse and fine Aggregate
3.2.1. Grain Size Distribution of Fine Aggregate and Coarse Aggregate
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The gradation of fine and coarse aggregate samples must be tested to determine compliance
with the specifications for these materials. The set of sieves consist the sizes of 4.75 mm, 2.36
mm, 1.18 mm, 600, 300 µ, 150µ and pan were used for the present study. Sample should be
taken for which the sample is thoroughly mixed and spread over a clean surface. If any further
reduction of quantity is required, the process may be repeated. Weight retained on each sieve
shall not exceed the limits specifies IS code. The set of sieves consist the sizes of 40 mm, 20
mm, 12.5 mm, 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm and pan were used for the present study. Sample should be
taken for which the sample is thoroughly mixed and spread over a clean surface. If any further
reduction of quantity is required the process may be repeated. Weight retained on each sieve
shall not exceed the limits specifies IS code.
3.2.2. Aggregate Abrasion value
Abrasion testing of aggregate is of more direct application to the testing of stone aggregate for
wearing. It has been found that the aggregate which shows a low loss in this test will general
be hard, tough, resistant to abrasion and strong which are the desirable and necessary qualities
for durability of concrete. The abrasion test on aggregate is found as per IS-2386 Part IV. The
sieving operation should be conducted by mass of a lateral and vertical motion of the sieve,
accompanied by the jarring action so as to keep the sample moving continuously over the
surface of the sieve. In no case shall the fragments of the sample be turned or manipulated
through the sieve by hand. Use a coarse sieve first in order to minimize wear of 1.7 mm IS
sieve.
3.2.3. Aggregate Impact value
This test may be considered as an alternative to the aggregate crushing test, the special
apparatus needed for aggregate impact test is simple and relatively cheap and is portable while
the crushing test requires a 50 tones testing machine, which is expensive. The impact test on
an aggregate is a useful guide to its behavior when subjected and brittleness must also be taken
into account and is conducted as per the specifications of IS-2386 part IV. The sample should
be subjected to 15 blows of the hammer at not less than one second interval. The fraction
passing and retained on the 2.36 mm IS sieve should be weighed and sum should agree within
one gram with the original mass of the sample taken. As the hammer is heavy, be cautions to
keep away from falling mass, to avoid accidents.
3.2.4. Specific gravity and water absorption of fine aggregate
The specific gravity of an aggregate is defined as the ratio of mass of a given volume of sample
to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. The specific gravity of fine
aggregate is generally required for calculations in connection with concrete mix design, for
determination of moisture content and for the calculations of volume yield of concrete.
Information regarding the quality and properties of aggregate are also given by specific gravity.
Departure of specific gravity from its standard value indicted change in shape and grading. It
influences the behavior of aggregate in concrete in several important aspects. A highly
absorptive aggregate, if used in dry condition, will reduce effective water-cement ratio to an
appreciable extent and may even make the concrete unworkable unless a suitable allowance is
made. To determine net water-cement ratio, determination of absorption of aggregate is
necessary. The entire sample should be frequently stirred to secure uniform drying. The air
trapped in the aggregate should be brought to surface by rolling the flask in inclined position.
All weighing should not be allowed to stick to the sides of the jar or flask. The results of
different repetitions should not different more than 0.02 for specific gravity and 0.005 percent
for absorption.
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3.3. Tests on Granite Dust
3.3.1. Grain Size Distribution of Granite dust
The set of sieves consist the sizes of 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 µ, 300 µ, 150µ and pan.
Sample should be taken for which the sample is thoroughly mixed and spread over a clean
surface. If any further reduction of quantity is required the process may be repeated. Weight
retained on each sieve shall not exceed the limits specifies IS code.
3.3.2. Specific gravity and water absorption of Granite dust
The specific gravity of a granite dust is defined as the ratio of mass of a given volume of sample
to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. The specific gravity of granite
dust is generally required for calculations in connection with concrete mix design, for
determination of moisture content and for the calculations of volume yield of concrete. The
specific gravity also gives information on the quality and properties of granite dust. Departure
of specific gravity from its standard value indicted change in shape and grading. It influences
the behavior of granite dust in concrete in several important aspects. A highly absorptive dust,
if used in dry condition, will reduce effective water-cement ratio to an appreciable extent and
may even make the concrete unworkable unless a suitable allowance is made. Hence
determination of absorption of granite dust is necessary to determine net water-cement ratio.
The entire sample should be frequently stirred to secure uniform drying. The air trapped in the
granite dust should be brought to surface by rolling the flask in inclined position.
3.4. Granite Concrete
Composite material that is made of coarse granular material and hard matrix of material
(cement or binder) that fills the space among the particles which pastes them together is known
as concrete. Clearly, it is an assemblage of cement, aggregates and water. Sand that is derived
from river banks is most commonly used as fine aggregate which has a high global
consumption due to its extensive use in concrete. On that basis the demand is quite high. So
there is the need to choose alternative material on the behalf of sand. One of the best ways is
to partially replace sand with granite dust. This replacement adds economic benefits and gives
approximately equal strength compared to nominal concrete.
3.4.1. Concept of mix design
The process of selecting suitable material of concrete and determining their relative
propositions is termed as mix design with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum
strength and durability as economically as possible. Aggregate and paste are the essential
ingredients of concrete with an important relationship. Workability of the mass is provided by
the lubricating effect of paste and influenced by the amount of dilution of paste. The strength
of concrete is limited by the strength of paste, since mineral aggregate with rare exception, are
stronger than the paste compound. Essentially the permeability of concrete is governed by the
quality and continuity of the paste, since little water flows through aggregate either under
pressure or by capillarity. Further, the pre dominate contribution to drying shrinkage of
concrete is that of paste. The properties of concrete are governed to a considerable extent by
the paste which is helpful to consider more closely the structure of the paste. The fresh paste is
a suspension, not a solution of cement in water. The more dilute the paste, the greater the
spacing between cement particles, and thus the weaker will be the ultimate paste structure.
Since the quantity of water that as little paste as possible should be used and hence the
importance of grading.
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3.4.2. Types of Mixes
3.4.2.1. Nominal Mixes
In the past the specifications for concrete recommended the proportions of cement, fine and
coarse aggregates. This blend of fixed cement-aggregate ratio that ensures sufficient strength
is termed as nominal mix. These offer simplicity and under ordinary circumstances, have a
margin of strength above that predetermined. The nominal concrete for a given workability
varies widely in strength due to the variability of mix ingredients.
3.4.2.2. Standard Mixes
The nominal mix of cement-aggregate ratio by volume vary widely in strength and result may
vary as under or over compared to rich mixes. Due to this reason, minimum compressive
strength has been included in most of the specifications which termed as standard mixes. A
number of grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40 has been designated by IS
456-2000 where M refers to the mix and the number is the specified 28th day cube strength.
3.4.2.3. Designed Mixes
With specific materials of more or less unique characteristics, it is most rational approach to
the selection of mix proportions which results in the production of concrete with most
economical appropriate properties. However, the designed mix may not serve as a guide since
this does not guarantee the correct mix proportions for the recommended performance. If the
28-day strength of concrete is within the range of 30 N/mm2, that type of concrete is known as
less prescribed performance and may be used only for very small jobs.
3.5. Tests on Concrete
Testing of concrete plays an important role in knowing the quality of concrete. Raw materials,
fresh and hardened concrete are inseparable part of any quality control program that testes in a
sequential manner to know whether the materials accomplished higher efficiency and
performance with respect to both strength and durability. The tests methods should be simple,
direct and convenient to apply. Main purposes of testing fresh and hardened concrete is to
confirm that the concrete used at site has gained the required strength. The basic tests to be
conducted in the field as well as in the lab based on its state of concrete are given below.
 Tests on Fresh Concrete
 Tests on Hardened Concrete
3.5.1. Tests on Fresh Concrete
3.5.1.1. Slump Test
To characterize the workability of fresh concrete, slump test is widely used. It is the most wellknown and inexpensive test, which measures consistency of material used on job sites to
determine whether a concrete batch is acceptable or not. It is a standardized test method used
widely throughout the world. The apparatus consists of a mould in the shape of a frustum of a
cone with a base diameter of 8 inches, a top diameter of 4 inches, and a height of 12 inches.
The mould is filled with concrete in three layers of equal volume. Compaction of each layer is
performed with 25 strokes of a tamping rod. The slump cone mould is lifted vertically upward
and the change in height of the concrete is measured. Four types of slumps are commonly
encountered, as shown in Figure below. The concrete remains intact and retains a symmetric
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shape is frequently referred to as the “true” slump, which is only type of slump permissible
under ASTM C143.
Figure 5 Slump Test
3.5.1.2. Compaction Factor Test
Compaction factor test is adopted to determine the workability of concrete, where nominal size
of aggregate does not exceed 20 mm. Workability is one of the important property of concrete
which determines the amount of work required to produce full compaction to find out
suitability of material. The test comprises essentially of applying a standard amount of work to
standard quantity of concrete and measuring the resulting compaction. To find the workability
of freshly prepared concrete, the test is carried out as per specifications of IS: 1199-1959.
Workability gives an idea of the capacity of being worked, i.e., idea to control the quantity of
water in cement concrete mix to get uniform strength. The test should be carried out on a level
ground. The top hopper must be filled gently and to the same extent on each occasion and the
time between the end of mixing and release of concrete from top hopper must be content, two
minutes will be convenient.
Figure 6 Compaction Factor Test
3.5.1.3. Preparation of Test Specimens
The procedure for the preparation of test specimen like sampling of raw materials, preparation
of materials, proportioning, weighing, mixing, testing for workability of fresh concrete, choice
of the size of test specimens, compacting, and capping of specimen shall be done in a sequential
manner and if tests are intended to draw correlation curve between the results of compressive
strength tests on specimens cured by normal curing method and accelerated curing method,
that should be tested in accordance with code IS: 516-1959, if If the tests are intended for
control purposes, sampling shall be done in Accordance with IS: 1199-1959 and choice of the
size of test specimens, compacting, and capping of specimen shall be in accordance with IS:
516-1959. Immediately after molding, each specimen shall be covered with a steel plate thinly
coated with mould oil to prevent adhesion of concrete. Hydration of cement and threat extent
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under any curing procedure depend mainly upon the composition of chemical content of
cement, water-cement ratio as well as mix proportions, which are considered to be important
parameters in the correlation of results from compressive strength tests on specimens cured by
normal curing method.
Figure 7 Casting of Cubes
3.5.1.4. Traditional curing
All specimens will be moist cured for one day and after moist curing the specimens will be
water cured for required days. Testing will be done after required days. In the Traditional curing
the cubes are moulded with the cement concrete is subjected to curing in the water Tank and
then check the strengths achieved by the cubes and beams for every 3 days, 7 days and 28 days
from this we can get the compressive strength from cubes and Flexural strength from Beams,
split tensile strength for cylinders.
3.5.2. Tests on Hardened Concrete
The most important parameter and representative of almost overall quality of concrete is
compressive strength of hardened concrete that mainly depends on the water/cement ratio of
the mix and curing and age after it is cast. Compressive strength of hardened concrete is
determined by testing the cubical or cylindrical dried specimens using a compression testing
machine or universal testing machine, at various ages such 7,14 and 28 days after curing. For
assessing the quality of concrete cast at site, compressive strength test is conducted during mix
proportioning.
Figure 8 Cube after load application
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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Table 2 Physical Tests results of OPC cement
SL.
NO
PHYSICAL TESTS
OBTAINED
REQUIREMENTS AS PER IS
CODES
RESULTS
1
Fineness
Standard
2
5%
Not>10% as per IS 4031 part 1
26%
IS 4031 part 4(26%-33%)
Consistency
3
Initial Setting time
35 min
Not less than 30 minutes as per IS
4031 part 5
4
Final setting time
530 min
Not more than 600 minutes as per
IS 4031 part 5
5
Specific gravity
3.15
IS 2720 part 3 (3.10-3.25)
Table 3 Physical Tests of Coarse Aggregates used for the present study
OBTAINED
SL. NO
PHYSICAL TESTS RESULTS REQUIREMENTS AS PER IS
Not more than 45% (other than
1
Impact Test
32.95%
wearing surfaces) IS 2386-4(1963)
Not more than 50% (other than
2
Test
28.5%
wearing surfaces)
3
Flakiness Index
Specific gravity of
Coarse Aggregates
Water absorption
of coarse aggregates
20.12%
Not > 35% as per MORTH
4
5
2.72
2.7 to 2.9
0.5%
Not>2%as per IS:2386-Part 3
Table 4 Slump values for Granite Dust
S. No.
1
2
3
4
Percentage addition of granite dust
Nominal
20%
25%
30%
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Slump values in mm
60
60
65
90
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Figure 9 Slump for Granite Concrete
Table 5 Compaction Factor values for Granite Dust
S. No
1
2
3
4
Percentage addition of granite dust
Nominal
20%
25%
30%
Slump values in mm
0.80
0.82
0.82
0.93
Figure 10 Granite Dust vs Compaction Factor
Table 6 Characteristic Compressive Strength
Percentage of
Granite Dust
added in
concrete mix
Nominal
20 %
25 %
30 %
Compressive strength in MPa
Age in
Days
Sample - 1
Sample - 2
Sample – 3
7 days
14 days
28 days
7 days
14 days
28 days
7 days
14 days
28 days
7 days
14 days
28 days
13.77
16.44
20.53
14.31
17.15
20.88
16.08
19.06
21.68
14.75
18.22
21.11
12.44
18.22
21.42
15.33
19.20
21.73
16.97
19.24
21.11
15.68
18.80
21.28
15.11
18.88
20.44
13.91
18.53
21.11
17.64
20.31
22.04
16.44
19.33
21.46
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
1968
Average
Compressive
strength in
MPa
13.77
17.85
20.89
14.58
18.29
21.24
16.90
19.54
21.61
15.62
17.82
21.28
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Performance of Concrete with Waste Granite Powder
Figure 11 Compressive Strength Nominal vs Granite concrete
4.6. Discussion
All the experimental data shows that the addition of industrial wastes improves the physical
properties. From the above study it is concluded that the granite dust may be used as a
replacement material for fine aggregate. Granite dust has been used for different activities in
construction industry such as for road construction, patios, driveways, fire pits, leveling and
setting pavers and stones.
5. CONCLUSIONS
Based on the studies conducted and from various laboratory investigations made for
characteristics study of granite dust concrete, the following conclusions can be drawn.
 Non availability of sand at reasonable cost as fine aggregate in concrete for various
reasons, search for alternative material granite dust qualifies itself as suitable
substitute for sand at very low cost
 In specific gravity test of granite dust, the value resulted is 2.722.This value
indicates it is preferable to use in construction works
 The specific gravity tests of cement, fine and coarse aggregates resulted the values
as 3.15, 2.665 and 2.72 respectively.
 The measured slump value of granite dust concrete with constant water cement ratio
0.45 are found to be 60 mm,60 mm,65 mm,100 mm for nominal, 20%, 25%, 30%
replacement respectively hence acceptable
 The measured compaction values for granite dust concrete with constant watercement ratio 0.45 are found to be 0.8, 0.82, 0.82, 0.93 for nominal, 20%, 25%, 30%
replacement respectively.
 The compressive strength of cubes at 7 days for nominal, 20%, 25%, 30%
replacement are found to be approximately equal
It was observed that the compressive strength for M25 grade of concrete when partially
replaced with granite dust attained maximum strength when compared with nominal mix.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
1969
[email protected]
Kalyani Gaddam and Lakshmi Adathodi
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http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
1970
[email protected]
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