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sim discussion

Sim Training Discussion
1. Aborted engine starts need memory action. Engine start should be aborted for
•the N1 or N2 does not increase or increases very slowly after the EGT increases
•there is no oil pressure indication by the time that the engine is stable at idle
•the EGT does not increase by 10 seconds after the engine start lever is moved to IDLE
•the EGT quickly nears or exceeds the start limit
2. Battery Start is needed when APU is not available. SP 7.1 to be done
3. Recall items from QRH
a. Aborted engine start
b. Airspeed unreliable
c. APU Fire
d. Cabin altitude warning or rapid depressurization
e. Elevator tab limit cycle oscillation
f. Emergency descent
g. Engine fire or engine damage or separation
h. Engine limit or surge or stall
i. Engine overheat
j. Loss of thrust on both engines
k. Runaway stabilizer
l. Take off and landing configuration
m. Over speed
4. Taxi technique from FCTM. To begin taxi release brakes, smoothly increase thrust for the
airplane to move forward and then reduce thrust as required to maintain normal taxi
speeds. Normal taxi speeds is about 20 kts adjusted for condition. On long straight taxi
routes speeds up to 30 kts is acceptable. For turns use 10 kts for turn angle greater than for
high speed taxi ways.
5. Bomb threat in flight
a. Maintain current cabin altitude
b. Bomb checklist is provided on board
c. Reduce cabin differential pressure to zero
d. Reduce to turbulence penetration speed
e. Declare emergency to ATC
f. If time to detonation is known land at the nearest suitable airport
g. Do not cut any wires or any strings and leave the device as it is
h. Get in touch with a bomb disposal squad and give them exact information regarding the
i. If told by the bomb squad and no anti lift trigger found move the device to the least
hazard area (right rear door), move passengers up to three rows from the back even if they
sit on ground.
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j. Move the fire extinguisher bottles and oxygen bottles from the immediate area.
k. Disconnect non essential power from the area
l. Stabilize the device with blankets, seat cushions and pillows.
m. If explosion is imminent lower the landing gear and reduce speed to minimize damage
and complications in the hydraulic system
n. If a barometric device is suspected consider diverting to an airport of that elevation
o. After landing ask for remote bay and time permitting evacuate people via stairs
otherwise slides can be used
p. Once everyone is out of the airplane make sure that baggage search is conducted at least
300 meters from the airplane
q. Keep passengers away from the airplane unless clearance given by the bomb disposal
6. PIC shall not be held accountable if complying with hijackers demand. Crew to remain on
the airplane until the hijack is over and passengers have disembarked. Jet Airways has
“safety first policy” that will ensure actions from outside should be where possible in line
with that of the PIC. Different states might have different policy regarding hijack and Jet
Airways will not be able to change that.
The three phases of hijack are
Intimidation; where the hijacker seeks to establish control by aggressive behavior and
Custodial; Where the hijacker feels in control and starts negotiating
Resolution; The hijack is concluded whether by negotiations or by assault from security
Likely behavior syndromes in hijack situation can be
Stockholm syndrome; Where people develop empathy with the hijackers after interacting
with them for a long them
London syndrome; Where the people stop complying with the hijackers making the
hijackers eliminate the threat
John Wayne syndrome; Where mostly a male hostage in a hijack situation feel helpless
and worthless not been able to save the day
The standard measures in a hijack should be
a. Safety of passengers, crew and aircraft
b. Crew should ensure communications between all parties
c. Establish and maintain initiative by the crew
d. Actions should not irritate the hijackers
e. Land the aircraft as soon as possible
f. Disembarking/releasing the passengers from hijackers custody as soon as possible
g. Refrain from giving exclusively detailed accounts of the cases to outside sources so as to
prevent recurrence
If the hijackers are to enter the cockpit ensure
a. Notify ATC and set transponder code to 7500
b. Place PIC speaker off and co-pilots speaker on low volume
c. Keep the service interphone in audible condition
d. Keep all the charts ready to use not to create suspicion
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e. Check the remaining fuel quantity
f. Remove the necktie and hide it
g. Preferably negotiate with the hijackers keeping them outside. If they enter the cockpit
forcefully notify the cabin crew immediately
h. Hide the crash axe
i. Cover the door annunciators with masking tapes or pull out the CB
j. PIC on VHF 2 with 121.5 and speaker off
k. Co-Pilot on VHF-1 with ATC frequency and speaker on
The ATC should be notified the following information
a. Desired altitude, speed, routing, destination and nature of assistance required
b. Notify ATC of hijack may be through ATC
c. Numbers, names, age, sex, nationality, language and organization they represent
d. Types of wepons
e. Hijackers demands
f. Fuel and intention of PIC
g. Situation in cabin, condition and number of passengers and crew
7. Asymmetrical flaps should be dealt by Trailing edge flap asymmetry NNC or Trailing
edge flap disagree NNC. Leading edge flap transit light NNC.
Leading Edge Flaps Transit - Landing
If an asymmetrical or skewed leading edge device condition occurs, the adjusted VREF
provides 15° bank angle maneuvering capability and allows for 15° overshoot protection in
all cases.
Note: If the gear is retracted during a go-around and flap position is greater than 25, a
landing gear configuration warning occurs.
Trailing Edge Flap Asymmetry - Landing
If a trailing edge flap up asymmetry occurs, full maneuvering capability exists even if the
asymmetry occurred at flaps just out of the full up position. Burn off fuel to reduce landing
weight and lower approach speed. Fly accurate airspeeds in the landing pattern. At lesser
flap settings, excess airspeed is difficult to dissipate, especially when descending on final
approach. Pitch attitude and rate of descent on final is higher than for a normal landing.
During flare, airspeed does not bleed off as rapidly as normal.
8. General radio communication failure states that if in visual meteorological conditions
land at the nearest suitable airport.
If in instrument meteorological conditions and maintain the last assigned speed and level,
or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s
failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level
and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; or,
If in radar environment then maintain the last assigned speed and level for 7 min from the
time of last assigned level, transponder set to 7600 or the point where the aircraft failed to
make a compulsory report.
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9. APU fire NNC is a memory item
a. APU fire switch confirm pull rotate
b. APU switch off
Uncontrollable fire can require an evacuation
10. Limitations from Vol 1
11. M.E.L is the list, which provides guidelines for dispatching the aircraft with certain
failures. This MEL also includes procedures of D.D.P.G mentioned below each MEL item,
wherever applicable. However, D.D.P.G, being aircraft manufacturer’s document, is NOT
approved by the D.G.C.A, the correctness of which is the responsibility of Jet Airways. The
MEL is applicable until the advancement of throttle for take off. If the failed item will affect
the flight or there is an (M) procedure to be done or the failed item cannot be replaced at
the destination then captain can take a decision to return back.
Operation under M.E.L is conducted under time limitation of different categories. Category
A will have a specific time period, Category B will have 3 days , Category C will have 10 days
and Category D will have 120 days from the day the M.E.L was invoked.
12. Emergency equipment
13. Performance
14. Weight & balance
15. Fueling & servicing; fueling should be done with either one of the cockpit crew member
or engineer present in the flight deck. Passengers may be allowed to embark or disembark.
No smoking and exit signs should be illuminated. There should be ground to cockpit
communication and cabin crew should be informed of the refueling. Cabin crew should
inform the cockpit if fuel vapor or any other hazard occurs in the cabin. The step ladder
should be aligned on the forward and aft doors. If the aft door is closed then the escape
slide should be armed. If the door is open it should be manned and access to the doors
should not be obstructed. The cabin crew must be prepared for immediate evacuation.
16. Reverser unlocked in flight can be due to multiple failures. Unstowed reverser sleeves
produce buffet, yaw, roll and increased airplane drag. The E.E.C’s prevent power above idle
if the reverser has moved from stowed position. In worse case scenario the engine needs to
be shut down.
17. Engine oil pressure low with high oil temperature will lead to an engine seizure. If the
engine oil pressure low indication is shown do the Engine Low Oil Pressure N.N.C. With
engine oil temperature in amber band you can operate the engine for 45 min.
18. Engine oil filter bypass NNC. Alert means that oil filter contamination can cause oil to
bypass the oil filter. If the alert remains at reduced thrust then engine should be shut down.
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19. CSD low oil pressure will illuminate the DRIVE light
20. CSD high oil temperature will automatically disconnect the drive and will illuminate the
DRIVE light due to low oil pressure.
21. Standby power off light NNC. It means that AC or DC standby bus or battery bus is
unpowered. If the standby power switch is placed off then AC and DC standby buses are
unpowered but battery bus remains powered by the battery.
22. Gen bus off light means that the generator is not supplying power to its related transfer
23. Transfer bus off NNC, check the related generator is energized or not, also the bus
transfer switch is on (guarded position). If not then start the APU to energize the related
transfer bus.
24. Electrical smoke or fire (Smoke, fire or fumes NNC). Electrical smoke can be
distinguished by burning of insulated material and will bluish in color. The smoke will feel
toxic and should be coming out of instrument panel, circuit breaker panel, galley
equipment, lighting or IFE. Any kind of smoke where the source is not identifiable needs a
diversion and land as soon as possible.
25. Equipment cooling off NNC. With the new checklist equipment cooling off light might be
an indication of a pressurization problem. Check that the pressurization system is
operating normally. On ground a high temperature in the E&E bay will sound the ground
call horn in the nose wheel well. In flight the weather radar display will automatically turn
off to avoid over heating. (WXR DSPLY & EXCESS DATA will display) In flight if the light
remains illuminated no action is necessary. At lower differential pressure (low altitudes)
for operation longer than 30 min the displays can fail. If both supply fans are inop Captain’s
DU and lower center DU can fail. If both exhaust fans are inop first officer’s DU and upper
center DU can fail. The overboard exhaust valve opens at low differential pressure (2 psi or
less) to dump the warm air from E&E bay overboard. When the overboard exhaust valve is
closed the warm air is diffused under the lining of the forward cargo compartment.
26. Circuit breaker trip should not be corrected unless called by an NNC. If the circuit
breaker needs to be pushed in it should only be done once.
27. Hydraulic system A supplies power to No. 1 thrust reverser, nose wheel steering,
alternate brakes, autopilot A, flight spoilers No. 2,4,9,11 and ground spoilers. Also jointly to
rudder ailerons, elevator and elevator feel, landing gear.
System A Hydraulic Leak
If a leak develops in the engine–driven pump or its related lines, a standpipe in the
reservoir prevents a total system fluid loss. With fluid level at the top of the standpipe, the
reservoir quantity displayed indicates approximately 20% full. System A hydraulic
pressure is maintained by the electric motor–driven pump. If a leak develops in the electric
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motor–driven pump or its related lines, or components common to both the engine and
electric motor–driven pumps, the quantity in the reservoir steadily decreases to zero and
all system pressure is lost.
If system A is lost during take off the landing gear might not go up as the N2 of engine will
still be more than idle so you cannot continue. Landing gear down penalty for fuel is 50%
28. B hydraulic system supplies power to auto slats and leading edge flaps and slats, No 2
thrust reverser, yaw damper, normal brakes, trailing edge flaps, autopilot B, flight spoilers
3,5,8,10, alternate nose wheel steering and jointly to ailerons, elevators and elevators feel,
landing gear.
System B Hydraulic Leak
If a leak develops in either pump, line or component of system B, the quantity decreases
until it indicates approximately zero and system B pressure is lost. The system B reservoir
has one standpipe which supplies fluid to both the engine–driven pump and the electric
motor–driven pump. However, with fluid level at the top of the standpipe, fluid remaining
in the system B reservoir is sufficient for power transfer unit operation.
A leak in system B does not affect the operation of the standby hydraulic system.
29. To manually turn on the standby system use the flight control switches or the alternate
flaps switch on the flight control panel. With the sys A or B flight control switch we control
the hydraulic pressure that goes to rudder. If one of the switch is selected on, it energizes
the standby system electric pump, opens the standby rudder shut off valve and closes the
related flight control valve (shutting pressure to aileron, elevators and rudder) also the
related flight control low-pressure light extinguishes. STBY RUD ON light illuminate with
master caution FLT CONT. The standby thrust reversers and leading edge devices are also
If the alternate flaps switch is used the standby rudder shut off valve remains close just the
electric pump stars to operate and standby thrust reversers and leading edge devices are
armed, the trailing edge flap bypass valve is closed and the ALTERNATE FLAP position
switch is armed.
Standby system also operates automatically if three conditions are met. The sys A or B
pressure is low and FLT CONTROL A or B hydraulic system on, flaps are not up and aircraft
is airborne or wheel speed is greater than 60 kts or the main PCU Force Fight Monitor trips.
If the conditions are met standby rudder shut off valve automatically opens without crew
action. The standby system operates until the flaps are fully up.
Standby system low quantity light is always armed and the low pressure light shows that
the pump pressure is low when quantity drops below 50%. Also sys B quantity should drop
to 72%, if it doesn't then the light might be faulty for the standby system. If sys A and B do
not operate and standby sys shows low quantity then thrust reversers and leading edge
flaps and slats are not available.
30. Accumulator pressure has a 1000-psi of nitrogen pre charge, which can’t be used for
braking or parking brakes. 1500 psi of pressure can be used for parking brake for 1 hr. If
brake pressure indicator zero psi (NNC) is shown and hydraulic system pressure is
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available braking is still available.
31. Landing gear override is used to move the landing gear up/down in case the landing
gear lock solenoid fails. Landing gear lever jammed in up position NNC and landing gear
lever jammed in the up position NNC
32. Landing gear unsafe indication is when a red gear light is illuminated with or without
the green light. When the gear selected down and one of the green light is on either on the
forward panel or the aft overhead panel, the gear is taken as down. No configuratioin
warning when selecting flaps more than 10, no GPWS “TOO LOW GEAR” alert below 500 ft
will confirm the same.
a. If the selector is moved to off from up and the red and green lights are shown it means
that the mechanical uplock is failed. Leave the gear in up position for the remainder of the
flight and keep speed at .82 M or 270 kts in case hydraulic system A fails.
b. If after moving the gear lever up both red and green light illuminates, it means that either
the gear lock pins are still installed, gear selector valve failure or manual gear extension
door not fully closed.
c. After placing the gear up the lights extinguish for a second and after than light illuminate
again with both green and red light. Also the gear comes down with air sound you can
notice the same. It means there is a loose tread and the gear is down because of a damaged
fitting. 1 USG fluid is lost and system A pressure should be lost by 15%.
d. If only red lights illuminate after the gear is moved to up its an indication of faulty uplock
micro switch. If air noise confirm the gear is not down and no down light illuminate
continue to destination with the gear in up position.
33. Partial or all gear up NNC is done when the gear indication is unsafe and gear is
selected down. Land on all available gear. The landing gear absorbs the initial shock and
delays touchdown of airplane body parts. Recycling the landing gear in an attempt to
extend the remaining gear is not recommended. A gear up or partial gear landing is
preferable to running out of fuel while attempting to solve a gear problem.
Landing Runway
Consideration should be given to landing at the most suitable airport with adequate
runway and fire fighting capability. Foaming the runway is not necessary.
Prior to Approach
If time and conditions permit, reduce weight as much as possible by burning off fuel to
attain the slowest possible touchdown speed.
Use of Speedbrakes
During a partial gear or gear up landing, speedbrakes should be extended only when
stopping distance is critical. Extending the speedbrakes before all gear, or the nose or the
engine nacelle in the case of a gear that does not extend, have contacted the runway may
compromise controllability of the airplane.
Use of Reverse Thrust
During a partial gear or gear up landing, an engine making ground contact could suffer
sufficient damage such that the thrust reverser mechanism may not operate. Selecting
reverse thrust with any gear not extended may produce an additional asymmetric
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condition that makes directional control more difficult. Reverse thrust should be used only
when stopping distance is critical.
Both Main Gear Extended with Nose Gear Up
Land in the center of the runway. After touchdown lower the nose gently before losing
elevator effectiveness.
Nose Gear Only Extended
Land in the center of the runway. Use normal approach and flare attitudes maintaining
back pressure on the control column until ground contact. The engines contact the ground
prior to the nose gear.
One Main Gear Extended and Nose Gear Extended
Land the airplane on the side of the runway that corresponds to the extended main gear
down. At touchdown, maintain wings level as long as possible. Use rudder and nose wheel
steering for directional control. After all gear, or the engine nacelle where the gear is not
extended, have made contact with the runway, braking on the side opposite the
unsupported wing should be used as needed to keep the airplane rolling straight.
All Gear Up or Partially Extended
Land in the center of the runway. The engines contact the ground first. There is adequate
rudder available to maintain directional control during the initial portion of the ground
slide. Attempt to maintain the centerline while rudder control is available.
34. Anti skid inoperative NNC is done when anti skid is inoperative due to fault detected by
the monitoring system, disagreement between parking brake lever and parking brake valve
position or loss of AC/DC power. In flight if parking brake is set then also anti skid inop
light comes on. The anti skid system provides five functions, skid control (compares wheel
speed with aircraft IAS and intervenes in brake pressure), locked wheel protection
(compares wheel speed with the corresponding wheel at the other gear strut and releases
brake pressure if locked condition exist), touchdown protection (prevnts wheel brake
operation when airplane in air), hydroplane protection (prevents wheel brake operation
when ground speed from ADIRU is more than wheel speed <127kts>), gear retract inhibit
(stops anti skid operation 12.5 sec after take off to permit gear retract braking).
Braking with Antiskid Inoperative
When the antiskid system is inoperative, the following techniques apply:
• ensure that the nose wheels are on the ground and the speedbrakes are extended before
applying the brakes
• initiate wheel braking using very light pedal pressure and increase pressure as ground
speed decreases
• apply steady pressure and DO NOT PUMP the pedals.
35. Loss of A or B brake pressure will not hamper braking requirement as one of the
system is capable of providing braking in all conditions. If only accumulator pressure is
available do not pump the brakes and apply steady pressure. With fully charged brake
accumulator several brake applications and parking brake can be set.
36. Fuel filter bypass NNC is done and its an indication of impending fuel filter bypass. This
condition will lead to an erratic engine operation and flameout may happen.
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37. Minimum fuel operation is required when low fuel condition exists. Low NNC for fuel
needs to be carried out.
Approach and Landing
In a low fuel condition, the clean configuration should be maintained as long as possible
during the descent and approach to conserve fuel. However, initiate configuration changes
early enough to provide a smooth, slow deceleration to final approach speed to prevent
fuel from running forward in the tanks. A normal landing configuration and airspeed
appropriate for the wind conditions are recommended.
Runway conditions permitting, heavy braking and high levels of reverse thrust should be
avoided to prevent uncovering all fuel pumps and possible engine flameout during landing
If a go-around is necessary, apply thrust slowly and smoothly and maintain the minimum
nose-up body attitude required for a safe climb gradient. Avoid rapid acceleration of the
airplane. If any wing tank fuel pump low pressure light illuminates, do not turn the fuel
pump switches off.
38. Fuel system for 737 has three fuel tanks. Two main tanks and one center tank. Each
main tank contains 3915 kg of usable fuel and center tank contains 13066 kg of fuel. Total
fuel is 20896. Each main tank has two pumps one forward and one aft. The center fuel tank
has two fuel pumps left and right. The center fuel pumps have more output pressure than
the main tank pumps so the center tank fuel is used before the main tanks.
There are one engine fuel shut off valve and spar fuel shut off valve in each fuel line. Spar
fuel shut off valve is electrically controlled by the start lever. The engine fuel shut off valve
is electrically controlled by the EEC. Spar fuel shutoff valves are located at the engine–
mounting wing stations. The valves are DC motor operated from the hot battery bus. The
engine fuel shutoff valves are fuel actuated, solenoid controlled valves powered from the
battery bus. The engine fire-warning switch electrically controls the two valves.
39. Fuel policy for 737 is, Taxi fuel for 15 min at 12 kg/min around 180 kg. Fuel required
for start to climb, cruise and descent to 1500 ft above the destination airport with approach
and landing (240 kg), contingency fuel 5% for computerize plan and 10% for manual flight
plan, Missed approach at destination (130 kg) and climb cruise and descent to 1500 ft over
alternate airport, approach and landing (240kg). Alternate fuel calculation is done with
cost index 0 (MRC). 30 min holding at 1500 ft over destination (1200 kg), APU fuel for 1 hr
110 kg.
40. For -700 airplanes, Overheat sensors for the pack located downstream of the pack. If an
overheat condition occurs the air mix valves are driven to full cold and DUCT OVERHEAT
light illuminates. A temperature higher than duct overheat, causes the pack valve to close
and the associated PACK TRIP OFF light illuminates. Duct overheat NNC to be done
For -800 airplanes, There are three zones and temp range is from 18 to 30 deg C. The pack
produces a temp that satisfies the zone, which requires the most cooling. During a single
pack operation with Trim Air switch on the pack zone temp is controlled as with two pack
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operations. During single pack operations with Trim Air switch off the pack produce an
average temperature of the three zones. If air in the zone supply ducts overheats then
associated ZONE TEMP light illuminates and the associated modulating trim air valve
closes. It can be reset by the trip reset switch.
The left electronic controller controls the aft cabin zone and is the back up for the flight
deck. The right controller controls the forward cabin zone and is the primary controller for
the flight deck. Failure of primary flight deck controller will illuminate the CONT CAB,
ZONE TEMP during master caution recall. Failure of both controllers will illuminate the
same lights with master caution.
Failure of aft or forward cabin controller will cause the associated trim air valve to close.
The temp selector will operate normally but the temp settings of the two cabin zones will
be averaged. The ZONE TEMP light will illuminate on recall to indicate failure of the
associated zone control.
41. Pack trip off light comes on for -700 airplanes if the temperature for the pack has
exceeded the limits (also monitors the ACM compressor outlet and turbine inlet
temperature). The air mix valves are driven to full cold and a warmer temperature is
selected for the pack before reset so as to reduce the workload.
For -800 airplanes the PACK light comes on if the temperature has exceeded the same as
-700 airplanes but also if primary and back up pack controller fail (comes on recall if one
controller is failed).
42. Wing body overheat NNC is done if there is a leak of bleed air in the engine strut, wing
leading edge, air-conditioning bay for both sides and for left side in the keel beam or APU
bleed air duct.
43. Bleed trip off NNC is done if the temperature or pressure for the bleed is excessive and
it’s tripped. A bleed trip off situation can mostly occur after a no engine bleed take off due
to overpressure. The situation can be corrected by selecting a lower climb thrust before
putting the engine bleed switches to on. Also the engine anti ice can be used even though it
doesn’t say in the checklist (TAT should be below 38 deg C and aircraft is clear of obstacles
above 1500 ft AGL). If bleed trip off is not reset avoid icing conditions. The checklist call for
pack affected side off so as to get the other pack in high flow and not to operate two packs
from one engine. If an engine failure or wing body overheat occurs on the opposite engine
pressurization will be lost.
44. Dual bleed NNC is done if light comes on in flight. On ground it’s a normal indication if
APU bleed air valve is open and engine No. 1 bleed air switch open or isolation valve open
and bleed air switch No. 2 is on. The thrust should not be more than idle to avoid back
pressure on the APU. If the light remains on after placing the APU bleed switch to off it’s a
45. Auto fail or unscheduled pressurization change NNC will be done if loss of DC bus 1-2 or
both, rate of cabin pressure more than 2000 ft, cabin altitude above 15800 ft, differential
pressure above 8.75 psi, fault in outflow valve control, fault in the pressurization controller
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1-2 or both. If auto fail light comes on with ALTN light it will extinguish by selecting ALTN
on the pressurization controller.
46. Off schedule descent NNC is done in case the light comes on. If landing at the departure
airport, no action is necessary, if not then change the flight altitude/land altitude. The OFF
SCHED DESCENT light comes on when the airplane starts to descent before it reaches the
cruise altitude set in the controller. The cruise schedule starts when the airplane is with
0.25 psi of the cruise flight altitude. The pressure controller begins to descend the airplane
to 300 ft below the airfield elevation. If you start to climb again the light goes off and the
pressurization starts to climb again.
47. Cracked or delaminated window will call for window damage NNC. Hold a pen against
the crack to find out if the outer or inner pane is cracked. If the outer pane is cracked
continue normal operation. If the inner pane is cracked then descend to 10000 ft or less
and land at the nearest suitable airport. Also reduce speed to 250 kts below 10000 ft to
prevent damage in case of bird strike. In case of both windows are damaged an auto land
should be performed.
48. Window overheat NNC (Anti-ice, Rain) should be done for an overheat situation in the
window heat system. If the ON light extinguishes with overheat light OFF or the OFF light
comes on without the overheat light, it means the temperature in correct range. If over heat
light comes on without ON light and with OFF light, shut the window heat for the affected
window and let it cool down.
49. Probe heat NNC should be done for any of the 5 pitot probes not heated.
50. Engine anti ice valve inoperative will restrict flights into icing conditions. Amber engine
cowl anti ice NNC will be done for an over pressure condition. The engine cowl valve open
or TAI indication NNC is done if engine cowl valve open light remain illuminated bright
blue and an amber TAI indication is shown. If the valve failed to open avoid icing
conditions, if it failed to close then reduce power to 80% N1 if TAT is above 10 deg C.
51. Wing anti ice valve open NNC needs to be done if the valve open light remain
illuminated bright blue. If the valve remains closed avoid icing conditions and if the valve
remains open then isolate that side with the isolation switch close and the respective bleed
air switch close. Bleed air for the wing anti ice is taken from the main pneumatic manifold
which ensures that both wings will be de-iced during single engine operations. The stick
shaker logic is adjusted for the remainder of the flight if wing anti ice is used because the
first and last slats are not heated.
52. Jammed or Restricted Flight Controls
Although rare, jamming of the flight control system has occurred on commercial airplanes.
A jammed flight control can result from ice accumulation due to water leaks onto cables or
components, dirt accumulation, component failure such as cable break or worn parts,
improper lubrication, or foreign objects.
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Some indications of a jam are:
• unexplained autopilot disengagement
• autopilot that cannot be engaged
• undershoot or overshoot of an altitude during autopilot level-off
• higher than normal control forces required during speed or configuration changes.
If any jammed flight control condition exists, both pilots should apply force to try to either
clear the jam or activate the override feature.
Note: If a control is jammed due to ice accumulation, the jam may clear when moving to a
warmer temperature.
Note: There are override features for the control wheel and the control column. Applying
force to the non-jammed flight control activates the override feature. When enough force is
applied, the jammed control is overridden allowing the non-jammed control to operate. To
identify the non-jammed flight control, apply force to each flight control individually. The
flight control that results in the greatest airplane control is the non-jammed control.
Note: The pilot of the non-jammed control should be the pilot flying for the remainder of
the flight.
Approach and Landing
Attempt to select a runway with minimum crosswind. Complete approach preparations
early. On final approach, do not reduce thrust to idle until after touchdown. Asymmetrical
braking and asymmetrical thrust reverser deployment may aid directional control on the
Go Around Procedure
If the elevator is known or suspected to be jammed, a go-around should be avoided if at all
possible. If a go-around is required, the go-around procedure is handled in the same
manner as a normal go-around.
53. All Flaps Up Landing
The probability of both leading and trailing edge devices failing to extend is remote. After
selecting a suitable landing airfield and prior to beginning the approach, consider reduction
of airplane gross weight (burn off fuel) to reduce touchdown speed. Fly a wide pattern to
allow for the increased turning radius required for the higher maneuvering speed.
Establish final approximately 10 NM from the runway. This allows time to extend the gear
and decelerate to the target speed while in level flight and complete all required checklists.
Maintain no slower than flaps up maneuvering speed until established on final. Maneuver
with normal bank angles until on final.
Final Approach
Use an ILS or GLS glide slope if available. Do not reduce the airspeed to the final approach
speed until aligned with the final approach. Before intercepting the descent profile,
decrease airspeed to command speed and maintain this speed until the landing is assured.
The normal rate of descent on final is approximately 900 fpm due to the higher ground
speed. Final approach body attitude is approximately 1° - 2° higher than a flaps 30
approach. Do not make a flat approach (shallow glide path angle) or aim for the threshold
of the runway. Use a normal aim point approximately 1,000 feet down the runway.
Use manual control of thrust levers. Due to automatic speed protection, autothrottle use
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may result in higher than desired speed on final. Engines will be at low idle speed due to no
flap extension. When engines are near idle RPM, time required for engines to accelerate is
longer than normal.
Note: Use of the autopilot during approach phase is acceptable. Do not autoland.
Speedbrakes are not recommended for airspeed reduction below 800 feet. If landing is
anticipated beyond the normal touch down zone, go around.
Fly the airplane onto the runway at the recommended touchdown point. Flare only enough
to achieve an acceptable reduction in the rate of descent. Do not allow the airplane to float.
Slight forward pressure on the control column may be needed to achieve touchdown at the
desired point and to lower the nose wheels to the runway. Full reverse thrust is needed for
a longer period of time. Use of autobrakes is recommended.
Leading Edge Flaps Transit - Landing
If an asymmetrical or skewed leading edge device condition occurs, the adjusted VREF
provides 15° bank angle maneuvering capability and allows for 15° overshoot protection in
all cases.
Note: If the gear is retracted during a go-around and flap position is greater than 25, a
landing gear configuration warning occurs.
Trailing Edge Flap Asymmetry - Landing
If a trailing edge flap up asymmetry occurs, full maneuvering capability exists even if the
asymmetry occurred at flaps just out of the full up position. Burn off fuel to reduce landing
weight and lower approach speed. Fly accurate airspeeds in the landing pattern. At lesser
flap settings, excess airspeed is difficult to dissipate, especially when descending on final
approach. Pitch attitude and rate of descent on final is higher than for a normal landing.
During flare, airspeed does not bleed off as rapidly as normal.
54. Flap Extension using the Alternate System
Since the flaps extend more slowly when using the alternate system, it is recommended
that the crew delay setting the new command speed until the flaps reach the selected
55. Flight control low pressure NNC should be done when the light comes on. It indicates
low hydraulic pressure (A or B) to ailerons, elevators and rudder. Moving the flight control
switch to standby rudder activates the standby hydraulic system pump, closes the flight
control shut off valve isolating aileron, elevator and rudder from associated hydraulic
system, opens the standby rudder shut off valve.
56. Feel differential pressure NNC is done when the light comes on (FCC failure) with
flaps up (some with flaps down also). It means that there is pressure difference between
system A and B hydraulic pressure, difference between elevator pitot pressure or elevator
feel shift module has failed.
Mach trim fail NNC is done when the light comes on. (FCC failure) Above Mach .615 there
is a tendency of mach tuck where the center of pressure moves backwards. Stabilizer trim
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is provided to counteract this tendency and is done automatically. The mach trim actuator
repositions the elevator feel and centering unit, which adjusts the control column neutral
Speed trim fail NNC is done when the light comes on (FCC failure). When trim
requirement is sensed to maintain the set speed the speed trim system automatically
provides trim to get the aircraft back to trim speed. The conditions are low gross weight, aft
center of gravity, high thrust setting, autopilot not engaged, airspeed between 100 kts and
0.5 M, 10 sec after airborne, 5 sec after leaving the trim switches. On ground speed trim
light is illuminated until the ADIRU is aligned because inertial vertical speed data is
Auto slat fail NNC is done when the light comes on. Auto slats are activated when trailing
edge flaps are less than 10 (1,2 and 5) and aircraft approaches a stall. The leading edge
devices are driven to full extend if the airplane approaches a stall condition. The system
normally uses hydraulic system B pressure but if system B pressure is not available system
A pressure is used to drive the PTU and pressurize system B hydraulic pressure to operate
auto slats. When the system is operating leading edge flap transit light is inhibited and
skew protection is also inhibited.
57. Yaw damper NNC is done if the light comes on. Yaw damper is powered by system B
and the yaw damper light will not come on if system B fails unless the system B flight
control pressure switch is moved to standby rudder. Standby yaw damper will only be
available when both flight control switches are moved to standby rudder. Only the main
yaw damper indications are shown on the yaw damper indicator. Both SMYD’s should be
operational for yaw damper to work. The SMYD receives input from both ADIRU’s, both
flight control wheels and yaw damper switch. If there is a fault in the yaw damper actuator
yaw damper will not engage. In manual reversion when both flight control switches are in
standby rudder turning the control wheel sends a signal to the standby rudder which
moves the rudder assisting the airplane in turn.
58. Stabilizer out of trim NNC is done when light come on. Light will come on with dual
autopilot approach below 800 ft and autopilot not trimming the airplane.
Runaway stabilizer NNC control column hold firmly, autopilot disengage, If runaway
stops use electric trim, If runaway continues stabilizer trim cutout switches cutout, If
runaway continues trim wheel grasp and hold.
59. Speed brake do not arm NNC there is some internal fault in speed brake module or
test input to speed brake system. After landing speed below 60 kts and speed brake lever
not in down position.
60. Speed brake extended NNC Speed brake is beyond armed position and altitude below
800 ft, flaps more than 10 and speed brakes extended, after landing speed brake lever
down but ground spoilers not stowed. On ground the light does not illuminate if the
hydraulic system A pressure is less than 750 psi.
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61. Moderate/Severe turbulence SP 16.19. Passengers sign on, yaw damper on, auto
throttle disengage, auto pilot CWS, engine start switches FLT, thrust set for go around,
speed should be around 280 kts/.76 M or 250 kts below 15000 ft.
62. Ditching NNC
Send Distress Signals
Transmit Mayday, current position, course, speed, altitude, situation, intention, time and
position of intended touchdown, and type of airplane using existing air-to-ground
frequency. Set transponder code 7700 and, if practical, determine the course to the nearest
ship or landfall.
Fuel Burn-Off
Consider burning off fuel prior to ditching, if the situation permits. This provides greater
buoyancy and a lower approach speed. However, do not reduce fuel to a critical amount, as
ditching with engine thrust available improves ability to properly control touchdown.
Ditching Final
Transmit final position. Select flaps 40 or landing flaps appropriate for the existing
Advise the cabin crew of imminent touchdown. On final approach announce ditching is
imminent and advise crew and passengers to brace for impact.
Maintain airspeed at VREF. Maintain 200 to 300 fpm rate of descent. Plan to touchdown on
the windward side and parallel to the waves or swells, if possible. To accomplish the flare
and touchdown, rotate smoothly to touchdown attitude of 10° to 12°. Maintain airspeed
and rate of descent with thrust
63. GPWS operates below 2450 ft radio altitude. It doesn't alert for a vertically sheer
terrain or slow descent into terrain while in landing configuration.
GPWS alerts for excessive descent rates, excessive terrain closure, altitude loss after take
off, unsafe terrain clearance, deviation below glide slope, Bank and altitude advisory,
If the barometric descent rate becomes large the SINK RATE aural sounds and red PULL UP
words show on the attitude indicator.
If the descent rate becomes dangerous a WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP aural warning sounds
and the red PULL UP words show on the attitude indicators.
If the radio altitude decreases quickly the TERRAIN TERRAIN aural sounds 2 times and red
PULL UP words show on the attitude indicators. If the condition is not corrected after the
warning WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP warning sounds and red PULL UP warning shows on
the attitude indicator.
If barometric altitude decreases too much after take off or go around, the DON'T SINK aural
sounds and red PULL UP warning shows on the attitude indicator.
The TOO LOW TERRAIN aural sounds continuously when the airplane is below 1000 ft
radio altitude at high airspeeds. The red PULL UP words show on the attitude indicators.
At low airspeeds the TOO LOW GEAR aural sounds continuously if the airplane flies near
the terrain with the landing gear up. The red PULL UP words show on the attitude
When the landing gear are down but the flaps are not in a landing position, the red PULL
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UP words show on the attitude indicators and the TOO LOW FLAPS aural sounds
Below glideslope alert arms below 1000 ft radio altitude with the landing gear down. Flight
below an ILS glideslope causes continuous GLIDE SLOPE aural. At first the aural is at half
the sound but if the flight continues below the glide the alert becomes faster and louder.
Bank angle alert the crew of 35,40 and 45 deg of bank angle.
When the airplane is in windsheer condition a 2-tone siren followed by WIND SHEER
sounds. The red WINDSHEER words show on the attitude indicators. The windsheer alert
inhibits all other ground proximity alerts. The warning stays active until windsheer
conditions no longer exists.
For preflight the ground proximity INOP light should not be illuminated. Reason might be a
power failure or system malfunction because of invalid inputs are being received from
radio altimeter, ADIRU, ILS receiver, IRS, FMC, stall management computers, or EFIS
control panel. If the sys test switch is push the inop light and below glide slope light
illuminate and PULL UP and WIND SHEER alert is activated. If the switch is held for more
than 10 sec all alerts are activated. System test is inhibited from take off to 1000 ft radio
EGPWS compares the aircraft GPS position with the internal terrain data to show look
ahead terrain data on the navigation display.
The dotted color pattern becomes solid amber when the computer calculates that you will
hit the terrain within 40-60 sec. An amber TERRAIN alert shows on the navigation display
and a voice alert sounds.
A solid red shows terrain when the computer calculates that you will hit the terrain within
20-30 sec. PULL UP shows on the attitude indicator, a red TERRAIN shows on the ND and
voice alerts sound.
A terrain clearance floor is defined for airports with concrete runways for a three degree
glidepath. Up to 5 miles from the runway its less than 400 ft AGL, from 5 to 12 miles its at
400 ft AGL, from 12-15 nm from the runway its 400 to 700 ft AGL and beyond 15 nm its
above 700 ft AGL. Whenever the aircraft descends below this altitude with or without the
gear the aural alert sounds.
If the look ahead terrain is not selected by the terrain switch and a terrain alert happens.
The terrain is automatically displayed on the ND.
For the look ahead terrain alert test if pushed TERR FAIL and TERR TEST is shown on the
ND and also caution terrain with TERRAIN alert on the ND is displayed. Pull up and
windsheer alert also comes.
If TERR FAIL comes on that means the look ahead terrain part of the GPWS is not available,
rest all GPWS alerts are working.
If INOP light on the GPWS panel, all or some GPWS function will not be available.
The GPWS alerts are inhibited for 20 sec after take off and below 30 ft radio altitude for
64. TCAS A traffic advisory (TA) is generated when the other airplane is approximately 40
seconds from the point of closest approach. If the other airplane continues to close, a
resolution advisory (RA) is generated when the other airplane is approximately 25 seconds
from the point of closest approach. Proximate traffic is within six miles and 1200 feet
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vertically, but is not expected to cause a TA or RA alert. Other traffic is within 30 nm and
2700 ft vertically or with above and below switch install it can show traffic up to 7000 ft
vertically. TCAS has a maximum surveillance area that is 8700 ft above and below the
airplane. It has a range of 40 nm.
INCREASE DESCENT RAs are inhibited below approximately 1,500 feet radio altitude.
DESCEND RAs are inhibited below approximately 1,100 feet radio altitude.
RAs are inhibited below approximately 1,000 feet radio altitude. Below 1,000 feet when the
TA/RA mode is selected on the transponder panel, TA only mode is enabled automatically
and the TCAS message TA ONLY displays on the ND.
All TCAS alerts are inhibited by GPWS and windshear warnings.
Priority for alerts are Reactive windsheer, GPWS alerts, Predictive windsheer, TCAS.
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