Uploaded by Priyadarshini Dey

EDuction for all

1. Introduction:
Education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable means of realizing other human rights. As
proclaimed in article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to education is an
inalienable human right of every child – boys and girls alike.
(Right to Education and Equality of Educational Opportunities Kishore Singh United Nations Special
Rapporteur on the Right to Education)
The chapter tries to capture the essence of education as a right based approach and its evolution into an
inclusive model that used technology tool to implement education for all in a larger purview
2. Global trends in education before 1950s :
The historical stance of education has always been more teacher centric in nature , the global enrollment
trends in the 20th century.
3. Understanding evolution of education as a right based approach:
In the second half of the 20th century, the proportion of children worldwide enrolled at all levels (from
primary through tertiary) increased from less than half to approximately two-thirds of the relevant agegroups.
Much of this enrollment growth was a product of political change. Most countries in a postcolonial phase
expand their education systems, largely because it is something governments can do at a reasonable cost
with significant effect. With the opening of schools to many who were once denied education under
semifeudal, colonial, or totalitarian systems, it has not been uncommon to find large numbers of overage
students enrolled. First-grade classes might have an age range from 6 to 11. Overall, primary-school
enrollments more than tripled in the last half of the 20th century, from slightly more than 200 million to
some 670 million; secondary education increased more than nine-fold, from more than 40 million to nearly
400 million; and tertiary education increased more than 12-fold, from about 7 million to nearly 90 million.
Higher levels of enrollment are usually sustained, in part, because “credentialing”—the attainment of
degrees or certificates of achievement—has become a social necessity. Employers tend to seek highly
schooled individuals while depending on the education system to prepare and distinguish job candidates.
In addition, enrollments have been known to gain momentum through the “queuing” effect; that is, when
people line up to participate in something, others soon join the crowd in the belief that something of value
will be obtained. (https://www.britannica.com/topic/education/Global-trends-in-education)
UNESCO’s Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960) is the first instrument which provides
for the right to education comprehensively. It establishes the fundamental principles of universal access to
education and ensuring equality of educational opportunities. The Convention reflects UNESCO’s mission
of instituting collaboration among nations to “advance the ideal of equality of educational opportunities
without regard to race, sex or any distinctions, economic or social.” The Constitution of UNESCO expresses
the belief of its founders in “full and equal opportunities for education for all.” Under Article 4 of the
Convention, the States Parties to this Convention undertake to formulate, develop and apply a national
policy which, by methods appropriate to the circumstances and to national usage, will tend to promote
equality of opportunity and of treatment in the matter of education. The right to education is also
comprehensively covered in article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights. States have the principal responsibility for the direct provision of education, with core obligations
clearly related to the principle of equality of opportunity: to ensure the right of access to public educational
institutions and programmes on a non-discriminatory basis and to provide primary education for all in
accordance with article 13 (2) (a) of the International Covenant.1 The right of every child to education on
the basis of equal opportunity is also established in article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The Committee on the Rights of the Child has recognized the need for identifying and giving priority to
marginalized and disadvantaged groups of children, while not neglecting or diluting in any way the
obligations which States parties have accepted under the Convention. (Right to Education and Equality of
Educational Opportunities Kishore Singh United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education)
4. Emergence of new philosophies for education for all moving towards a inclusive education for all.
Education for development:
A whole school approach enables schools to respond adequately to new and complex challenges schools
are facing, linked to the increasing diversity in society. Effective leadership and governance is essential. It
is needed to promote a positive school culture, teamwork and collaborative practices within the school
community. It is also needed to bring school actors and stakeholders together to ensure educational success
and prevent early school leaving. School development and improvement processes should include targets
to address the underlying factors of early school leaving. They should also involve the entire school
community, stakeholders, multi-professional teams, external local services, parents and families. There
needs to be a commitment towards investment for continuous professional development of school leaders,
teachers and other school staff with a focus on awareness of early school leaving processes, and on the
competences and skills needed to address educational disadvantage and student disengagement. Ensuring
each child and young person has an equal chance to access, participate and benefit from high quality and
inclusive education is a must. Engaging and relevant curriculum together with inspiring and dedicated staff
is the most effective way to prevent early school leaving and social exclusion. All learners and their diverse
needs should be at the centre of education. They should be actors of their own learning and be surrounded
by appropriate support and services. The school should offer a caring, stimulating and conducive learning
5. Technology in facilitating inclusive education for all
World Bank support for the use of ICTs in education includes: assistance for equipment and facilities;
policy development; teacher training and support; capacity building; educational content; distance learning;
digital literacy and skills development; monitoring and evaluation; and research and development (R&D)
activities. The use of ICT in education can play a crucial role in providing new and innovative forms of
support to teachers, students, and the learning process more broadly. With globalization, the information
revolution, and increasing demands for a highly skilled workforce, nations are increasingly prioritizing
education. Determining the best tools to support learning, and to increase the efficiency of education
systems, is critical to that effort. (https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/edutech).
children in digital age
the evolution of the digital native from the digital immigrant
technology in supporting milleneal education
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