The tragedy in modern times and Contemporaries After the splendor of Greek tragedy, it did not reappear until the time of Renaissance, and at the beginning it was only translations or adaptations of the classic works. However, over time unpublished tragedies began to be created. • In England: there was an important evolution of the tragedy with the Theater: Christopher Marlowe, considered the great predecessor of another important author, William Shakespeare, who revitalized the tragedy. Unlike the Greek tragedy, where the characters are mythological beings,in this drama the characters are of any social status, contravening the Aristotle's idea that the tragedy could only represent those who They have power and high social status. In Spain: Lope de Vega with his work El caballero de Olmedo y Calderón de La Barca, with La vida es sueño, that although they call them comedies, they have characteristics of tragedy. • In Germany: we place Goethe and Schiller as their biggest representatives. • In Mexico: in the 20th century we have Rodolfo Usigli, Sergio Magaña with works as The supplicant, Ensayando a Molière, The transfigured night and Hector Azar with Picaresca, The skinny cows, The divine tragedy of loving and being loved External structure of classical tragedy (form) The elements that form the external structure are: • Prologue: it is the part that precedes the entrance of the choir. It serves to narrate the public the plot of the work. • Exodus: final chorus of the choir, which is performed at the end of the tragedy. Parodos: it is the entrance song of the choir, it is located in the orchestra. • Episode: Aristotle defines it as "the full part of the tragedy that goes between two complete choral songs ". • Statism: choir singing that is interspersed between two episodes and that used to Accompanied by dances. The elements that allow analyzing the background of a tragedy are: Adventures: It refers to the adverse and unexpected circumstance that gives a turn in the life of the protagonist. At this point, the protagonist sees his expectations frustrated and begin the misfortunes that will inevitably lead to an unhappy end. Anagnórosis: According to Aristotle, it is the moment in which the protagonist reveals or discovers some truth about himself. The fact of knowing this truth changes your perspective. Hybris: It refers to the excessive pride that makes mortals believe that they do not need the gods and that they can even be superior to them. This is the main cause of all the misfortunes of the protagonist. Catharsis It is the effect that causes the tragedy in the spectator. Show you the consequences of the bad actions of the protagonists, thus achieving a moral education that it takes him to live the established values. In fact, the theater was used to regulate the behavior of its citizens. Internal structure of modern tragedy (background) The elements of the internal structure of modern tragedy are: Planteo: It is the presentation of the conflict, the protagonist faces his struggle. Internal structure of modern tragedy (background) The elements of the internal structure of modern tragedy are: Planteo: It is the presentation of the conflict, the protagonist faces his struggle. Adventures: It refers to a notorious change in the character's luck, since suddenly face something unexpected, it can be favorable or unfavorable. Outcome Final situation that normally occurs in a tragedy: the death of the protagonist. A fundamental difference with respect to the classic tragedy is that destiny it does not have a determining role in the luck of the protagonist. The tragic end is not result of disobedience to the gods, but the result of personal decisions.