02 Atomic structure

```02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table
"I'm old and a little scary...but I created
the periodic table so WHAT UP NOW?!?!
Sep 8­8:04 AM
(D)
(A)
(C)
(E)
(B)
Sep 8­8:11 AM
Particle
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Mass
Charge
Atomic Number =
Atomic Weight =
Ionic Charge =
What is an isotope?
Sep 8­8:12 AM
1
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
Symbol
August 09, 2018
121
Sb
Protons
45
Neutrons
58
50
38
Electrons
Mass #
Sep 8­8:12 AM
Symbol
75
As3­
Protons
28
53
Neutrons
31
74
Electrons
26
1­
Oxidation #
Sep 8­8:12 AM
Mass Spectroscopy
What element is this?
How many isotopes does
this element have?
What is the average atomic
mass of this element?
What is an isotope?
Sep 3­8:42 AM
2
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
24. Element X is found in two forms: 90.0% is an isotope that has a
mass of 20.0, and 10.0% is an isotope that has a mass of 22.0. What is
the atomic mass of element X?
(A) 20.0
(B) 20.2
(C) 20.8
(D) 21.2
(E) 21.8
Sep 8­8:34 AM
Determine how many valence electrons
and unpaired electrons for:
unpaired
valence
electrons
electrons
(a) nitrogen
(b) magnesium
(c) chlorine
(d) boron
Sep 8­8:13 AM
Write the abbreviated electron config for:
(a) sodium
(b) sulfur
(c) iron
(d) Ag+
(f) Cl­
Sep 8­8:12 AM
3
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Write the abbreviated electron config for:
(a) Zn2+
(b) O2­
(c) What is one element and one ion that O2­
is isoelectronic with?
Sep 8­8:12 AM
Sep 8­8:12 AM
Sep 8­8:38 AM
4
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Sep 8­8:32 AM
Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
Fe
Colored as
a solution
Cu
Zn
Cr
Sep 8­8:32 AM
Sep 8­8:58 AM
5
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Flame Test Colors
Na+
Li+
K+
Cu2+
Sep 12­7:59 AM
c=λυ
speed of light = wavelength x frequency
speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s
E=hυ
Energy = Planck's constant x frequency
Planck's constant = 6.63 x 10­34 J sec
Sep 12­8:01 AM
Mass Spectroscopy
Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Sep 9­7:47 AM
6
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
All Periodic Trends can be explained
using three basic principles:
1. Electrons are attracted to the protons in
the nucleus. (Zeff = effective nuclear charge)
(a) The closer the electron is to the
nucleus, the more strongly it is attracted.
(b) The more protons in the nucleus, the
more strongly the electron is attracted
Sep 13­7:54 AM
All Periodic Trends can be explained
using three basic principles:
2. Electrons are repelled by other electrons.
(a) Valence electrons are shielded by
completed shells of electrons.
Sep 13­7:54 AM
All Periodic Trends can be explained
using three basic principles:
3. Completed shells are very stable. Atoms
will lose or gain valence electrons to created
completed shells if possible.
Sep 13­7:54 AM
7
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Attacking Atomic Theory Statements
#1 Determine what the elements or
compounds have in common.
#2 Determine what the elements or
compounds differ in.
#3 Go to your principles to explain
the difference clearly and concisely.
Sep 13­8:03 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Fluorine has a smaller atomic radius than
lithium
(b) Rubidium has a larger atomic radius than
sodium
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Cl­, Ar, and K+ are isoelectronic. Which has
the smallest radius and why? Which has the
biggest and why?
(b) State the trend for atomic radius in going
across a period from left to right and why.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
8
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Potassium has a lower first ionization energy
as compared to lithium.
(b) Sodium has a lower first ionization energy as
compared to sulfur.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) O or O2­. Which is larger and why?
(b) Potassium has a low first ionization energy
but a relatively large second ionization energy.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Why is the second ionization energy always
larger than the first?
(b) Write the chemical reaction showing the first
ionization energy of sodium.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
9
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) The difference between the first and second
ionization energies of sodium is much larger
than the difference between the first and second
ionization energies of magnesium.
(b) What element could this be. Explain.
1st IE = 540 kJ, 2nd IE = 1000 kJ,
3rd IE = 1700 kJ, 4th IE = 5400 kJ,
5th IE = 5950 kJ
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Boron has a smaller first ionization energy
than
beryllium.
(b) Write a chemical reaction for the electron
affinity of fluorine.
(c) The electron affinity for chlorine is negative
whereas for argon it is positive.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) Cesium is much more reactive in the
presence
of water as compared to lithium.
(b) The difference between the atomic radii of
lithium and sodium is relatively smaller than the
difference between the atomic radii of rubidium
and cesium.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
10
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Explain each in terms of principles of atomic
structure
(a) A sample of solid nickel chloride is attracted
into a magnetic field whereas a sample of solid
zinc chloride is not.
(b) Phosphorous forms fluorides of PF3 and PF5
whereas nitrogen only forms NF3.
Sep 13­8:05 AM
Se (atomic number 34).
(a) Samples of natural selenium contain six stable isotopes. In terms of
atomic structure, explain what these isotopes have in common, and
how
they differ.
(b) Write the complete electron configuration (e.g., 1s2 2s2 … etc.) for a
selenium atom in the ground state. Indicate the number of unpaired
electrons in the ground­state atom, and explain your reasoning.
(c) In terms of atomic structure, explain why the first ionization energy
of selenium is
(i) less than that of bromine (atomic number 35), and
(ii) greater than that of tellurium (atomic number 52).
Sep 20­11:18 AM
11
02 ­ Atomic Theory and Perioidicity.notebook
August 09, 2018
Sep 14­7:58 AM
Sep 19­11:20 AM
Use only a periodic table, individually write
the following explanations using your theory
of atomic principles
1) Predict which element, Na or K, has a
larger first ionization energy and explain
2) Sulfur has a smaller radius than
Phosphorous. Explain this trend.
Sep 17­8:52 AM
12
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