Population Geography There are a lot of people in the world and more all the time. • Currently over 6.5 billion. • Estimates are that it will be over 9 billion by 2050. That’s almost a 50% increase in just 44 years! • What sorts of problems does this present? Things that affect population growth: 2. Birth rate • The number of live births for every 1,000 people in a given population. 3. Fertility rate • The estimated number of children a woman may have in her lifetime in a given population. • The replacement rate is 2.1 kids per mother. • There are two parents, so two kids are needed to replace them. It’s 2.1 because you have to account for accidental deaths of young children. • The worldwide rate is now about 3.0. So we’re increasing. 1. Mortality rate • Number of deaths per every thousand people in a given population. 1. Infant mortality rate • Number of deaths of infants per every thousand live births. • This statistic is often used to gauge the health and healthcare abilities of a nation. • The U.S. currently ranks 42nd in lowest infant mortality rate with a rate of 6.5. • Can sometimes be a troublesome statistic because there is no uniform method across countries of measuring it. • Some countries don’t count it if the child dies within the first day, for example, or if it doesn’t breath upon birth. • These are also self-reported by each country and some may be motivated to play with the numbers. • Also, the more developed countries (with the will) will attempt to deliver at-risk babies at earlier times in the term. • The U.S. generally considers it a live birth if it’s obviously alive when it comes out, reports accurately, and delivers lots of premies. Because of this, its stats seem unusually low. 1.Population pyramid • Shows the age and gender distribution of a society. • Allows geographers to evaluate the effect of different events. 1. Push-pull factors • Factors that compel people to migrate, either compelling them to leave an area (pushing them out) or that which attracts them to new areas (pulls them towards it). • What are historical examples of each? 2. Carrying capacity • The ability of land to support a population. The greater its carrying capacity, the more people it can support. Urban Geography What is a city? Population • United States definition= 2500 • Japan’s definition= 30,000 • What is the problem with population alone as a definition ? Cities • City – a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Key Question : When and Why did People Start Living in Cities? Origins of the city • People moved to cities for employment, protection, and to be apart of civilization The First Urban Revolution Two components enable the formation of cities: 1. an agricultural surplus 2. social stratification (a leadership class) Five Hearths of Urbanization In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained. The Second Urban Revolution A large scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing. Made possible by: 1. second agricultural revolution that improved food production and created a larger surplus 2. industrialization, which encouraged growth of cities near industrial resources Industrialized regions of Europe, 1914 Urbanization • • The process by which a city grows The two dimensions of urbanization 1) Increase in the number of people living in the city Increase in the percentage of people living in the city 2) Shenzhen, China The Modern Process of Urbanization – a rural area can become urbanized quite quickly in the modern world Shenzhen, China Shenzhen changed from a fishing village to a major metropolitan area in just 25 years. 25 years ago, all of this land was duck ponds and rice paddies. Urbanization • 1800 only 3% of The World’s population lived in cities • London the only city over 1 million citizens • 2000 almost half of the World’s population inhabit cities • 400 cities with at least 1 million Cities with 10 million Suburbanization Definition • Movement of upper and middle-class people from core areas to surrounding outskirts. • Suburban means territory inside the metropolitan area that lies outside the central city • Suburbs have been growing faster than central cities for a century • The process began in the mid-nineteenth century but became a mass phenomenon in the late-twentieth century. The U. S. suburban population grew from 26.7% in 1950 to 49.8% in 2000. Pop. in Cities, Suburbs, and Nonmetro Areas 1950 to 2000 160 In millions of people 140 120 central cities 100 suburbs 80 nonmetro 60 40 20 1950 1960 1970 1980 years 1990 2000 Causes of Suburban Growth • Six Reasons: • Government policies • Government financing of a system of metropolitan expressways • Land within the legal boundaries of the city had already been developed • Suburban housing costs were initially lower • Demographic changes • Preference of single-family homes with own lots Key Question: WHERE ARE CITIES LOCATED AND WHY? Site and Situation Site Situation * absolute location of a city * relative location of a city * a city’s static location, often chosen for trade, defense, or religion. * a city’s place in the region and the world around it. Rural Geography • Agriculture is the key economic activity in most rural areas. Subsistence Agriculture • Food is produced by a family for its own needs. • Anything extra, usually not much, may be sold for important supplies. • Machinery is not used in this type of Agriculture. Market-Oriented Agriculture • Commercial agriculture. • Farmers grow products to sell to consumers. • Common in developed countries.