MedLinks is sponsored and supported by the Center for Health Promotion and Wellness at MIT Medical. Disclaimer: Do not misuse drugs. Do not use drugs for fun. Take drugs exactly as prescribed by a trustworthy doctor, and do not fear necessary prescription drugs because of terrible side effects on this chart (which, by the way, may be inapplicable or extremely rare in your case and have been considered by your doctor). This chart provides a rough overview of some common recreational drugs. This chart is an oversimplification, it has omissions, and it may have blatant inaccuracies due to ongoing scientific debate or the writer's ignorance. Important note: All of these drugs are dangerous, but none of these drugs is The Devil in Powdered Form. Every one of these drugs has been used with no visible detrimental effect by some lucky people, but every one of these drugs could also destroy your life. Why would you take the risk? Chart compiled by Zak Fallows Please ask questions, make comments, point out errors, and give suggestions by sending email to [email protected] Drug class: Subgroup: Benzodiazepines Specific drugs: Examples: Diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), temazepam (Restoril), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), triazolam (Halcion), alprazolam (Xanax) Benzodiazepine agonists Zolpidem (Ambien), eszopiclone (Lunesta), zopiclone, zaleplon (Sonata) Barbiturates Phenobarbital, pentobarbital, thiopental (sodium pentothal, sodium amytal), secobarbital Sedatives Alcohol Gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB), GBL, 1,4-butanediol Mechanism: Stimulants MDMA (ecstasy), MDA, MDEA Cocaine Full opioid agonists Narcotics Cannabis Morphine, heroin (diacetylmorphine), hydrocodone (Vicodin), oxycodone (Percocet, Oxycontin), fentanyl, Demerol, codeine, opium, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), oxymorphone (Opana), methadone Side effects: Any medical use: Drowsiness, falls, Agonist at Calm, relaxed muscles, impaired coordination, benzodiazepine site on sleepy impaired memory, the GABA-A receptor dizziness Anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, many other diseases Mainly just sleepy, sometimes hallucinations and sleep-like states Insomnia Same as above Same as benzodiazepines Same as benzodiazepines, plus Calm, euphoric, sleepy breathing suppressed, terrible withdrawal, death Same as Opens BK potassium benzodiazepines, plus channels nausea, vomiting, (hyperpolarizing Calm, euphoric, loss of breathing suppressed, neurons), closes SK inhibitions (facilitates terrible withdrawal potassium channels in socializing, talking, (including psychosis reward center of brain singing, sex), relaxed and seizures), brain (causing DA release), damage, various probably other effects diseases, death Same as Agonist at GHB receptor Euphoric, energetic, benzodiazepines, plus (may desensitize it or sleepy, calm (mix of nausea, vomiting, inhibit GABA), agonist stimulant and sedative breathing suppressed, at GABA-B receptor effects) psychosis, seizures, death Agonist at barbiturate site on the GABA-A receptor Amphetamine (Adderall), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), methylphenidate (Ritalin), phentermine, 4methylaminorex, phenmetrazine Increase release and (Preludin), methcathinone, fenfluramine inhibit reuptake of 5-HT, (Pondimin, Fen-Phen), dexfenfluramine DA, and NE. (Redux), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine (old Triaminic), phenylephrine (Sudafed PE) Amphetamines Major effects: Euphoric, energetic, able to work, concentrate, stay awake. Reduces appetite. Anxiety, paranoia, psychosis, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, brain damage when used excessively Epilepsy, other diseases in the past and more rarely today Alcohol withdrawal Narcolepsy (improves cataplexy, not simply a sleep aid) ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity, rarely depression Euphoric, energetic, deep and unusual Same as amphetamine, thoughts, perceived plus brain damage, inspiration and novelty, confusion, agitation, Like above, but releases enhances sex, dancing, frequently death due to None a lot more 5-HT music, art, touch and hyperthermia, heart senses. Contentment. attack, water Connection to other intoxication, and other people, strong problems. emotions. Inhibits 5-HT, NE, and Local anesthesia Same as amphetamine, DA reuptake, blocks Same as amphetamine and bleeding plus a worse risk of voltage-gated sodium (above) control, heart attack channels diagnostic tests Activate all opioid receptors completely. Reduce NE release. Euphoric, pain relief, calm, relaxed, sleepy, appetite suppression Nausea, constipation, Pain relief, rarely vomiting, drowsiness, depression and breathing suppressed diarrhea Only activate certain subtypes of opioid Partial, selective, Pain relief, not quite as Pain relief, rarely Buprenorphine (Suboxone), pentazocine, receptors, and/or do not Nausea, constipation, or mixed opioid euphoric or relaxing as depression, opioid nalbuphine, tramadol (Ultram), tifluadom activate them fully, vomiting, drowsiness agonists full agonists (above) addiction and/or block certain subtypes. Might relieve Memory, thinking, Unusual thoughts and nausea, vomiting, reflexes, and feelings, sometimes and neuropathic Active ingredient is mostly tetrahydrocannabinol, some other Agonist at cannabinoid coordination are calm, happy, hungry, pain. Pills already active ingredients like cannabidiol in smaller quantities receptors impaired. May enhanced appreciation legal, other forms contribute to psychosis of art under in the long term. investigation. Mescaline (peyote cactus), 2C-series drugs Feeling of novelty, Partial agonist at 5-HT2 inspiration, reverence. (2C-B, 2C-I, 2C-C, 2C-T-7), 3C-E, 4- Phenethylamines MTA, PMA, DO-series drugs (DOC, DOB, DOI, DOM) receptors (2A and possibly 2C). This receptor is mostly excitatory, but it is Psilocybin and psilocin (both in inhibitory in certain mushrooms), bufotenin (in toads), DMT (in plants), 5-MeO-DMT (in plants), 5- parts of the brain dealing with perception. MeO-DiPT, DET, AMT, 4-HO-DiPT Fast, disordered Anxiety, insomnia, thoughts, trances. paranoia, temporary Perceptual anomalies: psychosis. May patterns move, colors contribute to psychosis brighter, seeing sounds, in the long term, or smelling colors. Crazy cause "flashbacks" ideas and beliefs. (HPPD). Some cause nausea, increased body Same as above, plus temperature, tremors. Same as above, plus other effects, depends agonism at other 5-HT, of frequency of use and DA, and NE receptors. dose. None Psilocybin and LSD have been Tryptamines tested for the treatment of cluster headaches Other ergolines Lysergic acid diethylamine (LSD), LSA are used for many Ergolines (ergine, in plants) diseases but are not psychedelic. Anesthesia. A Feeling of distance Nausea, vomiting, related drug, from reality and body, coma, violence, memantine, is Dissociative NMDA (glutamate numbing of sensations extreme confusion, used in Phencyclidine (PCP), dextromethorphan, ketamine anesthetics receptor) antagonists and pain. Convincing temporary psychosis. Alzheimer's and absorbing PCP causes brain disease, and these hallucinations. damage. could be used in stroke sufferers. Extreme confusion, Loss of memory, temporary psychosis, Scopolamine and atropine (in plants), diphenhydramine Muscarinic (ACh convincing and Many legitimate Deliriants hot, dry skin, dry (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) receptor) antagonists absorbing uses mouth, huge pupils, fast hallucinations. heartbeat, death Calm, relaxed, Many diseases, death, euphoric, pain relief, nausea, vomiting, Diethyl ether (starter fluid), toluene, gasoline, glue, paint, Unknown, probably hallucinations, strange General accidental asphyxiation, xenon, freon, halothane, sevoflurane multiple mechanisms sensations (different anesthesia falls, varies depending inhalants cause different on particular drug effects from this list) Inhalants Calm, euphoric, pain Unknown, but opioid General or partial Nitrous oxide relief, memory loss, Similar to above pathways are necessary anesthesia unconsciousness Stimulate NO system "Head rush", muscle Dangerously low blood Nitrites Isoamyl nitrite, isobutyl nitrite (NO is a Heart conditions relaxation, dizziness pressure, fainting neurotransmitter) Convincing, absorbing Dysphoria, panic, Theoretically Selective agonist of the hallucinations, headache, inability to similar to pain Salvinorin A (salvia divinorum) kappa opioid receptor visionary states, pain talk, falls, sweating, relievers relief persisting anxiety (pentazocine) Vaguely like a Nausea, other side Muscimol (amanita muscaria) GABA-A agonist Useful in research hallucinogen effects Nicotinic acetylcholine Nicotine (tobacco) See Wikipedia, PubMed, Google receptor agonist Adenosine receptor Alertness, wakefullness, Other antagonist, inhibits some Insomnia, anxiety, energy, appetite Caffeine (coffee, tea, other plants) PDE enzymes causing headaches on Headaches suppression, headache increased cAMP withdrawal, diuresis relief signaling Anxiety, Methaqualone (Quaalude, Sopor), thalidomide, meprobamate Depending on the drug: Falls, poor coordination depression, Various mechanisms, (Miltown), carisoprodol (Soma), glutethimide, chloral hydrate Calm, sleepy, euphoric, and memory, coma, insomnia, pain, mostly related to GABA, (knockout drops, Micky), ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), relaxed muscles, pain other side effects vary anesthesia, similar to barbiturates methyprylon, primidone relief, nausea relief from drug to drug epilepsy, muscle relaxation, nausea Disclaimer: Do not use drugs for fun. Take drugs exactly as prescribed by a trustworthy doctor. This chart provides a rough overview, it is an oversimplification, it has omissions, and it may have blatant inaccuracies due to ongoing scientific debate or the writer's idiocy. Psychedelics NeuroACh transmitter: Acetylcholine Effects: NE Norepinephrine ↓Heart rate ↑Heart rate ↑Secretions ↑Alertness (sweat, saliva) ↑Happiness ↑Memory ↓Blood ↑Muscle circulation ↓Pain contractions DA Dopamine ↑Alertness ↑Happiness ↓Hunger Amphetamine, Nicotine, cocaine, SNRIs muscarine, (Effexor, Amphetamine, Chantix, nerve Cymbalta), cocaine, gases (VX, tricyclic Parkinson's Drugs that Sarin), antidepressants, drugs (levodopa, increase or Alzheimer's MAOIs, bromocriptine, mimic: drugs (Aricept, Wellbutrin, LSD, benztropine), Exelon), pseudoephedrine MAOIs, physostigmine, (Sudafed), Wellbutrin, LSD Tensilon, albuterol, pilocarpine pyridostigmine 5-HT Serotonin Glu Glutamate GABA Opioids Cannabinoids Histamine ↑Hunger ↑Wakefulness ↑Stomach acid ↑Itchiness ↓Hunger ↑Happiness The most common excitatory ↑Fullness ↓Pain neurotransmitter ↑Sleepiness ↓Anxiety ↑Sleepiness ↓Alertness ↓Anxiety ↓Pain ↓Memory ↓Muscle tension Amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, psychedelics (mushrooms, mescaline), SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft), tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs, BuSpar, triptans (sumatriptan, for migraines) Alcohol, barbiturates (phenobarbital), Morphine, THC benzodiazepines heroin, fentanyl, (marijuana, (Valium), GHB, hydrocodone hashish), baclofen, (Vicodin) nabilone neurosteroids (alphaxolone), muscimol D-cycloserine, domoic acid (shellfish) BZ, atropine, PCP, ketamine, scopolamine, Antipsychotics Atypical Propranolol, Namenda (for Drugs that benztropine, (Haldol), antipsychotics clonidine, Alzheimer's), decrease or biperiden, reserpine, (Risperdal, phentolamine, dextromethorphan block: curare, Botox, tetrabenazine, Seroquel), reserpine, AMPT (Robitussin), mecamylamine, AMPT Zofran, reserpine dizocilpine α-bungarotoxin Flumazenil, bicuculline, bemegride, Ro 15-4513, phaclofen Naloxone, naltrexone Opiates, betahistine Benadryl, antipsychotics, Rimonabant Tagamet, Zantac Disclaimer: Do not use drugs for fun. Take drugs exactly as prescribed by a trustworthy doctor. This chart provides a rough overview, it is an oversimplification, it has omissions, and it may have blatant inaccuracies due to ongoing scientific debate or the writer's idiocy.