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KC Review - Period 3

Period 3 (600 CE – 1450 CE)
Name: _____________________________________________________________________________ Period:_________________
Key Concept 3.1 Expanded Trade Networks and Diffusion
Explain the significance of NEW trading cities
Baghdad acted as an important crossroads for
trade routes (by land, river and sea). It served
as a lively hub for trade within the region, and
especially with neighbouring Islamic states
Hangzhou sent goods from the city and
surrounding area to points on the Silk Road
and to other, farther trade partners via
maritime trading networks across the Indian
Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route
Paper money is easier to transport, the use
of paper money also freed up metal that
Paper Money
could be put to other use.
Bills of
Merchants used bills of exchange to
purchase imported goods without the
hazards of carrying an expensive medium
of exchange.
an inn with a central courtyard for travelers in the desert regions of Asia or North Africa.
Explain the significance of the Grand Canal in promoting trade
it decreased the cost and time it took to trade between the north and south, letting farmers in the south sell their rice for previously
unheard of prices, and the same for the millet farmers of the south.
Identify key luxury goods traded along the Silk Road
Originating Location
Destination Location
India or Rome
Cause of Demand/Uses
Medical and spiritual uses
India or Rome
Explain the significance of NEW trading cities
trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route and as a centre of Islamic culture
Identify key luxury goods traded along the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
Originating Location
Destination Location
Cause of Demand/Uses
China or India
High in demand for gold
China or India
High in demand for cooking
Explain the significance of NEW trading cities
Within reach of the Byzantine Empire and
traders from the Near East, so it was a hub of
trade in the west
Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route
A merchant would place his wealth in the
safe keeping of a banking house which
Banking Houses would in turn issue a bill of credit that
could be used to purchase goods "imported
from outside the local economy.
Identify key luxury goods traded along the Mediterranean Sea
Originating Location
Destination Location
Cause of Demand/Uses
Byzantine Empire
Europe and Asia
In short supply
Byzantine Empire
Europe and Asia
People wanted to look fancy
Explain the significance of NEW trading cities
It was a leading trading center for spices on
the West Coast of India
Center of Kilwa Sultanate, stretched along the
entire length of Swahili Coast.
Port city in modern Southeast Malaysia,
founded as a trading center on the Strait of
Bills of
Produced textiles, silk, glass, paper, spread
irrigation products, bazaars
Like checks, can be drawn by individuals
or banks and are generally transferable
Identify key luxury goods traded along the Indian Ocean Maritime Routes
Originating Location
Destination Location
Cause of Demand/Uses
India, China, Southeast Asia
Scarce in Asian Countries
Identify the new navigational technology below
Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route
First check, buy now spend later mentality
India, China, Southeast Asia
Scarce in Asian Countries
Identify the new navigational technology below
Explain the significance of new communication and trade networks in the Americas
widely known for trading shell to make cups and beads, ideas were also traded
Mississippi River Valley
traded salt, cotton, slaves, feathers, flint, chert, obsidian, jade, shells, etc, Due to lack of wheeled cars
and animals, goods traveled to Maya by sea.
Large roads and used llamas, waterways, and bridges to trade. ///////
Identify how each group used environmental knowledge and technological innovations to trade over long distances
Vikings made their own trade routes and used river routes to find locations
Caravans and camels were used
often rode horses
Central Asian Nomads
Explain the significance of diasporic communities along important trade routes
created dhows and junks, which were huge cargo ships, which allowed the movement of
Muslim merchants in the
thousands of tons of cargo throughout the Indian Ocean.
Indian Ocean
used trade routes to safely spread beliefs and traditions, buddhism, Chinese bureaucracy,
confucianism, daoism, etc
Chinese merchants in
Southeast Asia
Jewish communities in the
Jewish people left Israel after destruction by Romans, came to the Mediterranean, and helped
others accept their religion.
Marco Polo
Explain the significance of each of the following travelers within Afro-Eurasia
Marco Polo traveled all over China and Asia to tell the Europeans about the wealth and lifestyles of the
people. also bringing back vital information about the silk road.
Ibn Battuta
Traveled and undertook excursions called the Rhila for almost thirty years, and went on a Hajj, or pilgrimage
to Mecca.
Monk who brought buddhism from India to China.
Approximate Date of Migration
About 1000 BCE
Originating Location
Western Africa (near modern day
Evidence of Migration
Languages spoken in sub-Equatorial Africa are remarkably
similar to each other.
Destination Location
Southern Africa
Impact of Migration
Depopulation, loss of culture especially as non-Bantu people
married with Bantu people, spread of the Bantu language, Bantu
people bringing agriculture to natives
Approximate Date of Migration
1600 BC
Originating Location
Bismarck Archipelago
Evidence of Migration
Canoes found, evidence in trees of change in the winds that
would push Polynesians to New Zealand
Destination Location
New Zealand
Impact of Migration
Spread of agriculture (taro, ti, kukui, ‘uala (sweet potato)) as the
Polynesians were farmers and influence on language.
Explain how new and expanding trade routes promoted the diffusion of crops and pathogens
Pathogens, including diseases like the bubonic plague, were spread through trade routes like the Silk
Bubonic Plague
Bananas in Africa
Bananas were an important supplement to the Bantu people and helped to allow more rapid expansion.
Champa rice in Asia
Champa rice is a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests, of sixty days each
in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from Vietnam, it was later sent to China as
a tribute gift from the Champa
Founder of Islam, believed to be the prophet and a messenger of God to preach monotheistic
Describe the key religious text
Sacred Islamic book believed to be the word
of God decreed through Muhammad
Traditions that is guidance/sayings from
Describe key Islamic sects
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination
of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah
wa'l-Jamā'h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah.
Shi'a Islam, also known as Shi'ite Islam or
Shi'ism, is the second largest branch of Islam
after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the
teachings of Muhammad and the religious
guidance of his family (who are referred to as
the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as
Shia Imams
Describe each of the key concepts/moral philosophies
2.Salah- prayer
3.Zakat- charity
4.Sawm- Fasting
5.Hajj- Pilgrimage
Five Pillars of
Islamic canonical law based on the teachings of
the Koran and the traditions of the Prophet
(Hadith and Sunna), prescribing both religious
and secular duties and sometimes retributive
penalties for lawbreaking.
Identify the religious building below
Explain how different faiths influenced the development of Islam
The fundamental similarity of Judaism and
Islam, both based on religious laws in principles,
methods, and legislation, caused parallel
developments in later centuries
Christian influences in Islam could be traced
back to the Eastern Christianity, which
surrounded the origins of Islam. Christians also
introduced the Muslims to Greek learning
Eastern Christians (particularly Nestorian
Christians) contributed to the Arab Islamic
Civilization during the Umayyad and the
Abbasid periods by translating works of Greek
philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic
The five daily prayers and also the ablutions are
very similar. It was shown that certain others
Islamic extra-Quranic and hadith-sanctioned
Muslim practices were also adopted from
Zoroastrianism, such as the prohibition of
walking with one shoe only, the tradition of
cleaning your teeth by sewak/miswak, the
opposition to considering the Friday to be a day
of the rest due to the Zoroastrian opposition to
the Judeo-Christian idea that God had to rest etc.
Explain the influence of military expansion on the spread of Islam
During the seventh century, after subduing rebellions in the Arabian peninsula, Arab Muslim armies began to swiftly conquer
territory in the neighboring Byzantine and Sasanian empires and beyond. Within roughly two decades, they created a massive Arab
Muslim empire spanning three continents. The Arab Muslim rulers were not purely motivated by religion, nor was their success
attributed to the power of Islam alone, though religion certainly played a part.
Explain the role of merchants in the spread of Islam
Merchants carried culture and religion around the world with them as they traded things. Because of their intimacy with the people,
they learned about them and spread it.
Key Concept 3.2 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
Corpus Juris Civilis
(Justinian’s Code)
Traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox
Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the
empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire.
The codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I
Explain key aspects of Byzantine governance
a system of government in which most of the
Leader of the Byzantine Empire
important decisions are made by state officials
rather than by elected representatives
Describe how the Byzantine Empire was a theocracy
Explain the significance of the Great Schism of 1054
Because it united church and state under an all-powerful
emperor believed by the Byzantines to be God's viceroy and
Event that precipitated the final separation between the Eastern
Christian churches and the Western church.
Explain the geographic significance of the city of Constantinople
Largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire (mostly as a result of its
strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea)
Explain how each of the following affected Byzantine economic power
Was widely believed to be a strain of the Bubonic Plague. The high mortality rate of the plague caused a
severe shortage of labor and placed a strain on the military and economy of the Byzantine empire.
Silk was one of the most important commodities for the empire. Used by the state both as a means of
payment and of diplomacy.
April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of
Fourth Crusade
Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
Explain why the Fall of Constantinople (1453) marks a
Identify the image below
turning point in world history (periodization)
Plague of
Hagia Sophia
the capture of the city made the Ottomans the most
important power in southeastern Europe and the
eastern Mediterranean and began a long period of
expansion for the Empire
It ended the Eastern Roman Empire
The Byzantine Empire suffered a slow decline as the
Ottoman Turks stepped up their attacks on Byzantine
cities and ports.
Explain the political impact of the Grand Canal on China
It allows for the transportation of goods and also allows trade to taken to higher degree. It allows the people to feed the armies rice.
Wu Zetian
"Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and
officially as empress regnant during the brief Zhou dynasty which interrupted the Tang dynasty.
Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh
century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang
Explain key aspects of Tang governance
Was a program under the Tang dynasty that
Were a civil service examination system in
governed the distribution of land to people. ...
Imperial China to select candidates for the
Equal Field The equal field system was important because it
state bureaucracy.
prevented the concentration of land in wealthy
families and promoted stability in the Tang
They were mostly Taoists but they were for the
They created the census of 609. It was mostly
most part adaptable to the other religions
for tax purposes and also to see how many
sparking with buddhism and ancient chinese
abled bodied men they had at the ready in each
Folk Religions and practices.
Explain the role of women in Tang China
This was like the golden age for women of the time. They got away from foot binding, widow suicide and widow chastising. they
began to have roles in politics and in society their position has been heightened.
Explain the role of each religion in Tang China
is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices
largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha
("the awakened one").
a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu ( fl. 6th century BC), advocating humility and religious
the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of
Identify key technological and scientific innovations during the Tang Dynasty
the branch of science and technology
concerned with the design, building, and use
of engines, machines, and structures.
the science or practice of the diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of disease
the branch of science and technology
concerned with the properties of metals and
their production and purification.
Woodblock printing is a technique for
printing text, images or patterns used widely
throughout East Asia and originating in
China in antiquity as a method of printing
on textiles and later paper
Explain the significance of the An Lushan Rebellion
An Lushan Rebellion. The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. ... The rebellion
and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and
led to the loss of the Western Regions
a movement in religious philosophy derived from Confucianism in China around AD 1000 in response to
the ideas of Taoism and Buddhism.
Explain the role of gentry class in Song China
Different classes of people. Confucian or Legalist scholars in ancient China—perhaps as far back as the late Zhou dynasty (c.
1046–256 BC)—categorized all socio-economic groups into four broad and hierarchical occupations
Explain the role of joint-stock companies in Song China
sustained growth in per capita income and population,
structural change in the economy, and increased pace of
technological innovation.
Movable Type
Explain the significance of paper money in Song China
an offshoot invention of block printing.
Explain key technological and scientific innovations during the Song Dynasty
a fine green China tea of granular
an instrument containing a magnetized
pointer that shows the direction of
magnetic north and bearings from it.
an explosive consisting of a powdered
mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal.
The earliest known propellant explosive,
gunpowder has now largely been
superseded by high explosives, although it
is still used for quarry blasting and in fuses
and fireworks.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of
Printing by typing
iron and its alloys. It began far back in
prehistory. The earliest surviving iron
artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in
Egypt, were made from meteoritic ironnickel.
Abbasid Caliphate
Umayyad dynasty, also spelled Omayyad, the first great Muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the caliphate
(661–750 ce), sometimes referred to as the Arab kingdom (reflecting traditional Muslim disapproval of the
secular nature of the Umayyad state).
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia,
today's Portugal and Spain.
Explain key aspects of Islamic Caliphate governance
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler,
regarded as the successor of Muhammad.
Dhimmi communities. Jews and Christians
living under early Muslim rule were
considered dhimmis, a status that was later
also extended to other non-Muslims like
Dar al-Islam
The whole community of Muslims bound
together by ties of religion.
Is a term used by Muslim scholars to refer to
those countries where Muslims can practice
their religion as the ruling sect.
Explain the role of women during the Abbasid Caliphate
Women not only lost authority under the Abbasids; they also lost control over their bodies. women in this period lost the right to
refuse or consent to marriage. Adult women were increasingly seen as commodities. practice of keeping women out of public life,
cloistering them and restricting their movements.
Explain why the Abbasid Caliphate is considered the Golden Age of Islam
The Abbasid Dynasty overthrew the preceding Umayyad Dynasty, which was based in Damascus, Syria. The Umayyads had
become increasingly unpopular, especially in the eastern territories of the caliphate.
Identify the cultural, scientific, and/or technological achievements of Islamic scholars
al-Khwarizmi, used new ideas to write math textbook on al-jabr, or "algebra"
contributing heavily to geometry (thirty-two books), medicine and philosophy (twenty-two books each), logic
(nine books), and physics (twelve books).
the father of early modern medicine.
Explain how the Crusades affected technological and cultural transfers
Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural
transfers.Including between Tang China and the Abbasids , transfers during the crusades , and transfers during chinese maritime
activity led by Ming Admiral Zheng He.
Identify the image below
Explain why the Siege of Baghdad (1253) marks a turning
point in world history (periodization)
in January 1258, a vast Mongol army reached the city’s
perimeter and demanded that the caliph al-Musta'sim—the
nominal spiritual authority of the Islamic world—surrender.
Genghis Khan
was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in
history after his death.
Kublai Khan
was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan
dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
Yuan China
was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin
clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty
Explain key aspects of Mongol society
was a secret written code of law created by
Genghis Khan. The word Yassa translates into
"order" or "decree". It was the de facto law of
the Mongol Empire even though the "law" was
kept secret and never made public. The Yassa
seems to have its origin as decrees issued in
war times. Later, these decrees were codified
and expanded to include cultural and life-style
conventions. By keeping the Yassa secret, the
decrees could be modified and used
The governance of this huge area would not
have been possible without the Mongols'
policy of religious tolerance. ... Kublai Khan
practiced Buddhism, but allowed all peoples
he ruled to practice their own religion.
Religious tolerance is one of the positive
legacies of the Mongol Empire, which was
rare then as it is today.
Kievan Rus
was a supply point route messenger system
employed and extensively used and expanded
by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent
Great Khans and Khans.
Role of
The society was patriarchal and patrilineal.
However, Mongol women had far more
freedom and power than women in other
patriarchal cultures such as Persia and China.
... Children of the Mongols did not attend a
school; rather they learned from their families
the roles and work of men and women.
Explain the impact of the Mongol Empire on Eurasia
The mongols are a very tolerant people so naturally the islamic culture bled into the lives of the mongols and
they islamic, became very close trading partners, during the peak of the mongol empire.
When the Mongol empire came to China they didn’t overly change there way of life. They allowed them to keep
their religions and some political roles and they prospered, by the reinstitution of the Silk Road.
though the Mongol rule did unite the many of the fighting city states, they ultimately inhibited the advancement
of russia. they struggled economically and and politically and the mongols had a harsh rule over the people with
little tolerance.
Define feudalism
Define serfdom
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in
exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or
serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce,
notionally in exchange for military protection
the state of being a serf or feudal laborer
In the diagram below, compare and contrast feudalism AND serfdom in European and Japanese societies
Long Distance Trade
Human Sacrifice
Role of Women
Explain key aspects of Mayan society
Mayan societies were mostly self sustaining. However, as the Maya began building their great
cities, only trade would have brought them the essential goods they needed, such as salt and
obsidian. They had to main trade items substaniance items and luxury items.
During the pre-Columbian era, human sacrifice in Maya culture was the ritual offering of
nourishment to the gods. Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities,
and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering.
Ancient Maya women had an important role in society: beyond propagating the culture through
the bearing and raising of children, Maya women participated in economic, governmental and
farming activities.
Explain the significance of the Mayan calendar system
They were not the ones that invented the calendar though they did help contribute a lot to its improvement. It was greatly used for
timing of religious and ceremonial events.
Explain the significance of the Popol Vuh
Identify the image below
Temple of Kukulkan (Chichen Itza)
Angered over the flaws in his creation, they destroyed
them by tearing them apart. In their final attempt, the
"True People" were constructed with maize. ... The arms
and legs of the four men were made of corn meal. Today
the Popol Vuh continues to be an important part in the
belief system of many Quiche
Triple Alliance
Flower Wars
A pact political and military among three city-states which was the beginning of the Aztec empire
Aztec sun and war god. Deity of war, sun, human, sacrifice, and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan, often
represented in art as either a hummingbird or an eagle
A ritual war to keep their god, Huitzilopochtli appeased. They were fights simply to fight.
Explain the role of tributes in the Aztec imperial system
so they left the conquered people mostly to their own devices. they just had to pay little tributes to the empire proving their loyalty
and helping their society to continue to thrive.
Explain the importance of human sacrifice in the Aztec Empire
The Aztecs believed that they owed everything to their gods who created themselves as well as the world around them. They would
“feed and nourish”their gods for a good crop or weather. They also believed that it would keep the world balanced and going
forward including allowing the sun to rise and the move across the sky. Without it, their world would end.
Mit’a Labor
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki was the ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco which
he transformed into the Inca Empire. Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu
Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.
Explain key aspects of Inca society
Every year, a government official would
inspect the ten-year-old girls in the town,
Mandatory public service to society in the
conscripting those who were extremely goodEmpire and eventually grew to be known as
looking. these girls were then educated in the
the encomienda system when put under the
capital, under full guard. The best looking of
spanish colonial government
the girls were set aside for sacrifice, while
others learned trades, like spinning, cooking,
Role of
or brewing. At the end of four years, these
girls would be reassigned as concubines of the
ruler, as wives of men the ruler wanted to
honor, or as permanent residents of the
acllahuasi. Apparently, upper class women
were more often given the administrative
positions in the acllahuasi, while lower class
women handled the labor.
The language of the Inca Empire
bodies were buried with clothing food and
Reincarnation other items so that they would be prepared for
their next life.
Explain the significance of the Inca Road System
A royal highway that facilitated movement for trade, armies, people, and goods. This particular road system also symbolized
imperial control that was a network of connection various settlements.
Identify the image below
Quipu - used to keep up with records.
Identify the image below
Peru Machu Picchu
Key Concept 3.3 Economic Productivity and Consequences
Waru Waru
Horse Collar
Three Field System
Identify key facets of agricultural innovations during the time period
Description of Method
rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds
in the Valley of Mexico
raised beds and irrigation to prevent soil erosion from doing damage during
Cambodia to bolivia
used to distribute the load around a horse's neck and shoulders when pulling a
wagon or plough.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in
Little Ice Age
the same area in sequential seasons. The three field system let farmers plant
more crops and therefore increase production.
Explain an example of how each factor led to urban decline
If everyone was all together it was easier for them to be found and killed
No medicine. Spread Quickly.
agriculture was unreliable and so was the weather so they couldn’t feed everyone.
Explain an example of how each factor led to urban renewal
End of Invasions
Safe and Reliable
Global Warming
(800 CE-1300CE)
Population Increases
Cities could now focus more on their own advances and not defending themselves and going to war.
More resources were used for things other than military supplies and high walls.
Safe and reliable transportation guarantees that goods will successfully be transported from one place
to another, making trade more popular. More people also want to move somewhere with safe
Crops could now be harvested thanks to warmer temperatures. This caused a surplus of food.
Increase in labor, productivity, trade. More work to rebuild towns, buildings, and rise of new
inventions and technology.
Explain each type of diversified labor organization
Free Peasant Labor
Nomadic Pastoralism
Craft Production
West Africa
Southeast Asia
a type of peasant agriculture where
free peasants can sell whatever they
grow, but were not protected by
land owners.
Pastoralism in which livestock are
herded in order to find fresh
pastures on which to graze. These
people followed irregular patterns
of movement.
the process of manufacturing by
hand with or without tools to help.
commonly referred to pottery
Guild Organization
its said that every able-bodied man
should be willing to submit
themselves to whatever the
government needs soldier wise in
order to protect those who are
A group of Artisans and such who
oversee their specific practice/
Coerced Labor
labor or work that is gained through
force or threat
Military Obligations
Identify non-patriarchal roles of women in the societies listed
They played significant roles in their societies’ religious, political, social, and economic processes;
exhibiting control over key aspects therein. Indeed, West African women and the spiritual female
principle, during the long precolonial period, had the power and right to give orders, make decisions,
and enforce obedience; in short, they had authority.
records dating back to the first century reveal that women were not only allowed to rule, but also
encouraged to rule due to a confidence in women to bring peace and regulation to the country
In some areas women were recruited as cheap wage labor on plantations (tea, sugar, tobacco, rubber)
and in processing factories At the village level colonial regimes strengthened the male position as head
of the household and “reformed” customary laws that had given women considerable autonomy.
Explain key examples of free peasant revolts in the regions listed
Byzantine Empire
The Albanians under Peter Bua rose in revolt against the two brothers, Thomas and Demetrius II, due
to the chronic insecurity and tribute payment to the Turks.
The Sui Dynasty - created high taxes and mandatory labor which caused the revolt
Mongol Rule - Natural disaster kept occuring and taxes kept going which made people revolt
Explain the impact of post-classical diffusion of religion on gender relations and family structure
helped to get rid of the confucianism views and treatment of women. They set up a new family order.
Buddhism taught women that they had souls that could be used to reach nirvana
Neo Confucianism
Women and children were supposed to follow under the husbands rule. over time women would gain
more rights and independence. Though they still are to follow the husband. Think republican
motherhood. Most of the political roles are held males, religious too.
Upper class women had less rights than lower class women. according to the QURAN women could
own property and possessions. They were treated with respect and could inherit property.
Women and children were significantly lesser beings then the men were. Women were also held at a
higher standard to not just answer to her parents, like the males were, but to respect and answer to her
husband and his parents and any male relative on either side of the family.
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