Period 3 (600 CE – 1450 CE) Name: _____________________________________________________________________________ Period:_________________ Key Concept 3.1 Expanded Trade Networks and Diffusion SILK ROAD Explain the significance of NEW trading cities Baghdad acted as an important crossroads for trade routes (by land, river and sea). It served Baghdad as a lively hub for trade within the region, and especially with neighbouring Islamic states Hangzhou sent goods from the city and surrounding area to points on the Silk Road and to other, farther trade partners via Hangzhou maritime trading networks across the Indian Ocean Define Caravanserai Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route Paper money is easier to transport, the use of paper money also freed up metal that Paper Money could be put to other use. Bills of Exchange Merchants used bills of exchange to purchase imported goods without the hazards of carrying an expensive medium of exchange. an inn with a central courtyard for travelers in the desert regions of Asia or North Africa. Explain the significance of the Grand Canal in promoting trade it decreased the cost and time it took to trade between the north and south, letting farmers in the south sell their rice for previously unheard of prices, and the same for the millet farmers of the south. Teas Identify key luxury goods traded along the Silk Road Originating Location Destination Location China India or Rome Cause of Demand/Uses Medical and spiritual uses Spices China Cooking Good India or Rome TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE ROUTES Explain the significance of NEW trading cities trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route and as a centre of Islamic culture Timbuktu Good Gold Salt Identify key luxury goods traded along the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes Originating Location Destination Location Cause of Demand/Uses Africa China or India High in demand for gold products Africa China or India High in demand for cooking MEDITERRANEAN SEA ROUTES Explain the significance of NEW trading cities Within reach of the Byzantine Empire and traders from the Near East, so it was a hub of trade in the west Venice Good Glassware Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route A merchant would place his wealth in the safe keeping of a banking house which Banking Houses would in turn issue a bill of credit that could be used to purchase goods "imported from outside the local economy. Identify key luxury goods traded along the Mediterranean Sea Originating Location Destination Location Cause of Demand/Uses Byzantine Empire Europe and Asia In short supply Jewelry Byzantine Empire Europe and Asia People wanted to look fancy INDIAN OCEAN MARITIME ROUTES Explain the significance of NEW trading cities It was a leading trading center for spices on the West Coast of India Calicut Center of Kilwa Sultanate, stretched along the entire length of Swahili Coast. Kilwa Port city in modern Southeast Malaysia, founded as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca Melaka/ Malacca Good Gold Ivory Mufawadah Bills of Exchange (cha/chap) Produced textiles, silk, glass, paper, spread irrigation products, bazaars Like checks, can be drawn by individuals or banks and are generally transferable Identify key luxury goods traded along the Indian Ocean Maritime Routes Originating Location Destination Location Cause of Demand/Uses Zimbabwe India, China, Southeast Asia Scarce in Asian Countries Zimbabwe Identify the new navigational technology below compass Explain the role of each money economy on this trade route First check, buy now spend later mentality Cheque/Sakk India, China, Southeast Asia Scarce in Asian Countries Identify the new navigational technology below sailboat Explain the significance of new communication and trade networks in the Americas widely known for trading shell to make cups and beads, ideas were also traded Mississippi River Valley Mesoamerica Andes traded salt, cotton, slaves, feathers, flint, chert, obsidian, jade, shells, etc, Due to lack of wheeled cars and animals, goods traveled to Maya by sea. Large roads and used llamas, waterways, and bridges to trade. /////// Identify how each group used environmental knowledge and technological innovations to trade over long distances Vikings Vikings made their own trade routes and used river routes to find locations Berbers/Arabs Caravans and camels were used often rode horses Central Asian Nomads Explain the significance of diasporic communities along important trade routes created dhows and junks, which were huge cargo ships, which allowed the movement of Muslim merchants in the thousands of tons of cargo throughout the Indian Ocean. Indian Ocean used trade routes to safely spread beliefs and traditions, buddhism, Chinese bureaucracy, confucianism, daoism, etc Chinese merchants in Southeast Asia Jewish communities in the Mediterranean Jewish people left Israel after destruction by Romans, came to the Mediterranean, and helped others accept their religion. Marco Polo Explain the significance of each of the following travelers within Afro-Eurasia Marco Polo traveled all over China and Asia to tell the Europeans about the wealth and lifestyles of the people. also bringing back vital information about the silk road. Ibn Battuta Traveled and undertook excursions called the Rhila for almost thirty years, and went on a Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. Xuanzang Monk who brought buddhism from India to China. BANTU MIGRATION Approximate Date of Migration About 1000 BCE Originating Location Western Africa (near modern day Nigeria) Evidence of Migration Languages spoken in sub-Equatorial Africa are remarkably similar to each other. Destination Location Southern Africa Impact of Migration Depopulation, loss of culture especially as non-Bantu people married with Bantu people, spread of the Bantu language, Bantu people bringing agriculture to natives POLYNESIAN MIGRATION Approximate Date of Migration 1600 BC Originating Location Bismarck Archipelago Evidence of Migration Canoes found, evidence in trees of change in the winds that would push Polynesians to New Zealand Destination Location New Zealand Impact of Migration Spread of agriculture (taro, ti, kukui, ‘uala (sweet potato)) as the Polynesians were farmers and influence on language. Explain how new and expanding trade routes promoted the diffusion of crops and pathogens Pathogens, including diseases like the bubonic plague, were spread through trade routes like the Silk Road. Bubonic Plague Bananas in Africa Bananas were an important supplement to the Bantu people and helped to allow more rapid expansion. Champa rice in Asia Champa rice is a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests, of sixty days each in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from Vietnam, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift from the Champa Islam Define Muhammad Founder of Islam, believed to be the prophet and a messenger of God to preach monotheistic teachings Quran Describe the key religious text Sacred Islamic book believed to be the word of God decreed through Muhammad Hadith Traditions that is guidance/sayings from Muhammad Sunni Shia/Shiite Describe key Islamic sects Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l-Jamā'h or simply as Ahl as-Sunnah. Shi'a Islam, also known as Shi'ite Islam or Shi'ism, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shia Imams Describe each of the key concepts/moral philosophies 1.Shahada 2.Salah- prayer 3.Zakat- charity 4.Sawm- Fasting 5.Hajj- Pilgrimage Five Pillars of Islam Sharia Islamic canonical law based on the teachings of the Koran and the traditions of the Prophet (Hadith and Sunna), prescribing both religious and secular duties and sometimes retributive penalties for lawbreaking. Sufi Identify the religious building below Explain how different faiths influenced the development of Islam The fundamental similarity of Judaism and Islam, both based on religious laws in principles, Judaism methods, and legislation, caused parallel developments in later centuries Mosque Christianity Zoroastrianism Christian influences in Islam could be traced back to the Eastern Christianity, which surrounded the origins of Islam. Christians also introduced the Muslims to Greek learning Eastern Christians (particularly Nestorian Christians) contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Umayyad and the Abbasid periods by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic The five daily prayers and also the ablutions are very similar. It was shown that certain others Islamic extra-Quranic and hadith-sanctioned Muslim practices were also adopted from Zoroastrianism, such as the prohibition of walking with one shoe only, the tradition of cleaning your teeth by sewak/miswak, the opposition to considering the Friday to be a day of the rest due to the Zoroastrian opposition to the Judeo-Christian idea that God had to rest etc. Explain the influence of military expansion on the spread of Islam During the seventh century, after subduing rebellions in the Arabian peninsula, Arab Muslim armies began to swiftly conquer territory in the neighboring Byzantine and Sasanian empires and beyond. Within roughly two decades, they created a massive Arab Muslim empire spanning three continents. The Arab Muslim rulers were not purely motivated by religion, nor was their success attributed to the power of Islam alone, though religion certainly played a part. Explain the role of merchants in the spread of Islam Merchants carried culture and religion around the world with them as they traded things. Because of their intimacy with the people, they learned about them and spread it. Key Concept 3.2 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions BYZANTINE EMPIRE Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian’s Code) Traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. The codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I Explain key aspects of Byzantine governance a system of government in which most of the Leader of the Byzantine Empire important decisions are made by state officials Emperor Bureaucracy rather than by elected representatives Describe how the Byzantine Empire was a theocracy Explain the significance of the Great Schism of 1054 Because it united church and state under an all-powerful emperor believed by the Byzantines to be God's viceroy and vicar. Event that precipitated the final separation between the Eastern Christian churches and the Western church. Explain the geographic significance of the city of Constantinople Largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire (mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea) Explain how each of the following affected Byzantine economic power Was widely believed to be a strain of the Bubonic Plague. The high mortality rate of the plague caused a severe shortage of labor and placed a strain on the military and economy of the Byzantine empire. Silk was one of the most important commodities for the empire. Used by the state both as a means of Silk payment and of diplomacy. April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Fourth Crusade Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire). (1204) Explain why the Fall of Constantinople (1453) marks a Identify the image below turning point in world history (periodization) Plague of Justinian Hagia Sophia ● ● ● the capture of the city made the Ottomans the most important power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean and began a long period of expansion for the Empire It ended the Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire suffered a slow decline as the Ottoman Turks stepped up their attacks on Byzantine cities and ports. SUI CHINA Explain the political impact of the Grand Canal on China It allows for the transportation of goods and also allows trade to taken to higher degree. It allows the people to feed the armies rice. TANG CHINA Wu Zetian Xuanzong Imperial Examinations Census "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and officially as empress regnant during the brief Zhou dynasty which interrupted the Tang dynasty. Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty Explain key aspects of Tang governance Was a program under the Tang dynasty that Were a civil service examination system in governed the distribution of land to people. ... Imperial China to select candidates for the Equal Field The equal field system was important because it state bureaucracy. prevented the concentration of land in wealthy System families and promoted stability in the Tang dynasty. They were mostly Taoists but they were for the They created the census of 609. It was mostly most part adaptable to the other religions for tax purposes and also to see how many sparking with buddhism and ancient chinese Religion abled bodied men they had at the ready in each Folk Religions and practices. region Explain the role of women in Tang China This was like the golden age for women of the time. They got away from foot binding, widow suicide and widow chastising. they began to have roles in politics and in society their position has been heightened. Explain the role of each religion in Tang China Buddhism Daoism Islam is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one"). a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu ( fl. 6th century BC), advocating humility and religious piety. the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah. Identify key technological and scientific innovations during the Tang Dynasty Engineering the branch of science and technology concerned with the design, building, and use of engines, machines, and structures. the science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease Medicine the branch of science and technology concerned with the properties of metals and their production and purification. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely Woodblock Metallurgy throughout East Asia and originating in Printing China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper Explain the significance of the An Lushan Rebellion An Lushan Rebellion. The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. ... The rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and led to the loss of the Western Regions SONG CHINA Neo-Confucianism a movement in religious philosophy derived from Confucianism in China around AD 1000 in response to the ideas of Taoism and Buddhism. Explain the role of gentry class in Song China Different classes of people. Confucian or Legalist scholars in ancient China—perhaps as far back as the late Zhou dynasty (c. 1046–256 BC)—categorized all socio-economic groups into four broad and hierarchical occupations Explain the role of joint-stock companies in Song China sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation. Magnetic Compass Movable Type Printing Explain the significance of paper money in Song China an offshoot invention of block printing. Explain key technological and scientific innovations during the Song Dynasty a fine green China tea of granular appearance. an instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of magnetic north and bearings from it. an explosive consisting of a powdered Gunpowder mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal. The earliest known propellant explosive, gunpowder has now largely been superseded by high explosives, although it is still used for quarry blasting and in fuses and fireworks. Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of Printing by typing iron and its alloys. It began far back in Iron prehistory. The earliest surviving iron Metallurgy artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic ironnickel. ISLAMIC CALIPHATES Umayyad Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Umayyad dynasty, also spelled Omayyad, the first great Muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the caliphate (661–750 ce), sometimes referred to as the Arab kingdom (reflecting traditional Muslim disapproval of the secular nature of the Umayyad state). The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Al-Andalus Was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. Explain key aspects of Islamic Caliphate governance Caliph The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. Dhimmi Dhimmi communities. Jews and Christians living under early Muslim rule were considered dhimmis, a status that was later also extended to other non-Muslims like Hindus. Umma Dar al-Islam The whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion. Is a term used by Muslim scholars to refer to those countries where Muslims can practice their religion as the ruling sect. Explain the role of women during the Abbasid Caliphate Women not only lost authority under the Abbasids; they also lost control over their bodies. women in this period lost the right to refuse or consent to marriage. Adult women were increasingly seen as commodities. practice of keeping women out of public life, cloistering them and restricting their movements. Explain why the Abbasid Caliphate is considered the Golden Age of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty overthrew the preceding Umayyad Dynasty, which was based in Damascus, Syria. The Umayyads had become increasingly unpopular, especially in the eastern territories of the caliphate. al-Khwarizmi al-Kindi Avicenna Identify the cultural, scientific, and/or technological achievements of Islamic scholars al-Khwarizmi, used new ideas to write math textbook on al-jabr, or "algebra" contributing heavily to geometry (thirty-two books), medicine and philosophy (twenty-two books each), logic (nine books), and physics (twelve books). the father of early modern medicine. Explain how the Crusades affected technological and cultural transfers Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.Including between Tang China and the Abbasids , transfers during the crusades , and transfers during chinese maritime activity led by Ming Admiral Zheng He. Identify the image below Explain why the Siege of Baghdad (1253) marks a turning point in world history (periodization) Mosque in January 1258, a vast Mongol army reached the city’s perimeter and demanded that the caliph al-Musta'sim—the nominal spiritual authority of the Islamic world—surrender. MONGOL EMPIRE Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. Kublai Khan was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294. Yuan China was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty Explain key aspects of Mongol society was a secret written code of law created by Genghis Khan. The word Yassa translates into "order" or "decree". It was the de facto law of the Mongol Empire even though the "law" was kept secret and never made public. The Yassa seems to have its origin as decrees issued in war times. Later, these decrees were codified and expanded to include cultural and life-style conventions. By keeping the Yassa secret, the decrees could be modified and used selectively. Yassa The governance of this huge area would not have been possible without the Mongols' policy of religious tolerance. ... Kublai Khan practiced Buddhism, but allowed all peoples he ruled to practice their own religion. Religious tolerance is one of the positive legacies of the Mongol Empire, which was rare then as it is today. Religious Tolerance Islamic World China Kievan Rus (Russia was a supply point route messenger system employed and extensively used and expanded by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent Great Khans and Khans. Yam (route) Role of Women The society was patriarchal and patrilineal. However, Mongol women had far more freedom and power than women in other patriarchal cultures such as Persia and China. ... Children of the Mongols did not attend a school; rather they learned from their families the roles and work of men and women. Explain the impact of the Mongol Empire on Eurasia The mongols are a very tolerant people so naturally the islamic culture bled into the lives of the mongols and they islamic, became very close trading partners, during the peak of the mongol empire. When the Mongol empire came to China they didn’t overly change there way of life. They allowed them to keep their religions and some political roles and they prospered, by the reinstitution of the Silk Road. though the Mongol rule did unite the many of the fighting city states, they ultimately inhibited the advancement of russia. they struggled economically and and politically and the mongols had a harsh rule over the people with little tolerance. Define feudalism Define serfdom the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection the state of being a serf or feudal laborer In the diagram below, compare and contrast feudalism AND serfdom in European and Japanese societies EUROPE JAPAN MAYA CIVILIZATION Long Distance Trade Human Sacrifice Role of Women Explain key aspects of Mayan society Mayan societies were mostly self sustaining. However, as the Maya began building their great cities, only trade would have brought them the essential goods they needed, such as salt and obsidian. They had to main trade items substaniance items and luxury items. During the pre-Columbian era, human sacrifice in Maya culture was the ritual offering of nourishment to the gods. Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering. Ancient Maya women had an important role in society: beyond propagating the culture through the bearing and raising of children, Maya women participated in economic, governmental and farming activities. Explain the significance of the Mayan calendar system They were not the ones that invented the calendar though they did help contribute a lot to its improvement. It was greatly used for timing of religious and ceremonial events. Explain the significance of the Popol Vuh Identify the image below Temple of Kukulkan (Chichen Itza) Angered over the flaws in his creation, they destroyed them by tearing them apart. In their final attempt, the "True People" were constructed with maize. ... The arms and legs of the four men were made of corn meal. Today the Popol Vuh continues to be an important part in the belief system of many Quiche AZTEC EMPIRE Triple Alliance Huitzilopochtli Flower Wars A pact political and military among three city-states which was the beginning of the Aztec empire Aztec sun and war god. Deity of war, sun, human, sacrifice, and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan, often represented in art as either a hummingbird or an eagle A ritual war to keep their god, Huitzilopochtli appeased. They were fights simply to fight. Explain the role of tributes in the Aztec imperial system so they left the conquered people mostly to their own devices. they just had to pay little tributes to the empire proving their loyalty and helping their society to continue to thrive. Explain the importance of human sacrifice in the Aztec Empire The Aztecs believed that they owed everything to their gods who created themselves as well as the world around them. They would “feed and nourish”their gods for a good crop or weather. They also believed that it would keep the world balanced and going forward including allowing the sun to rise and the move across the sky. Without it, their world would end. INCA EMPIRE Pachacuti Mit’a Labor Quechua Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki was the ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire. Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti. Explain key aspects of Inca society Every year, a government official would inspect the ten-year-old girls in the town, Mandatory public service to society in the conscripting those who were extremely goodEmpire and eventually grew to be known as looking. these girls were then educated in the the encomienda system when put under the capital, under full guard. The best looking of spanish colonial government the girls were set aside for sacrifice, while others learned trades, like spinning, cooking, Role of or brewing. At the end of four years, these Women girls would be reassigned as concubines of the ruler, as wives of men the ruler wanted to honor, or as permanent residents of the acllahuasi. Apparently, upper class women were more often given the administrative positions in the acllahuasi, while lower class women handled the labor. The language of the Inca Empire bodies were buried with clothing food and Reincarnation other items so that they would be prepared for their next life. Explain the significance of the Inca Road System A royal highway that facilitated movement for trade, armies, people, and goods. This particular road system also symbolized imperial control that was a network of connection various settlements. Identify the image below Quipu - used to keep up with records. Identify the image below Peru Machu Picchu Key Concept 3.3 Economic Productivity and Consequences Innovation Chinampas Waru Waru Horse Collar Three Field System Identify key facets of agricultural innovations during the time period Location Description of Method rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds Mexico in the Valley of Mexico South raised beds and irrigation to prevent soil erosion from doing damage during Cambodia to bolivia floods. used to distribute the load around a horse's neck and shoulders when pulling a Chaldea wagon or plough. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in Europe Invasion Disease Little Ice Age the same area in sequential seasons. The three field system let farmers plant more crops and therefore increase production. Explain an example of how each factor led to urban decline If everyone was all together it was easier for them to be found and killed No medicine. Spread Quickly. agriculture was unreliable and so was the weather so they couldn’t feed everyone. Explain an example of how each factor led to urban renewal End of Invasions Safe and Reliable Transportation Global Warming Trends (800 CE-1300CE) Population Increases Cities could now focus more on their own advances and not defending themselves and going to war. More resources were used for things other than military supplies and high walls. Safe and reliable transportation guarantees that goods will successfully be transported from one place to another, making trade more popular. More people also want to move somewhere with safe transportation. Crops could now be harvested thanks to warmer temperatures. This caused a surplus of food. Increase in labor, productivity, trade. More work to rebuild towns, buildings, and rise of new inventions and technology. Explain each type of diversified labor organization Free Peasant Labor Nomadic Pastoralism Craft Production West Africa Japan Southeast Asia a type of peasant agriculture where free peasants can sell whatever they grow, but were not protected by land owners. Pastoralism in which livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze. These people followed irregular patterns of movement. the process of manufacturing by hand with or without tools to help. commonly referred to pottery Guild Organization its said that every able-bodied man should be willing to submit themselves to whatever the government needs soldier wise in order to protect those who are unable. A group of Artisans and such who oversee their specific practice/ craft/trade. Coerced Labor labor or work that is gained through force or threat Military Obligations Identify non-patriarchal roles of women in the societies listed They played significant roles in their societies’ religious, political, social, and economic processes; exhibiting control over key aspects therein. Indeed, West African women and the spiritual female principle, during the long precolonial period, had the power and right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience; in short, they had authority. records dating back to the first century reveal that women were not only allowed to rule, but also encouraged to rule due to a confidence in women to bring peace and regulation to the country In some areas women were recruited as cheap wage labor on plantations (tea, sugar, tobacco, rubber) and in processing factories At the village level colonial regimes strengthened the male position as head of the household and “reformed” customary laws that had given women considerable autonomy. Explain key examples of free peasant revolts in the regions listed Byzantine Empire China The Albanians under Peter Bua rose in revolt against the two brothers, Thomas and Demetrius II, due to the chronic insecurity and tribute payment to the Turks. The Sui Dynasty - created high taxes and mandatory labor which caused the revolt Mongol Rule - Natural disaster kept occuring and taxes kept going which made people revolt Explain the impact of post-classical diffusion of religion on gender relations and family structure helped to get rid of the confucianism views and treatment of women. They set up a new family order. Buddhism taught women that they had souls that could be used to reach nirvana Buddhism Christianity Islam Neo Confucianism Women and children were supposed to follow under the husbands rule. over time women would gain more rights and independence. Though they still are to follow the husband. Think republican motherhood. Most of the political roles are held males, religious too. Upper class women had less rights than lower class women. according to the QURAN women could own property and possessions. They were treated with respect and could inherit property. Women and children were significantly lesser beings then the men were. Women were also held at a higher standard to not just answer to her parents, like the males were, but to respect and answer to her husband and his parents and any male relative on either side of the family.