Moodle Formatives – Unit 14 The Formation of Western Europe 14.1 : Church Reform and the Crusades Q1. What was the name of the Eastern Roman Emperor who asked Pope Urban II for help fighting the Muslims? d. Alexios I Q2. Why did Pope Urban II believe that fighting the crusade would be a good idea? b. He has his own internal struggles going on and struggles with some neighboring states. He saw this a way to distract soldiers in Europe. Q3. The People's Crusade was successful. False People’s Crusade failed. Q4. The muslims were not able to recapture Jerusalem. False Saladin successfully recaptured Jerusalem from the Christians. Q5. The first Crusade was successful. True It was successful and the crusaders were able to capture Jerusalem and other lands. Real Questions 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. • simony • Gothic • Urban II • Crusade • Saladin • Richard the Lion-Hearted • Reconquista • Inquisition I: the Gothic style of building was common in Western Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries and included tall pointed arches and windows and tall pillars II: shown addressing the bishops of France) launches the first Crusade III: the numerous clashes between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Lands of the Middle East that began in 1095- added to Kiev's troubles by disrupting trade. Saladin: was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. Richard the Lion-Hearted: The King of England from 1189 to 1199. Hero and had working in literature a lot. Reconquista: a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims, who had occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century. Inquisition: a judicial or official inquiry. 2. What were three main causes of the need to reform the Church? village priests married, bishops sold and bought positions in the church, and lay investure made the bishops angry over their power to appoint. 3. Which Crusade was the only successful one? The first crusade 4. How did the goals of the Crusades change over the years? Early on in 1095 the goal was simply to go to the Holy Land in order to protect the Eastern Church and pilgrims traveling to the Holy sites. By the time the First Crusade actually left in 1096, the goal was twisted to the capture of Jerusalem. 5. Which of the following do you think best represents the spirit of the Age of Faith- Church reform, the Crusades, or the Gothic cathedrals? Explain. the Crusades, because they were faith in action. 6. What evidence supports the idea that the Church functioned like a kingdom? The evidence that supports the idea the the Church functioned like a kingdom is the Pope, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church, acted like a king with an official court that had diplomats and collected taxes. The power of the pope was extended because the Church has its own court, tax system, and diplomats. 7. How did the Crusades change the history of Europe? Give reasons for your answer. The Crusades changed Europe as the Europeans have started traveling around the world. They began trading their goods. For example stones, perfumes, and so on. The crusades also have feudalism and political effects. In the Crusades, both Christians and Muslims believed that God was on their side. They both felt justified in using violence to win or to keep the Holy Land. The following excerpts show their belief in the rightness of their deeds. 1. Using specific phrases or passages from Source A and Source C, demonstrate how their attitudes were similar. they don't have a supporting attitude towards religious people. 2. What directive in Source A might have been at the root of the action described in Source B? because of their action, and people are terrified by them. 3. What evidence in Source D reveals the artist's bias about the confrontation between Islam and Christianity? the author in the source D is on the side of Saladin. Because the information in the passage shows that the LionHeart left the war first without even seeing Saladin. So shows that the LionHeart did not even had the courage to fight with Saladin. 14.2 : Changes in Medieval Society 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. • three-field system • guild • Commercial Revolution • burgher• vernacular • Thomas Aquinas • scholastics Three-field system: Around A.O. 800, some villages began to organize their lands into three fields instead o f two . Two of the fields were planted and the other lay fallow (resting) for a year. Guild: An organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members. Commercial Revolution: Increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in Europe. Taken together, this expansion of trade and business is called the Commercial Revolution. Burgher: a medieval merchant-class town dweller. Vernacular: the everyday language of people in a region or country. Tomas Aquinas: the scholar Thomas Aquinas argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. Scholastics: scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities. 2. How did guilds influence business practices in medieval towns? Merchants banded together to control the number of goods being traded and to keep prices up. They also provided security in trading and reduced losses. The guilds set standards for specialized workers such as craftsmen and bakers. They established rules and provide training for supervise staff. 3. How were Muslim scholars linked to the revival of learning in Europe? They preserved a lot of academic materials and share them with Europeans and helped Europeans by making an important and original contributions in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, ect. 4. In what ways did burghers expand their freedom from landlords? They organized themselves and demanded privileges. These included freedom from certain kinds of tolls and the right to govern the town. At times they fought against their landlords and won these rights by force. 5. What was the effect of the development of towns on the feudal system? People were no longer content with their old feudal existence on manors or in tiny villages. Even though legally bound to their lord's manor, many serfs ran away. 6. Why would writers choose to produce works in the vernacular instead of in Latin? Since most people couldn't read or understand Latin, these works written in the vernacular brought literature to many people. 7. How did the Commercial Revolution lay the foundation for the economy of modern Europe? Increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in Europe. 14.3 : England and France Develop 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. William the Conqueror • Henry II • common law • Magna Carta parliament • Hugh Capet • Philip II • Estates-General Henry II: Henry ruled England from 1154 to 1189. He strengthened the royal courts o fjustice by send- ing royal judges to every part of England at least once a year. They collected taxes, settled lawsuits, and punished crimes. Common law: A unified body of law that was formed by the rulings of England's royal judges. The laws in many English-speaking countries are still based on Common Law. Magna Carta parliament: It limits the authority of the king and safeguards people's rights. Also, it guaranteed what are now considered basic legal rights both in England and in the United States. Hugh Capet: An undistinguished duke from the middle of France. He succeeded Louis the Sluggard and began the Capetian dynasty of French kings that ruled France from 987 to 1328. Philip II: He created a Golden Age and spread Christianity. Estates-General : Making of the National Assembly. Since the third estate was ignored and outnumbered during the Estates General, they decided to create their own meeting. 2. What two legal practices date back to Henry II? Common Law and Magna Carta. 3. What are some basic rights guaranteed by the Magna Carta? No taxation with- out representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law. 4. Why did Philip II call the Estates-General together? Because he wanted to solve financial crisis. 5. Compare the way in which England and France began developing as nations. England: •Williams the Conqueror invades England in 1066. •Henry II (1154-1189) introduces use of the jury in English courts. • John (1199-1216) agrees to the Magna Carta in 1215. • Edward I (1272-1307) calls the Model Parliament in 1295. France: • Hugh Capet increases the territory of France. • Philip II (1180-1223) established bailiffs to preside over courts and collect taxes. • Louis IX (1226-1270) creates a French appeals court. • Philip IV (1285-1314) adds Third Estate to the Estates-General. 6. Which of the changes in English government is reflected in the government of the United States today? Parliament 7. What steps were necessary to centralize governments in England and France? Legal practices, the protection of people's rights, the development of commerce. 14.4 : The Hundred’s Year and the Plague 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. • Avignon • Great Schism• John Wycliffe • Jan Hus • bubonic plague • Hundred Years' War • Joan of Arc Avignon：a city in France Great Schism: Now there were two popes. Each declared the other to be a false pope, excommunicating his rival. This began the split in the Church known as the Great Schism, or division. John Wycliffe： an Englishman, challenge the papacy. He preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church. Jan Hus: a professor in Bohemia, taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope. bubonic plague: During the 1300s an epidemic struck parts of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Approximately onethird of the population of Europe died of the deadly disease known as the bubonic plague. Hundred Years' War: The war that Edward III launched for that throne continued on and off from 1337 to 1453. It became known as the Hundred Years' War. Victory passed back and forth between the two countries. Finally, between 1421 and 1453, the French rallied and drove the English out of France entirely, except for the port city of Calais. Joan of Arc: a teenage French peasant girl named Joan of Arc. When Joan was just 13 she began to have visions and hear what she believed were voices of the saints. On May 7, 1429, Joan led the French army into battle at a port city near Orleans. 2. What was the Great Schism? Now there were two popes. Each declared the other to be a false pope, excommunicating his rival. The French pope lived in Avignon, while the Italian pope lived in Rome. This began the split in the Church known as the Great Schism, or division. 3. What were three effects of the bubonic plague? • Town populations fell. • Trade declined. Prices rose. • The serfs left the manor in search of better wages. 4. What impact did Joan of Arc have on the Hundred Years' War? Joan Of Arc was a big help in the 100 years war and helped France win. She won many military victories over England. She saved France from English rule. How Joan Of Arc impacted the 100 years war. Joan Of Arc was born on January 6th, 1412. When she was 13, she believed that God had chosen her to lead France to victory. 5. Which event do you think diminished the power of the Church more-the Great Schism or the bubonic plague? The great schism. Because the main roles in the Great Schism were popes and they had arguments which influenced the lives of people. So I deem the Great Schism diminished the power of the Church. 6. What problems did survivors face after the bubonic plague swept through their town? There were trades, prices, wages, revolts, and or being driven from their homes or massacred. Diseconomies, poor, wars' ruins and revolts should be resumed. 7. How did the Hundred Years' War encourage a feeling of nationalism in both France and England? A feeling of nationalism emerged in England and France. Now people thought of the king as a national leader, fighting for the glory of the country, not simply a feudal lord.