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OPTIMISM revised

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OPTIMISM VS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY
A research paper presented to
Don Honorio Ventura State University
Sto. Tomas Satellite Campus
Moraz dela Paz, Sto. Tomas, Pampanga
In partial fulfillment of the requirements in
Purposive Communication and Psychological Statistics
Bachelor of Science
Major in Psychology
Baluyut, Michaela
Caballero, Joy Cell
Dizon, Andrea Marie
Punla, Nara Fe
April 8, 2019
CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Introduction
Have you ever wonder why there are students who excels in class, while others
don’t? Motivation of students toward their studies may root from various factors, and
differences of these factors among students may reflect the differences in their academic
performances. Optimism has been seen as one of the factors that may influence the
students’ academic performance.
In psychology, optimism is one of the most common terms used that it almost
become normal to the ears of others. However, optimism is broader that just positive
thinking. According to Norem (2013), optimistic style explain negative events in terms of
external, variable, and specific causes, while those with a pessimistic style use explanations
that focus on internal, stable, and global causes. Optimism may then be referred as being
objective rather than being subjective.
In this study, we will discuss the relationship between optimism and the academic
performance of the students, how positive thinking affects their motivation and academic
achievement.
Optimistic style of thinking can benefit the person in many ways. Dispositional
optimism, to generalized outcome expectancies that good things, rather than bad things,
will happen, is associated with a wide variety of positive outcomes, including better mental
and physical health, motivation, performance, and personal relationships. (Norem, 2013)
Being optimistic helps improve mental and physical health, as well as motivation and
performance which can be a factor for academic achievement of a student.
In a study of Harpaz-Itay and Kaniel (2012), the components of optimism –
outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention – may produce an integrative
academic achievement evaluation. If perceived and applied properly, optimism can be
helpful for a student to achieve academic goals. As International Journal Social Sciences
and Education (2015), stated that direct effect of academic optimism of students on
advancement motivation was positive and significant. This should be given much attention
for it can benefit not only the students but the society as well.
Consequently, Carver and Scheier (2014) explained that being optimistic will make
you have great confidence in your abilities or because you believe other people like and
look out for you. Optimism contributes to self-esteem and self-confidence which can
greatly affects the way you look at yourself and how you think other people view you as a
person.
Supporting this idea, Icekson, Roskes, and Moran (2014) stated that focusing on
avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity,
due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes
(e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance
motivated by nature and in situations in which threats or potential losses are salient.
Avoidance of failure can cause fear and anxiety in some extent which can greatly affect the
person, specifically a student’s cognitive and behavior. Furthermore, this can also lessen
their interest if they will be conditioned to escape fear, rather than to prepare for avoidance.
This is further explained by Carver and Scheier (2014), optimism is a cognitive construct
(expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people
exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort.
Performance of students is affected by psychological, economic, social, personal
and environmental factors. Most of the previous studies on academic performance of
students focused on such issues like teacher education, class environment, gender
difference, teaching style, family educational background and socioeconomic factor.
(Singh, Singh, and Malik 2016)
It is evident that there are lots of factors that may affect the students’ academic
motivation, as well as their academic performance. Focusing on optimism, Tetzner J (2018)
dignified that optimism had an overall positive effect on self-esteem. This self-esteem
drives the student for more productive participation in class. He also added that high
optimism exerted a more positive effect for high-achieving adolescents. This was also
supported by Nasab S, et al. (2015). According to him, direct effect of academic optimism
of students on advancement motivation was positive and significant. This was based from
his own research study published in the year 2015. Based from the study of Becker and
Tetzner (2017), the results of his study therefore broaden the evidence on benefits of
optimism by linking optimism to academic success in early adolescents. These are just
some examples of studies that discussed about optimism and its relation to the academic
performance.
A explained by Naroozi (2013) among personal mechanism, self-efficacy in
controlling behavior and environmental demands is the most fundamental and
comprehensive one. It is one of the most important theories of changing behavior regarding
learning.
Academic performance has some forms. Initiative, for example, can also indicate
academic performance. Students demonstrate their competence by serving as student body
president or holding officer positions in student groups such as the honor society or the
science club. Academic performance also extends to achievement outside the classroom.
Some of the brightest students don’t earn straight as but are extremely well-rounded,
succeeding at everything from music to athletics. (Williams, 2018)
Consequently, Williams also discussed that people often consider grades first when
defining academic performance. Ranking students based on their Grade Point Average
(GPA). This is the more common and specific way to identify the academic performance
of a student since it is definite and quantifiable.
A study of Stankevicius, A., Quentin J. M. Huys, Kalra, A., Seriès P. (2014)
discussed that when information is personally relevant, participants have a motive to
disregard negative information so that they can keep a rosy view of the future. He explained
that this was biased and dependent to the subject. Optimistic people may feel glad of
information relevant to them, but may disregard the information which is not.
`
Moghadari (2014) explained that One of the most important issues in education
is caring for motivation and academic advancement. Advancement motivation is
interest in doing a task, organizing material and social environment, overcoming the
obstacles, overtaking the others, and competing others by endeavor to do the tasks better.
Academic advancement of student in different level requires forceful motivation that can
urge individual and group activities of students. Teachers, not only parents, should take
part on improving the students’ motivation toward their academic achievement. In addition,
Ahmed, et. al (2013) said that their findings revealed that age, father/guardian social
economic status and daily study hours significantly contribute the academic performance
of graduate students.
Furthermore, according to Janssen and O'Brien (2014) attitudes and behaviors, such
as procrastination and working with others directly, affect homework score, but not exam
score. She explained that positive outlook toward academic of students doesn’t only matter
in school proper but extends to home. In addition, she also suggests that how homework
and course design might be managed to help students at different ability and motivational
levels maximize learning. As stated by Sharooni (2012), when self-efficacy beliefs of the
individual improve, his or her performance also improves. Students should not only be
efficient during their class hours but should also be efficient at home.
Tschannen-Moran (2012) explained that academic optimism of students illustrates
a rich image of humane agency that defines student behavior in cognitive, emotional and
behavioral dimensions. This shows that academic optimism doesn’t only covers the
cognitive capabilities of a student, but also their emotional and behavioral dimensions.
Smith (2013) further discussed that they found academic optimism as a second
order construct comprised of collective efficacy, faculty trust, and academic optimism.
Moreover, academic optimism is a school characteristic that predicts student achievement
even controlling for socioeconomic status. In addition, researcher found indicate that
school administrators and teachers must work to build trust with parents and students and
create a culture stressing academic excellence as both could help improve student
achievement. (Teague, 2015)
Thus, optimism is related to the students’ academic performance. Academic
optimism can also drive the students to be more motivated, productive, creative, and selfefficient. Consequently, security of the students’ academic achievement can further be
reflected as a success of the whole community.
Statement of the Problem
How optimism affects the academic performance of DST students?
Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions:
RQ1: How many students can be classified as optimistic person?
RQ2: How optimism of students affect their school performance?
RQ3: How many among the classified optimistic students perform well in their academics?
Significance of the Study
The results of the study will hopefully help the school to be aware in one of the
factors that will affect to the performance of the students. It is also aiming to raise the
consciousness of the schools in this matter in order for them to take some action for those
students who have poorly academic performance to find the reason behind. The research
also aims to aware different industry, either private or public, in different factors that may
affect the student’s academic performance specifically optimistic personality.
It can also be beneficial to the community in a way that each individual have
knowledge about the positive outcomes of being optimistic. If each individual is aware of
it, it can be a factor of motivation for them to perform well in school and once each
individual is aware of the relation of optimism to the academic performance, the students
are expected to give their cognitive processes as well as their performance in school. It will
soon reflect to the whole community as a society that actively acts for mental health and
peaceful living will follow.
Scope and Delimitation
The focus of the study is to know the effect of optimism to the student’s academic
performance. The research sample is composed of 100 first year students of Don Honorio
Ventura State University Sto. Tomas. The primary gathering method used was survey
questioners to determine the student’s response to a given situation with relation to their
daily academic activities. This research used random sampling technique to gather
information equally as representation to the student’s academic performance.
Consequently, the researcher will interview 10 selected students about their academic
outlook. Five among these respondents will be those who performs well in class, and
another five for average students.
Definition of terms






Optimism- hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful
outcome of something.
Academic achievement- is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution
has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
Self-esteem- a confidence and satisfaction in oneself
Pessimist- a person who is inclined to expect poor outcome.
Motivation- the condition of being motivated
Cognitive- of, relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity
(such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between optimism and academic performance.
CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter includes the methodology used in gathering the information needed for the
study. Using mixed method, correlational type of research, the researcher aims to determine
relationship between optimism and academic performance of students in DHVSU Sto.
Tomas Campus. Data gathering techniques, sampling procedures, population, and ethical
considerations will also be discussed.
Research Design
This research used mixed method, correlational method will test the relationship of
optimism and academic performance of the students.
The research used descriptive type of survey questionnaire, consisting of twenty questions,
which will reflect the optimism of the students and their academic performance. The
respondents will assess the level of their optimism on a 5 point liker scale. The higher the
rating chosen, the more likely the participants is optimism.
Consequently, ten chosen respondents will be interviewed by the researcher to gather
supporting information about the relationship of students’ optimism to academic
performance.
Correlational analysis attempts to measure the association between dependent variable of
academic performance. Independent variable represents the optimism of the students.
Data Gathering
The researchers made use of a survey questionnaire for gathering data needed for a study.
The survey will be used to determine the students’ perspective of how optimism is related
to their academic performance.
In addition, the survey can also be used to determine the percentage of students who are
academically optimistic, based from the samples.
The survey will be using 5 point liker scale represents as follows: 1- Strongly Disagree, 2Disagree, 3- Neutral, 4- Agree, 5- Strongly Agree.
The survey questionnaire were districted and answered by the respondents.
Population
The target population for this research defined to include the freshmen college students in
Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University Sto. Tomas Satellite Campus.
Sampling Procedures
The population of this study was composed of the freshmen college students of Don
Honorio Ventura Technological State University Sto. Tomas Satellite Campus. The school
has department namely CEA, CSSP, CBA, BEED, CHM which were composed of 1,142
total number of students.
To generate the sample population, the researcher used the random sampling method. It is
a probability method where the researcher select a group of subject for a study from a larger
group. Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and member of the population has an
equal chance of being included in the sample.
Ethical Consideration
The researcher provides the respondents a letter of consent to make sure that the
respondents are willing to partake on the research and they are not being forced to answer
the survey questionnaire.
The researchers will not force the respondents to answer the survey questionnaire.
Consequently, the information gathered will be used for research purposes only. The
personal information of the respondents will remain confidential and private.
Punla Nara Fe David
Address: 3-015 Sucad, Apalit, Pampanga
Contact No.: 09261070445
Email Address: [email protected]
PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Age
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Gender
Civil Status
Citizenship
Height
Religion
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
19 years of old
August 13, 1999
Apalit, Pampanga
Female
Single
Filipino
5’1
Iglesia Ni Cristo
Seminars Attended
Test taking Skills and Strategies
February 9, 2019
Road to RPm (The Journey of a Topnotcher)
February 9, 2019
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Don Honorio Ventura State University
Bachelor of Science Major in Psychology
San Matias, Pampanga
2018-Present
Senior High School in Apalit
Accountancy, and Business Management
Apalit, Pampanga
2016-2018
Bro. Andrew Gonzalez Technical High School
Garment Trades
Apalit, Pampanga
Sucad Elementary School
Apalit, Pampanga
2006-2012
BALUYUT, MICHAELA N.
Address: 575 Colgante, Apalit, Pampanga
Contact number: 09399170205
Email address: [email protected]
PERSONAL INFORMATION:







Age: 18
Gender: Female
Status: Single
Date of birth: May 30, 2000
Place of birth: Apalit, Pampanga
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
Secondary Education:


Bulacan State University-Laboratory High School (BulSU-LHS), Brgy.
Guinhawa, City of Malolos, Bulacan (June 2012 – April 2018)
o
Junior High School
o
Senior High School (Accountancy and Business Management Strand)
Don Honorio Ventura State University (DHVSU) Sto. Tomas Campus, Moraz
Dela Paz (June 2018 – Present)
o
BS Psychology (1st year)
Primary Education:

Fausto Gonzales Sioco Memorial School (FGSMS), Colgante, Apalit, Pampanga
(June 2006- March 2012)
SEMINARS ATTENDED:
Test taking Skills and Strategies
February 9, 2019
Road to RPm (The Journey of a Topnotcher)
February 9, 2019
WORK EXPERIENCE:
Work Immersion

Department of the Interior and Local Government, Malolos Bulacan
o Senior High School ( 2018)
PERSONAL DATA
Name:
Address:
Pampanga
E-mail Address:
Date of Birth:
Place of birth
Andrea Marie L. Dizon
145 Purok 3, Sta Catalina, Minalin,
[email protected]
February 1, 2000
JBL San Fernando, Pampanga
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level:
Don Honorio Ventura State University
Moras dela Paz Sto. Tomas, Pampanga
BS Psychology (2018-Present)
Secondary Level:
School, Inc.
Mother Mary Eugenie Center of Studies and
Sto. Domingo, Minalin, Pampanga
Humanities and Social Science (HUMSS, 2016-
2018)
JHS (2013-2016)
Primary Level:
Minalin Elementary School
Sto.Rosario, Minalin, Pampanga (2006-2012)
WORK EXPERIENCE
Work Immersion:
Minalin
Sanggunian Bayan (SB) of the Municipality Of
PERSONAL DATA
Name: Joy Cell Ong Caballero
Address: 1167 Purok 5, Tabuyuc, Apalit, Pampanga
E-mail Address: [email protected]
Date of Birth: 08 April 2000
Place of Birth: JBL San Fernando Pampanga
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Tertiary Level:
Don Honorio Ventura State University
Moras dela Paz Sto.Tomas Pampanga
BS Psychology
2018-Present
Secondary Level:
Senior High School in Apalit (Stand Alone I)
San Juan, Apalit, Pampanga
Academic Track
Major in Accountancy, Business and Management
2016-2018
Bro. Andrew Gonzalez Technical High School
San Juan, Apalit, Pampanga
2013 - 2016
Primary Level:
Sto.Rosario Elementary School
Tabuyuc, Apalit, Pampanga
2006 - 2012
WORK EXPERIENCE
Work Immersion - Office of the Senior Citizen Affairs (OSCA) of the Municipality of
Apalit
REFERENCES
Ahmed, A. , Ali, S. , Haider, Z. , et al. (2013) Factors Contributing to the Students’ Academic
Performance: A Case Study of Islamia University Sub-Campus
http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/8/3/ Retrieved on January 9, 2019
Becker, M. and Tetzner, J. (2017) Think Positive? Examining the Impact of Optimism on
Academic
Achievement
in
Early
Adolescents.
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from
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jopy.12312 Retrieved on January 9,
2019
Carver, C. and Scheier M. (2014) Dispositional Optimism. Retrieved from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061570
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and
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Retrieved
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on
Academic
Performance
Retrieved
from
https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/ij-sotl/vol8/iss2/7/
Moghadari, M. (2014). The effects of self-regulation on achievement motivation and
academic achievement of high school students that sponsored by the Relief
Committee of Birjand. Master thesis, University of Birjand, Faculty of education
and psychology.
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with student achievement motivation and examination. Master thesis, Tehran
Islamic Azad University, Faculty of education and psychology.
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Norem,
J.
(2013).
Optimism
and
Pessimism.
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from
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from
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cting_Academic_Performance_of_Students
Smith, P. (2013). Academic optimism and student achievement in urban elementary schools
Retrieved
from
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09578230710778196?mbSc=1&fullSc
=1&journalCode=jea
Stankevicius, A., Quentin J. M. Huys, Kalra, A., Seriès P. (2014), Optimism as a Prior Belief
about
the
Probability
of
Future
Reward.
Retrieved
from
https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003605
Teague, R. (2015). The Impact of Academic Optimism on Student Achievement in Five
Middle
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Retrieved
from
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Tetzner J. (2018). Think Positive? Examining the Impact of Optimism on Academic
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Tschannen-Moran, M., Bankole,R.A., Bankole,R.M., & Moore,D.M. (2012). Student
Academic Optimism: a confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Educational
Administration,51(2),150-170.
Tschannen-Moran, M. (2013) Student Academic Optimism: a confirmatory factor analysis
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https://work.chron.com/meaning-academic-performance-17332.html
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