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China’s Global Foreign Policy
• China officially states it "unswervingly pursues an independent
foreign policy of peace. The fundamental goals of this policy are to
preserve China's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity,
create a favorable international environment for China's reform and
opening up and modernization construction, maintain world peace
and propel common development."
Structure
• China's foreign policy carried out by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
• Foreign Affairs Ministry is subordinate to the Foreign Affairs Leading
Small Group Of the Communist Party of China
• Much of Chinese foreign policy is formulated in think tanks
• sponsored and supervised by, but formally outside of the government.
• China is distinctive for having a separate body of Chinese strategic
thought and theory of international relations which is distinct from
Western theory
Foreign Policy
• China has placed particular emphasis on the development of “goodneighborly” relations and “partnership” with border countries in
order to prevent external threats from exacerbating internal frictions
and emphasized non-military aspects of its comprehensive national
power, adopting a three-pronged approach of:
• Setting aside areas of disagreement with neighboring states
• Focusing on confidence-building measures to promote ties
• Engaging in economic integration and multilateral cooperation to address
shared concerns
Primary Aims of China’s Foreign Policy
• China seeks to achieve modernization, create a benevolent and peaceful
external environment, and take steps that allow it to develop its domestic
economy
• The critical points of Chinese foreign policy are maintaining peaceful relations
with other states and complying with the principles of fairness and justice.
• The Chinese government contends that diplomacy should ensure the
country’s prosperity, open up new paths for the nation’s rejuvenation, and
create conditions that benefit the Chinese people.
Eight-Point Philosophy
• In 2007, Foreign ministry spokesman Qin Gang made a statement about the eight-point
diplomatic philosophy of China:
• China will not seek hegemony. China is still a developing country and has no resources to
seek hegemony. Even if China becomes a developed country, it will not seek hegemony.
• China will not play power politics and will not interfere with other countries' internal
affairs. China will not impose its own ideology on other countries.
• China maintains all countries, big or small, should be treated equally and respect each
other. All affairs should be consulted and resolved by all countries on the basis of equal
participation. No country should bully others on the basis of strength.
• China will make judgment on each case in international affairs, each matter on the merit
of the matter itself and it will not have double standards. China will not have two
policies: one for itself and one for others. China believes that it cannot do unto others
what they do not wish others do unto them.
• China and Russia joined with the Central Asian nations of Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to found the Shanghai
Cooperation Organization (SCO) in June 2001. The SCO is designed to
promote regional stability and cooperate to combat terrorism in the
region.
• July 2001, China and Russia signed a Treaty of Friendship and
Cooperation with President Putin and President Jiang
• Relations with India have also improved considerably
• Relations in the 21st century between the world's two most populous
states have never been more harmonious
• Collaborate in several economic and strategic areas
• Both countries have doubled their economic trade in the past few
years
• China became India's largest trading partner in 2010.
United States
• Fought against each other in the Korean and Vietnam War
• “Ping Pong Diplomacy” helped to open relations between the two
countries
• May 1973, established United States Liasion Office in Beijing
• Formally recognizes the PRC in 1979
• US suspended certain trade and investment programs in 1989 after
the Tiananmen Crackdown (including an arms embargo that is still
shaping diplomatic talks and maneuvering)
• US-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue establish April 2009
European Union
• Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) established in 1996
• 3 Pillars: Political Pillar, Economical Pillar, and Social, Cultural and Educational
Pillar
• EU is China's largest trading partner, and China is the EU's second
largest trading partner
• Between 2009 and 2010 alone EU exports to China increased by 38% and
China's exports to the EU increased by 31%
• Sources of tension: human rights and the EU's arms embargo on
China
• EU-Chinese trade increased faster than the Chinese economy itself
• tripling in ten years from USD14.3 billion in 1985 to USD45.6 billion in 1994