Uploaded by Mary Bennett

Milestones NUR 221 - Tuesday

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Gross Motor Skills
Haydon
months
McCoy
Strenn
Huston
Acero
Farmer
Fine Motor Skills
0-1 month
-Brings hands within range
of eyes and mouth
-Can keep hands in tight
fists
1 to 2 months
-Moves head from side to
- hand movements are
side while prone
involuntary and they
-Arm thrusts
remain clenched fists
-Hand to mouth
primarily.
coordination
- turn head toward
if pick up, they mimic a
voices
walking position
- stares at bright
curl up toes
objects and follow
with eyes
2-3 -Head lag when pulled to
- bring hand to mouth
sit
and suck fingers
-Rounded back when
3 months
sitting
- they’re able to hold
their hands out in
2 months
front of their face.
- Raises head + chest,
Also begin opening
hold position.
hands.
- Improving head
control.
Fine Motor Skills develop in
3 months
a proximodistal fashion,
- Raises head to 45°
from the center to the
in prone.
periphery (i.e., infant will
- Slight head lag in
bat with entire first before
pull-to-sit.
progressing to gross
grasping and then fine
Gross Motor Skills develop
fingertip grasping)
in a cephalocaudal fashion,
meaning from the head to
the tail (i.e., baby will learn
to lift his/her head before
learning how to roll over)
Characteristics
-
-
-
-
Coos, makes other
vocalizations, and
demonstrates differentiated
crying.
The infant exhibits a first real
smile at 2 months. They
spend most of their time
while awake watching and
observing everything that is
going on around them.
By 3 months old, the infant
will start interacting with the
caregiver by smiling widely
and possibly gurgling at the
caregiver, which prompts the
caregiver to smile and talk
back to the infant. The infant
will then respond back to the
caregiver with more smiling,
cooing, and gurgling as well
as moving the arms and legs.
4-5 months
Hobson
Johnson
Strehle
Angwin
Carrizales
Kramer
Haydon
4 months
- bats at objects (p.
76)
4 months
- lift head feet of the
- lifts head and looks
floor
around
- seat independently
- rolls from prone to
for a few moments
supine
- prop self up as laying
- head leads body
on tummy
when pulled to sit
(p.72)
5 months
5 months
- grasps rattle (p. 76)
- rolls from spine to
- bang two objects
prone and back
together’
again
- hold bottle
- sits with back
- bite toys(to soothe
upright when
their gums as their
supported (p.72)
teeth come out
- drop objects on
purpose
-
6-7 months
Walker
Schwartz
Reed
Masterson
Pablo
8-9 months
Webb
Hudson
Bonney
Noska
Kostilnik
-
-
6 months
- Release objects in hand
and can take another object
tripod sits
control hands
sits alone with some finger food
use of hands for
clap, hold object
support
7 months
-Transfers object from one
hand to the other hand
sits without support
sits up from
stomach/back
turns head to track
objects
starts to move with
opposite arm/leg
movement
-
-
-
picks up small
objects with thumbs
and fingers
examines objects
with hands and
mouth
turns several pages
of a thick/board
book at once
Object permanence begins to
develop around 4 months (p. 72)
Binocularity is well established by 4
months (p. 73)
4-5 months; infant makes simple
vowel sounds, laughs aloud,
performs “raspberries, and vocalizes
in response to voices (p.76)
4-5 months; also responds to his/her
own name and begins to respond to
“no” (p. 76)
-
-
distinguishes emotion based
on voice tone; babbling
begins (to express joy or
displeasure)
may enjoy patty-cake and
peek-a-boo
Object permanence begins to
develop
full color vision, distance
vision, ability to track objects
is developed
Object permanence is solidified knowing an object still exists without
being able to see it, will search for it
in the last place it was seen.
May develop stranger anxiety. The
previously happy and friendly infant
may become whiny and clingy when
approached by strangers or people
not well known.
-
-
10-11 months
Ucal Hagan
Moorhouse
Miller
Bohrer
Gero
Toddler
1-3
Hutchinson
Blabouwedeou
Malmstrom
Maple
Narvaez
Haydon
Logan
Johnson
crawls with
abdomen off the
floor
May be strong
enough to pull
themselves up using
a chair
-
holds/drinks from a
bottle
gross pincer grasp
(rakes)
bangs objects
together
Toss a ball, fit cups
together
10 months:
10 Months:
Pulls to stand
Fine pincer grasp
Cruises
Puts objects into container
10 to 11 months: the infant and takes them out
uses furniture or takes
steps with help from others 11 Months:
to help develop proper
Offers Objects to others
locomotion and balance
and releases them
required for walking which They may take steps with
happens at the toddler
assistance between 10 and
stage
11 months.
Feeds Self
Uses Index to point
Turns book pages
Sits from standing position
Removes socks/ shoes
Walks Independently
Builds tower
Cimbs stairs
Puts pegs in holes
Runs
Holds pencil in writing
Kicks Balls
Position
Can Stand on Tiptoe
Makes simple mark on
Climbs well
paper
Pedals Tricycle
Feeds self w/ spoon
Bends Over without Falling
Scribbles
2 years- Can jump with
Turns knobs
both feet
Drinking from cup
3 years-Can balance on one
independently
foot for a few seconds
Pick up small objects with
Can jump a few inches
one finger and thumb
Can jump from a stair with
manipulating scissors
two feet at same
Using silverware
time(ready for potty train)
pulling legos apart
manipulating technology
mouse
Interact more with their
environment and socialize with
others
Oral aggressive stage of Freud’s
psychosocial development
First tooth should appear by 8
months
By 10 months old babbling begins
and progresses to strings (e.g.,
mamama or dadada) without
meaning yet
May begin to attach meaning to
mama and dada between 9 to 12
months of age and begin to imitate
sounds.
Maintains eye contact
Clasps hands together in response to
social play
Has an established sleep schedule
exploratory. Learning about cause
and effect, (there is someone under
the blanket).
start using
imagination concepts like big/small.
cope with frustration
pretend play
uses short sentences, 50-100 words,
containing
pull thread, windpipe thread
inside a bottom
write on walls
right or left handed
imitates circular or vertical
strokes
3yrs:
➔
➔
➔
➔
Pre-schooler
3-6
Brown
Stevenson
Cason
Lam
Hall
Haydon
Johnson
3:
Climbs well
-undresses self
Pedals tricycle
-copies circles
Runs easily
-builds tower w/ 9-10 cubes
Walks up & down -holds pencil in writing
stairs with
position
alternative feet
-screw/unscrews lids, nuts,
➔ Bends over easily and bolts
without falling
-turns book pages one at a
time
4yrs:
➔ Throws ball
overhead
4:
➔ Kicks ball forward -uses scissors successfully
➔ Catches bounced -copies capital letters
ball
-draws circles and squares
➔ Hops on one foot -traces a cross or diamond
➔ Stands on one
-draws a person w/ two or
foot up to 5
four body parts
seconds
-laces shoes
➔ alternates feet
going up and
5:
down steps
-prints some letters
➔ Moves backward -draws person w/ body and
and forward with at least 6 parts.
agility
-dresses/undresses w/out
assistance
5yrs:
-can learn to lie laces
➔ Stands on one
-uses spoon, fork and
foot 10 secs or
knife(supervised)well
longer
-copies triangle, and other
➔ swings and climbs geometric patterns
well
-mostly cares for own
➔ may skip
toileting needs
➔ somersaults
(pg.130)
Initiative vs. Guilt Age 3-6 years:
-Likes to please parents
-Begins to plan activities, make up
games
-Initiates activities with others
-Acts out the roles of other people
-Develops sexual identity
-Develops conscience
-May take frustrations out on
siblings
-Likes exploring new things
-Enjoys sports, shopping, cooking,
working
-Feels remorse when makes wrong
choice or behaves badly
-Cooperates with other children
-Negotiates solutions to conflicts
(Table 5.1)
-may understand the concept of
counting and begins to engage in
fantasy play
-often has an imaginary friend which
is a creative way to experience
different activities and behaviors and
practice conversational skills
(p. 128)
- determines good vs bad
- children may learn
inappropriate behavior
5-13 Industry vs Inferiority(social
crisis)
Less egocentric, at five Kindergarten,
realized that they are not the center
of the world
follow another’s lead
➔ may learn to skate
and swim
operate with social rules, take turns,
learn to loose
4 years- vocab of 1500 words, speaks
in complete sentences
5 years- vocab of 2100 words
School-ager
6-12
Barnes
Thorne
Spence
Norton
Starcher
Haydon
-Coordination, balance,
School age:
and rhythm improve
- understands principle of
-Ride two wheeled bike, 6 to 8 years:
conservation
jump rope, dance
- able to classify members of
- Forming letters and
-May be awkward due to
four generations of family
numbers correctly.
body growing faster than
tree vertically and
- Opening zip lock
they can compensate
horizontally
bags, containers, and
6-8 years:
lunch boxes
6-8 years:
- pay continuous attention for
- Dressing and
-Bicycling, skating,
at least 10 to 20 minutes.
toileting
swimming
- develop a simple plan in
independently.
-Are in constant motion
order to reach a goal
- Holding pencil, pencil
-Sometimes fear is
- come up with ideas and try to
control, writing in
limited due to strong
solve common problems
the lines
impulse to explore
- identify and understand the
- Tying shoe laces
value of most coins and bills.
8-10 years:
- know which things are living
8 to 10 years:
-Less restless w/
and which are not
continued high energy in
- able to play games with rules
- Bilateral
more directed activities
and usually good at
coordination
-Baseball soccer
understanding and following
-Require more
-Eye-hand coordination and
rules
concentrated action and balance improve
- understand cause and effect
effort
8 to 10 years:
-Hand usage improves
- pay close attention for about
10-12 years:
20 minutes
-Sew, write, print words,
-Pubescent years for girls
- solve simple problems
build models, crafts
-Physical skills similar to
independently
those of adults
- can solve complex problems
- riding bike, team sports
-Should be encouraged to
with some help
engage in physical activity 10-12 years:
- very curious about events
-Energy levels remain
that are happening around
high, but more controlled -Develop manipulative skills
them
comparable to adults
and focused
- know the difference between
As they grow, they
fact and opinion
-Take pride in activities that
become clumsy, they are
- using background knowledge
require dexterity (playing
not use to their new body
to learn new things
musical instrument)
and fall or trip
- can observe and tell you
about events in great detail
-Talent and practice become
the keys to proficiency
10 to 12 years:
- Make inferences
- tell time with an analog clock
-
-
-
clearly describe a goal and
how they’re planning on
achieving it.
paraphrase what others are
saying
access prior knowledge in
order to link newly acquired
information
knows difference between
“good child” and “bad child”
begins to use “golden rule”
Erick Erickson”Identity vs confusion”
peers role model, Who they are,
What they can be
Sexual characteristics become
important in teen years such as self
concept and body image.
Teens begin to rely more on peer
relationships versus family
relationships
Increased use of slang to
communicate
Adolescent
12-20
Haydon
Brunton p. 185
Clements
Rogers
Savage
Apeland p. 186
early adolescent teenager
develops endurance early adolescent teenager Adolescent girls often are influenced
increase
increase of the ability by peers and the media and want to
concentration
to manipulate
weigh less and have smaller hips,
coordination
objects
waist or thighs
problems
increase in finger
middle adolescent
dexterity
Boys tend to view themselves as
teenager
middle adolescent teenager being too thin or not muscular
increase of speed
refining dexterity
enough
and accuracy
skills
improvement of
late adolescent teenager
Boys are concerned about the size of
coordination
precise eye-hand
their penis and facial hair while girls
late adolescent teenager
coordination and
are concerned about breast size and
concentrates of
finger dexterity
the onset of menstruation.
relevant skill
development
Piaget (cognitive): Formal
Operations (Limited abstract thought
process)
Kohlberg: Postconventional level III
(Morals based on peer, family,
church, and societal morals)
Early (10-13 years): Asks broad,
usually unanswerable questions
about life
Middle (14-17): DEveloping own set
of morals - evaluates individual
morals in relation to peer, family,
and societal morals
Late(17-20): Internalizes own morals
and values, continues to compare
own morals and values to that of
society, evaluates morals of others
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