Illumination Study

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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES
QUEZON CITY
Final Design Output for the Course
EE 502 – ILLUMINATION ENGINEERING DESIGN
PROPOSED DESIGN OF ILLUMINATION SYSTEMS OF
PASIG CITY SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL AT
F. LEGASPI ST. RAINFOREST PARK,
MAYBUNGA, PASIG CITY
Submitted By:
Maverick B. Sale
Khristian Kyle M. Tagle
Mark Anthony T. Visperas
Submitted To:
ENGR. CHRISTIAN VER A. SENSANO
Electrical Engineering Instructor
College of Engineering and Architecture
ENGR. FERDINAND D. MILAN
Electrical Engineering Program Chairperson
College of Engineering and Architecture
FIRST SEMESTER
ACADEMIC YEAR 2018 – 2019
A P P RO V A L S H E E T
The design project PROPOSED DESIGN OF ILLUMINATION
SYSTEMS OF PASIG CITY SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL AT F. LEGASPI ST.
RAINFOREST PARK, MAYBUNGA, PASIG CITY prepared by the student
designers, Maverick B. Sale, Khristian Kyle M. Tagle, and Mark Anthony T.
Visperas of the EE51FC1 of Electrical Engineering Program, of the First
Semester of A.Y. 2018 – 2019 was submitted to and evaluated by the Course
Instructor and hereby recommended for approval.
Recommending Approval:
ENGR. CHRISTIAN VER A. SENSANO
Course Instructor
Accepted in COMPLETION of the course EE 502 – Illumination
Engineering Design.
ENGR. FERDINAND D. MILAN
Program Chairperson
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
Chapter I………………………………………………………………..………4
1.1 Background of the Project………………………………………….….4
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………...5
1.3 Objectives of the Project……………………………………………….6
1.4 Scopes and Limitations of the Project………………………………..6
II.
Chapter II……………………………………………………………………....7
2.1 Related Study……………………………………………………………7
2.2 Paradigm of the Study………………………………………………….8
III. Chapter III…………………………………………………………………….11
3.1 Illumination Testing of Existing Systems………………………….11
3.2 Design Strategies………………………………………………………26
3.3 Design Codes and Standards………………………………………...33
3.4 Design Trade-offs…………………………………………………...…34
IV. Chapter IV…………………………………………………………………….37
4.1 Design of Illumination Systems (Design 1)………………………..37
4.1.1
Lighting Fixtures Layout (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.1.2
Switching Layout (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.1.3
Lighting Panel Diagram (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.1.4
Lighting Fixture Schedule (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.1.5
Cost and Estimation…………………………………………...38
4.2 Design of Illumination Systems (Design 2)………………………..40
4.2.1
Lighting Fixtures Layout (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.2.2
Switching Layout (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.2.3
Lighting Panel Diagram (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.2.4
Lighting Fixture Schedule (Illumination Design Sheets)
4.2.5
Cost and Estimation…………………………………………...41
2
V.
Chapter V…………………………………………………………………..…43
5.1 Analysis of Return of Investments……………………………….…43
5.1.1
Capital Costs…………………………….......………………….43
5.1.2
Energy Savings………………………...……………………….43
5.1.3
Maintenance and Operational Costs……….....…………….46
5.2 Approved Design for Retrofitting…………………………………..46
VI. Appendices…………………………………………………………………...48
A. Appendix A
B. Appendix B
C. Relevant sources
VII. Curriculum Vitae
3
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1.
Background of the Project
It is said that vision is the most abundant perception of humans that is
used for information acquisition. This means that in order for humans to work
effectively, they should be able to clearly discern and perceive visually the
objects around them. Lighting plays an important role in everyday human life
because of the importance of visual perception in human activities.
Light, in technical term, connotes electromagnetic radiation which is
effect provides visual sensation. According to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
(2000), light is simply a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum,
sandwiched between ultraviolet and infrared radiation. The visible portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum extends from 380 to about 780 nanometers. The
Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) defines light as a
radiant energy that is capable of exciting the retina and producing a visual
sensation. Because of these, we define light not in terms of radiant energy nor
of visual sensation rather by the combination of the two.
According to Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
(CCOHS), poor lighting at work or at any location concerning human activities
can cause eye-strain, ineffective outputs, and even accidents. On the other
hand, too much light can also lead to other safety and health issues like glares
and headaches. According to Teichmuller, “we can say that the lighting is good
when our eyes can clearly and pleasantly perceive the things around us”.
Efforts in the fields of electrical engineering and illumination engineering are
inserted on to reducing energy consumption of artificial lightings yet can still
provide efficient illumination in order to enhance human productivity.
School is one of the establishments that concerns a variety of human
activities. These activities includes works inside the classes, laboratories,
libraries, offices, cafeterias, and even gymnasiums. Every single one of this
room of specific activities follows specific illuminance requirement according
4
to the design standards. Pasig City Science High School is a specialized public
secondary school located at Rainforest Adventure Park, Maybunga, Pasig City
which offers scholarship for students residing in Pasig City who are gifted in
the field of science and technology. According to the official website of Pasig
City Science High School, the school was founded on October 7, 2004 with the
support and determination of Former City Mayor Soledad C. Eusebio, Hon.
Mayor Vicente P. Eusebio, and the members of the City Council. The school
formally opened in the school year 2005-2006 using temporarily the fifth, sixth
and seventh floors of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig building. In
summer of 2006, the school transferred to its new and permanent establishment
–a six story building located at the Rainforest Park. The facilities include
classrooms, offices, library, restrooms, speech laboratory, computer laboratory
and four well-furnished science laboratories. The school added a new six story
building on December 18, 2013, inaugurated by the incumbent mayor, Ms.
Maribel Andaya Eusebio, and the City Council. It was first used by the 20142015 Grade 7 students.
1.2.
Statement of the Problem
In this design project, the team is to propose a lighting layout for the
Pasig City Science High School building. In order to effectively design a
lighting layout, the team would answer the following questions:

Does the existing lighting layout of the classrooms follow the design
standards or guidelines provided by the Department of Education?

Does the existing lighting layout of the establishment follow the
design standards set by the Illumination Engineering Society of
North America?

Are the students satisfied on the existing lighting layout?
5
1.3.
Objectives of the Project
The main objective of this project is to provide an improvement to the
existing lighting layout for the building of Pasig City Science High School.
The specific objectives of this project is:

To analyze if the existing lighting layout follows the standards by
measuring the illuminance of the Pasig City Science High School
building.

To inspect the location and specifications of the existing lighting
fixtures.

To provide an analysis of the return of investment for the improved
lighting layout.
1.4.
Scope and Limitations of the Project
The team targets to provide an improvement to the existing lighting
layout design, in accordance to design codes and standards, for the Pasig City
Science High School building. The output design would be compromised only
of lighting fixtures layout, switching layout, lighting panel diagram, and
lighting fixture schedule. The deliverables would include cost and estimation
together with the analysis of return of investments, which covers the capital
cost, energy savings, maintenance costs, and operational costs.
6
CHAPTER II
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1.
Related Studies
Penny (2012) said that the constant evolution of lighting technology
results in lower costs and better light quality for variety of lamp styles. Old,
flickering fluorescent tubes and heat-shedding incandescent bulbs should be
thing of the past, but in many schools, they’re an inefficient, underperforming
part of the present. Note problems and spaces that require improvement and
look for opportunities to create a visually comfortable environment as defined
by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA): First is to
provide views to the outside, which allow the eye muscles to relax as they focus
on the distance. Second is control the window luminance to avoid glare. Third
is ensure that the angle between any source of high luminance and principal
sight lines is as large as possible. Fourth is to avoid high brightness contrast.
Fifth is to place sources of high brightness against a bright background to reduce
visual discomfort and finally, replace recessed parabolic or lens fixtures with
pendant – mounted indirect or direct fixtures. You should balance the benefits
of these improvements against your budget and determine which projects offer
the most advantages with the smallest payback period.
According to the researchers, the biologically-optimized light provides
stimulation to the body as if the person was outdoors. This causes the students'
circadian rhythms to shift forward (in time) so that they are alert earlier in the
day. The researchers say this can counteract “social jetlag” i.e. tiredness in the
mornings frequently observed in young people in particular. “In order to create
an artificial sky in the classroom, we use strips with blue and white LEDs that
can be controlled independently of each other,” said Hannah Helbig, Innovation
Manager at Osram. “Therefore, the light colors can be mixed dynamically and
reproduce the color temperature of the sky inside the building.” (Whitaker,
2012)
7
Leeming (2017) stated in an article that during puberty, teenager's sleep
patterns often shift towards a later bedtime and a later awakening in the
morning. This acts to reduce the mental performance of adolescents and young
adults. Sleep is essential for optimal functioning in everyday life and
adolescents often have delayed and irregular sleep patterns, with potentially
negative effects on academic performance and daytime functioning. A shower
of intensely cold white light increases short-term concentration and attention
and improve student performance. Similarly, when students gather in front of
the teacher to listen to a story, the lighting can be used to create a warm white
light and a pleasant and relaxing atmosphere
2.2.
Paradigm of the Study
INPUT
PROCESS
Plans
- Floor Plan
- Existing Lighting Layout
- Existing Lighting
Fixtures Schedule
Testing
- Illumination Testing of
Existing Lighting Layout
Tools and Software
- Lux Meter
- AutoCAD
Designing
- Desining in AutoCAD
- Software Calculations
- Design Trade-offs
Peopleware
- Theories and Principles
- Design Codes and
Standards
Cost and Estimation
- Analysis of Return of
Investments
DELIVERABLES
Improved Lighting
Layout of the Pasig City
Science High School
Building
- Lighting Fixture Layout
- Switching Layout
- Lighting Panel Diagram
- Lighting Fixture Schedule
Return of Investments
- Capital Cost
- Energy Savings
- Maintenance and
Operational Cost
Figure 2.1 Diagram of the Paradigm of the Study
Figure 2.1 shows the input, process, and deliverables of the
improvement of the existing lighting layout of the Pasig City Science building.
8
2.2.1. Inputs
A. Plans
One of the initial steps in preparing illumination design is
to secure the plans and other relevant documents regarding
the design. In order to proceed in this design project, the team
must first acquire the following plans from the client or
architect.
a. Floor Plan
b. Existing Lighting Layout
c. Existing Lighting Fixture Schedule
B. Tools and Software
Illuminance testing is to be accomplished in order to
evaluate the necessary improvements on the existing lighting
layout of the selected establishment. This would be carried
out with the use of a lux meter.
The team would use AutoCAD in designing an improved
lighting layout for the chosen establishment.
C. Peopleware
The team should have the required theories and principles
that should be taken into account before designing an
effective lighting layout. The team should also follow certain
design codes and standards for safety purposes.
2.2.2. Process
A. Testing
Illuminance
testing
on
the
area
of
the
chosen
establishment of is necessary in order to evaluate the existing
lighting layout if it follows the given illuminance standards.
B. Designing
a. Designing in AutoCAD
b. Software Calculation
9
c. Design Trade-offs
C. Cost and Estimation
The team should show the analysis of the estimated cost in
order to analyze the most effective design before they can
show the proposed designs to the client.
2.2.3. Deliverables
A. Improved Lighting Layout of the Pasig City Science High
School Building
a. Lighting Fixture Layout
b. Switching Layout
c. Lighting Panel Diagram
d. Lighting Fixture Schedule
B. Return of Investments
a. Capital Cost
b. Energy Savings
c. Maintenance and Operational Cost
10
CHAPTER III
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
3.1.
Illumination testing of existing systems
In order to assess whether the existing lighting system of the Pasig City
Science High School is following the standard set by the Department of
Education (DepEd) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
(IESNA), the design team performed illumination testing in the vicinities of the
chosen establishment. The team used a lux meter to measure the luminance
level on various points in a certain a room. The required height of the working
plane in a given type of room was also taken into consideration. The calculated
average of the recorded luminance level of the various points in a room would
be the overall lux level of the room under evaluation.
Together with the illuminance testing, the team also conducted survey
to evaluate if the existing lighting layout system is sufficient for the users, in
this case are the students, and if they encounter any problems with the existing
layout.
3.1.1.
Illumination Testing
Upon submitting the request letter to conduct illumination
testing to the person-in-charge, the team conduct the initial illumination
testing of existing systems using a lux meter, the team first identify the
points to be measured before conducting the test per classification of
room (e.g. classrooms, auditoriums, library, laboratories, cafeteria and
kitchen). For every room classification, the team prepared different set
points for testing. The height for the lux meter was based on the heights
for the working plane in every room classification. Luminance level of
the effective natural light within the room is also taken into account. The
results of the illuminance testing is shown below.
11
A.
Cafeteria
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
18.75 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.74 m
Figure 3.1 Testing points in the Cafeteria
Recorded data (from left to right)
B.
First row:
28 lux, 45 lux, 36 lux, and 16 lux
Second row:
52 lux, 58 lux, 66 lux, and 62 lux
Third row:
17 lux, 21 lux, 51 lux, and 10 lux
Average:
77 lux (below standard)
Kitchen
Required Luminance (IESNA):
150 lux
Room Area:
3.75 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.74 m
Recorded data (top to bottom):
59 lux, 57 lux, and 57 lux
Average:
57.7 lux (below standard)
12
Figure 3.2 Testing points in the kitchen
C.
Food Laboratory
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
7.5 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.8 m
Recorded data (from left to right):
First row:
351 lux, 241 lux, and 433 lux
Second row:
343 lux, 314 lux, and 301 lux
Average:
330.5 lux (within the standard)
13
Figure 3.3 Testing points in the Food Laboratory
D.
Faculty Office
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
2.75 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.73 m
Figure 3.4 Testing points in the Faculty Office
14
Recorded data (top to bottom):
60 lux, 57 lux, and 43 lux
Average:
E.
53.33 lux (below standard)
Library Office
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
3.75 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.72 m
Figure 3.5 Testing points in the Library Office
Recorded data:
84 lux, and 84 lux
Average:
F.
84 lux (below standard)
Library
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
22.5 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.72 m
15
Figure 3.6 Testing points in the Library
Recorded data (from left to right):
G.
First row:
104 lux, 53 lux, 91 lux, 111 lux, 168 lux, and 180 lux
Second row:
91 lux, 61 lux, 128 lux, 40 lux, 67 lux, and 80 lux
Average:
106.17 lux (below standard)
Prayer Room
Required Luminance (IESNA):
150 lux
Room Area:
3.75 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.5 m
Figure 3.7 Testing points in the Prayer Room
16
Recorded data (from left to right):
H.
First row:
39 lux, and 26 lux
Second row:
44 lux, and 16 lux
Average:
31.25 lux (below standard)
Restroom
Required Luminance (IESNA):
150 lux
Room Area:
2mx7m
Height of working plane:
0.84 m
Figure 3.8 Testing points in the Restrooms
Recorded data (from left to right):
First row:
72 lux, and 65 lux
Second row:
66 lux, and 67 lux
Third row:
83 lux, and 81 lux
Average:
72.33 lux (below standard)
17
I.
Classrooms
Overall, the establishment contains eleven classrooms. Every classrooms
have the same dimension and lighting layout design. The design was
able to conduct test for five classrooms. The team then computed for the
average and assumed the same average for all of the classrooms within
the establishment.
Required Luminance (DepEd):
215 lux
Room Area:
7.5 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.73 m
Figure 3.9 Testing points in the Classrooms
Recorded data (from left to right):
First row:
150 lux, and 136 lux
Second row:
141 lux, and 159 lux
Third row:
145 lux, and 169 lux
Average:
150 lux
Average (per classrooms):
133.33, 155.17, 130, and 142.83 lux
Overall average:
142.266 lux (below standard)
18
J.
Hallway
Required Luminance (IESNA):
100 lux
Room Area:
30 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0m
Figure 3.10 Testing points in the Hallway
Recorded data (from left to right):
K.
First half:
215 lux, 259 lux, 80 lux, and 98 lux
Second half:
68 lux, 31 lux, 35 lux, and 98 lux
Average:
106.875 lux (within the standard)
Auditorium (Stage)
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
6.275 m x 7 m
Height of working plane:
0.84 m
Recorded data (from left to right):
First row:
37 lux, and 32 lux
Second row:
51 lux, and 0.11 lux
Average:
30 lux
19
Figure 3.11 Testing points in the Auditorium (Stage)
L.
Auditorium (Fixed Seating)
Required Luminance (IESNA):
300 lux
Room Area:
15 m x 10 m
Height of working plane:
0.5 m
Figure 3.12 Testing points in the Auditorium (Fixed Seating)
20
Recorded data (from left to right):
M.
First row:
7 lux, 10 lux, 12 lux, and 20 lux
Second row:
7 lux, 11 lux, 11 lux, and 19 lux
Third row:
7 lux, 8 lux, 11 lux, and 20 lux
Average:
11.92 lux
Evidence Photos
Figure 3.13 Library illuminance testing
Figure 3.14 Classroom illuminance testing
21
Figure 3.15 Library illuminance testing
Figure 3.16 Prayer room illuminance testing
Figure 3.17 Auditorium (Stage) illuminance testing
22
Figure 3.18 Food Lab illuminance testing
Figure 3.19 Cafeteria illuminance testing
3.1.2.
Surveying
The team designed a questionnaire which they will distribute to
a number of students who use the facilities of the Pasig City Science
High School building. A survey is done in order to assess the satisfaction
of the users, which in this case are the students, to the current lighting
system of the said establishment. A sample size of sixteen students
answered the questionnaire for the assessment of the existing lighting
system. The samples were randomly picked and was solely based on the
classrooms with no on-going activities when the survey was conducted.
Attached is the questionnaire used by the design team.
23
A. Sample Questionnaire
24
B. Survey Results
Table 3.1 Survey Results
Question
Score
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
Yes
No
Every
Week
Every
Month
Every Year
Seldom
Yes
No
Excellent
Above
Average
Average
Below
Average
Poor
2
3
4
5
6
Room Assessed
401
403
302
4
4
2
2
1
2
2
4
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
5
3
2
3
2
Total
10
5
0
0
1
6
7
3
0
0
7
9
0
1
1
4
5
6
3
5
3
3
2
7
1
1
3
2
3
1
3
5
8
2
14
7
1
3
6
3
0
0
None
Overall satisfaction of the students:
4.44 (88.8%)
Quality of lighting fixture:
4.19 (83.8%)
Is there inconvenience due to busted lights:
44% (Yes)
Frequency of changing the fixture:
50% (Seldom)
Is there some problems with the lighting fixtures:
88% (Yes)
Quality of lighting system (w/o natural light):
4.25 (85%)
25
The results shows that the end-users of the facilities of Pasig City
Science High School Building are satisfied with the current lighting
system of the establishment. Based on the results of the survey, the
students are 88.8% satisfied with the current lighting system. The quality
of the current lighting system also scored a rather high value in
accordance to the students’ preferences. The results also suggest that
problems with the current lighting system are present which are mostly
due to maintenance.
3.2.
Design Strategies
To design an efficient and reliable illumination system in the existing
Pasig City Science High School, the team conduct proper illuminance testing
using a lux meter for the classrooms and particular areas in the building, and
observed the existing lighting system. After gathering data needed, the team
will assess it based on standards and make an appropriate improvements if it
fails to follow the standards and make this as their preliminary design. The
team would also design tradeoff(s) in order to establish options for the most
appropriate course of action for the improvement of the lighting system of the
Pasig City Science High School building. After making design tradeoff(s), the
team will select which of the following design tradeoffs is the most
advantageous.
The team used Lumen Method, an indoor lighting calculation
methodology, in the computation of the number of luminaires necessary to
achieve the standard average illuminance level, or alternatively, the
computation of the luminaire’s luminance output needed given number of
luminaires. It is an accurate method for indoor applications because it takes
into consideration the effect that inter-reflectance has on the level of
illuminance.
26
Lumen Method
N=
EA
(nø)(MF)(UF)
Where:
N = number of Luminaire Required
E = Maintained/Standard Illuminance (lux)
A = Room Area
 = Lamp Output (lux)
n = Number of Lamps in Luminaire
MF = Maintenance Factor
UF = Utilization Factor (lumens received in the Working Plane)
The utilization factor takes into consideration the portion of light that is
loss due to the absorption on the room surfaces. In acquiring the utilization
factor, three factors should be taken into account. These three factors are the
type of luminaire, room index, and reflectance of room surfaces.
Room Index
R. I. =
LxW
(L + W) Hm
L = Length of the room
W = Width of the room
Hm = Height of working plane
Table 3.2 Typical Reflectance Factor
Color
Light
White or Cream
0.7 or 0.8
Yellow
0.6
Light Green or Pink
0.5
Sky Blue or Grey
0.4
Beige or Brown
0.3
27
Table 3.2 shows the reflectance factors that the team would use in
acquiring the utilization factor. The table was obtained from Interior Lighting
Design: A Student’s Guide. After calculating for the room index and
determining the reflectance factor, the utilization factor is acquired from Table
3.3 shown below. Since all of the ceilings and walls in Pasig City Science High
School is white or cream, the team only focused on the first row of Table 3.3.
The table shown was also obtained from Interior Lighting Design: A Student’s
Guide.
Table 3.3 Typical Manufacturer’s data used to calculate utilization factor
Room
Room Index
reflectance
C
W
F
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
0.7
0.5
0.2
NA
0.61
0.65
0.67
0.70
0.71
0.73
0.74
0.75
0.3
NA
0.58
0.62
0.64
0.67
0.69
0.71
0.73
0.74
0.1
NA
0.56
0.59
0.62
0.65
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.73
NA
0.60
0.63
0.65
0.68
0.69
0.70
0.72
0.73
0.3
NA
0.58
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.72
0.1
NA
0.56
0.59
0.61
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.69
0.71
NA
0.59
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
0.3
NA
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.1
NA
0.55
0.58
0.60
0.63
0.65
0.66
0.68
0.68
NA
0.54
0.57
0.58
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.65
0.65
0.5
0.3
0.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
28
Calculations
Given all the necessary formulas and tables, the design team proceeded
to the calculation of the number luminaires required in a certain classification
of room. The team determined the required lumens per room classification
based on standards and selected a type of luminaire suitable for that room
classification. Table 3.4 shows all room classification present in Pasig City
Science High School and its respective standard luminance level.
Table 3.4 Standard Luminance per Room Classification
Room Classification
Minimum Luminance (lux)
Classroom
215
Faculty Office
300
Library Office
300
Restroom
150
Kitchen
150
Cafeteria
300
Food Laboratory
300
Hallway
100
Library
300
Auditorium (Stage)
300
Auditorium (Fixed Seating)
100
Prayer Room
150
The design team selected the luminaire to be used while taking into
account the type of room it will be installed on. The team also considered
aesthetics, wattage consumption, and the lux output of the luminaire. Philips
was the lighting manufacturer selected by the design team because Philips
provide all necessary components in their datasheets. Table 3.5 shows the
selected luminaire and lamp by the design team.
29
Table 3.5 Selected Lamp and Luminance per Room Classification
Room
Classification
Classroom
Faculty Office
Library Office
Luminaire
Lamp
BCS460
LED48/840
W22L124
LIN-PC
BBS560
LED35S/840
AC-MLO
BCS460
LED48/840
W22L124
LIN-PC
LED11S/840
Wattage
Lux Output
38
4400
34
3500
38
4400
11
1250
25
2700
Restroom
DN460B
Kitchen
PTP570P
Cafeteria
SP520P
LED15S/830
25
3000
SP520P
LED15S/830
25
3000
BCS460
LED48/840
W22L124
LIN-PC
38
4400
BCS460
LED48/840
W22L124
LIN-PC
38
4400
24
2700
LED20S/830
32
2000
LED28S/840
27
2800
Food
Laboratory
Hallway
Library
Auditorium
(Stage)
ST640T G2
Auditorium
RC415B G2
(Fixed Seating)
PSD W15L120
Prayer Room
SM402C PSU
W62L62
C
LED27S/840
WB DF
LED27S/840
MB
30
Table 3.6 shows the calculation for the room index. The distance of light
from the ceiling is also taken into consideration. Once the room index is
acquired, the utilization factor is taken from Table 3.3. All dimension
measurements are in metric.
Table 3.6 Calculation of Room Index
Room Index
3.15
0.73
0
2.42
1.5
Faculty Office
2.75
7
3.15
0.73
0
2.42
0.8
Library Office
3.75
7
3.15
0.72
0
2.43
1.0
Restroom
2
7
3.15
0.84
0
2.31
0.7
Kitchen
3.75
7
3.15
0.74
1.05
1.36
1.8
Cafeteria
18.75
7
3.15
0.67
1.05
1.43
3.6
Food Laboratory
7.5
7
3.15
0.8
1.05
1.3
2.8
Hallway
30
7
3.15
0
0
3.15
1.8
Library
22.5
7
3.15
0.72
0
2.43
2.2
6.275
7
3.15
0.84
0
2.31
1.4
15
10
6.115
1.78
0
4.335
1.4
3.75
7
2800
3.15
0.5
0
2.65
Auditorium
(Stage)
Auditorium
(Fixed Seating)
Prayer Room
Distance of
7
Light from
7.5
Classification
of
Height (m)
Ceiling
Relative Hm
Working Plane
(m)
Height
Ceiling
Room Width
Room Length
Classroom
Room
Table 3.7 shows the number of luminaires to be used based on the
calculated N.
31
Table 3.7 Selected Lamp and Luminance per Room Classification
Room
Classification
# of
E
A
n

MF
UF
N
Luminaires
to be used
Classroom
215
52.5
1
4400
1
0.67
4
4
Faculty Office
300
19.25
1
3500
1
0.61
3
3
Library Office
300
26.25
1
4400
1
0.61
3
3
Restroom
150
14
1
1250
1
0.61
3
3
Kitchen
150
26.25
1
2700
1
0.67
2
2
Cafeteria
300
131.25
2
3000
1
0.73
9
10
300
52.5
2
3000
1
0.71
4
4
Hallway
100
210
1
4400
1
0.67
7
7
Library
300
157.5
1
4400
1
0.7
15
16
300
43.925
1
2700
1
0.65
8
8
100
150
1
2000
1
0.65
12
12
150
26.25
1
2800
1
0.61
2
2
Food
Laboratory
Auditorium
(Stage)
Auditorium
(Fixed Seating)
Prayer Room
Sample Calculation
NClassroom =
NClassroom =
EA
(nø)(MF)(UF)
(215)(52.5)
[(1)(4400)](1)(0.67)
NClassroom = 3.83
Provide four luminaires for the classrooms
32
3.3.
Design Codes and Standards
Lighting must be responsive to the psychological and emotional needs
of the learners. Lighting can make a school pleasant and attractive, reinforce
feelings and spaciousness, delineate areas of different functions, stimulate
learning and improve behavior. The overreaching goal of educational facility
lighting is to provide a visual environment for both students and instructors
that is supportive of the learning processes. The recommended classroom
illuminance depends on the tasks to be performed. The tasks in most regular
classrooms that occupy most of a pupil’s time include writing, reading goodquality printed material, and reading from overheads, chalkboards and
whiteboards (IESNA, 2000).
In this design project, the design team referred to the DepEd Educational
Facilities Manual 2010 for the standard illumination level in school classrooms
and referred to the IESNA Lighting Handbook for the standard illumination
level for other facilities.
According to the DepEd Educational Facilities Manual 2010, for most
tasks common to schoolrooms, intensities of light from 20 to 40 foot candles are
considered practical and satisfactory. The design team considered the 20 foot
candles as the minimum standard. 20 foot candles is approximately equal to
215 lux.
Regarding on the other facilities, the team referred to IESBA Lighting
Handbook and was able to outline the table of minimum luminance shown
below.
33
Table 3.8 Standard Luminance per Room Classification according to IESNA
3.4.
Room Classification
Minimum Luminance (lux)
Faculty Office
300
Library Office
300
Restroom
150
Kitchen
150
Cafeteria
300
Food Laboratory
300
Hallway
100
Library
300
Auditorium (Stage)
300
Auditorium (Fixed Seating)
100
Prayer Room
150
Design Trade off
The design team put into consideration the improvement of the current
lighting system with a minimal cost of installation. This can be achieved by
only replacing the existing luminaires in a way that the new ones can achieve
the standard luminance per room with the same number of luminaire from the
existing lighting layout. Contradicting from the previous design, in which the
design team calculated for the number of required luminaire per room, the
tradeoff design will start with the number of luminaire per room then the
design team would calculate for the required lumens output per luminaire.
The tradeoff design is based from the existing lighting layout of Pasig
City Science High School. Since the layout of the lighting system in the
auditorium, the team used the lighting layout of the auditorium from the
previous design and adapted it to the new design. Using the utilization factor
achieved from the previous calculations, together with the number of
luminaires per classroom, the team calculated for the required lux output and
number of lamps of the luminaire to be used.
34
The first proposed improvement lighting system requires rewiring of
the lighting layout for every floor but the circuit breakers in every lighting
panel for every floor remains the same so rewiring of the panel boards are not
necessary. The same goes for the second proposed design. In this case, no
rewiring is required. The quantity and the location of the luminaires is the same
to the existing lighting layout design.
Table 3.9 Computation for the n requirement
Room
N
E
A
MF
UF
n
Classroom
4
215
52.5
1
0.67
4212
Faculty Office
3
300
19.25
1
0.61
4734
Library Office
3
300
26.25
1
0.61
6455
Restroom
3
150
14
1
0.61
861
Kitchen
2
150
26.25
1
0.67
2938
Cafeteria
9
300
131.25
1
0.73
2997
Food Laboratory
4
300
52.5
1
0.71
2773
Hallway
9
100
210
1
0.67
3483
Library
15
300
157.5
1
0.7
5625
Prayer Room
2
150
26.25
1
0.61
3227
Classification
Sample Calculation
nø =
EA
(N)(MF)(UF)
nøClassroom =
(215)(52.5)
(4)(1)(0.67)
nøClassroom = 4212 lux
Provide luminaire with one 4300 lux lamp or two 2150 lux lamps or any
combination providing a total of 4300 lux.
35
Note:

Use suspended luminaires for Cafeteria, Food lab, and Hallway
which have a 1.05 meter distance from the ceiling.

Choose for luminaires suitable for the room classification.
Table 3.10 Selected Lamp and Luminance per Room Classification (Design 2)
Room
n

Luminaire
Lamp
W
Classroom
1
4300
SM544C PSD L1
LED43S/840
35.5
Faculty Office
1
4740
RC088B W60L120
LED44S/840
56.1
Library Office
1
6600
4MX850 491
LED66SS/830
60
Restroom
1
940
DN570C PSED - E
LED12S/930
11.6
Kitchen
1
2942
PT570P
LED25S/840
36
Cafeteria
1
3000
SP480P W24L134
LED30S/840
25
1
2942
PT570P
LED25S/840
36
Hallway
1
3500
BCS460 W22L124
LED48/840
37.5
Library
1
6000
SM150C L1440
LED60S/840
55
Prayer Room
1
3800
DN570B PSED-E
Classification
Food
Laboratory
LED38S/TWH4000
33
36
CHAPTER IV
DESIGN ANALYSIS AND CALCULATIONS
4.1.
Design of Illumination Systems for Design 1
4.1.1.
Lighting Fixtures Lay-out
4.1.2.
Switching Lay-out
4.1.3.
Lighting Panel Diagram
4.1.4.
Lighting Fixture Schedule
37
4.1.5.
Cost and Estimation
Description
Qty
Rate (Php)
Amount (Php)
6
1,980
11,880
109
18,104.31
1,973,369.79
3
36,208.62
108,625.86
6
17,069.85
102,419.10
2
31,811.85
63,623.70
14
34,035.75
476,500.5
8
19,656
157,248
12
72,397.71
868,772.52
2
6,304.41
12,608.82
11
60
660
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
WORKS
Copper cables
(a) Royu RTN12A
150-meter roll 3.5 mm2 THHN
Luminaires (Philips Supplier)
(a) BCS460 W22L124
1 x LED48/840 LIN-PC
(b) BBS560
1 x LED35S/840 AC-MLO
(c) DN460B
1 x LED11S/840 C
(d) PTP570P
1 x LED27S/840 WB DF
(e) SP520P
1 x 15S/830
(a) ST640T G2
1 x LED27S/840 MB
(f) RC415B G2 PSD W15L120
1 x LED20S/830
(g) SM402C PSU W62L62
1 x28S/840
Switches
(a) Royu One Gang Switch with
Reflector
38
(b) Royu Two Gang Switch with
14
96
1,344
3
132
396
10
146
1,460
(a) Royu Junction Box RJB1
156
19
2,964
(b) Royu Utility Box RUB1
38
19
722
150
28
4,200
200
2
400
Reflector
(c) Royu Three Gang Switch with
Reflector
(d) Royu Three Gang 3-Way Switch
Utility Boxes
Conduits
(a) VENDEX 3-m 20 mm  PVC
pipe
(b) VENDEX 20 mm  PVC Male
Adapter
TOTAL
3,787,194.29
39
4.2.
Design of Illumination Systems for Design 2
4.2.1.
Lighting Fixtures Lay-out
4.2.2.
Switching Lay-out
4.2.3.
Lighting Panel Diagram
4.2.4.
Lighting Fixture Schedule
40
4.2.5.
Cost and Estimation
Description
Qty
Rate (Php)
Amount
(Php)
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
WORKS
Copper cables
(a) Royu RTN12A
2
1,980
3,960
(a) SM544C PSD L1
44
21,208.32
933,166.08
(b) RC088B W60L120
2
21,208.32
42,416.64
(c) 4MX850 491
2
9,828
19,656
(d) DN570C PSED - E
8
20,690.46
165,523.68
(e) PT570P
10
31,811.85
318,118.50
(f) SP480P W24L134
18
21,208.32
38,749.76
(g) BCS460 W22L124
45
29,747.50
1,338,637.50
(h) SM150C L1440
12
6,210.61
74,527.36
(i) DN570B PSED-E
2
7,977.04
15,954.09
(j) SM544C PSD L1
8
21,208.32
169,666.56
(k) SM402C PSU W62L62
3
6,440.50
19,321.50
(l) ST640T G2
8
19,557.09
156,456.72
(m)BCS360 W22L124
2
18,013.25
36,026.50
(n) G2 PSD RC415B W15L120
12
72,033.52
864,402.24
1
60
60
150-meter roll 3.5 mm2
THHN
Luminaire (Philips Supplier)
Switches
(a) Royu One Gang Switch
with Reflector
41
(b) Royu Two Gang Switch
1
96
96
1
132
132
(a) Royu Junction Box RJB1
25
19
475
(b) Royu Utility Box RUB1
3
19
57
50
28
1,400
53
2
106
with Reflector
(c) Royu Three Gang Switch
with Reflector
Utility Boxes
Conduits
(a) VENDEX 3-m 20 mm 
PVC pipe
(b) VENDEX 20 mm  PVC
Male Adapter
TOTAL
4,198,909.13
42
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this chapter, the design team would analyze the proposed designs
under three factors in order to acquire the most effective design to be adapted
as the new lighting system of Pasig City Science High School building.
5.1.
Analysis of Return of Investments
5.1.1. Capital Costs
Cost estimations for both the proposed design were already
performed in Chapter 4. The capital cost for the adaptation of the Design
1 as the new lighting system of Pasig City Science High School building
is Php 3,787,194.29. The capital cost for the installation of Design 2 on
the other hand is Php 4,198,909.13.
5.1.2. Energy Savings
The purpose of the improvement of the existing lighting system
of the Pasig City Science High School is to assure that the luminance
level per room classification is within the set standard. To guarantee that
the proposed improvement of lighting system is effective, the design
team analyzed the consumption of the existing lighting system and of
the proposed lighting system, and examined if energy savings were
achieved.
The design team analyzed the one school week consumption, a
total of five days, of the current lighting system assuming the operation
from 7:30 AM up to 7:30 PM. That is a total of sixty (60) hours. The
assumption is that all lighting fixtures are in full operation. The team
also analyzed the winning design under the same condition. The
calculation of the cost saved from the difference of consumption of the
existing lighting system and of the proposed lighting system is
43
necessary for the calculation of return of investment. Since the team has
no copy of the original lighting layout of the sixth floor of the Pasig City
Science High School building, the team considered the consumption for
the auditorium lighting system as a constant factor and can be neglected
for the computation of the difference of energy consumption between
the existing and the proposed design.
Table 5.1 shows the overall load rating of the existing lighting
system while Table 5.2 and 5.3 shows the load rating of the proposed
lighting layout. Table 5.4 shows the energy saved for design 1 and 2.
Table 5.1 Lighting load rating per floor of the existing layout
Existing Lighting Layout
Ground Floor
4 kW
Second Floor
2.7 kW
Third Floor
2.7 kW
Fourth Floor
3.4 kW
Fifth Floor
2.7 kW
15.5 kW
Total
Table 5.2 Lighting load rating of the Design 1 layout
Design 1 Lighting Layout
Luminaire
Rating
Qty
Overall
BCS460 W22L124
38 W
109
4.142 kW
BBS560
34 W
3
0.102 kW
DN460B
11 W
6
0.066 kW
PTP570P
25 W
2
0.05 kW
SP520P
25 W
14
0.35 kW
SM402C PSU W62L62
27 W
2
0.054 kW
Total
4.764 kW
44
Table 5.3 Lighting load rating of the Design 2 layout
Design 2 Lighting Layout
Luminaire
Rating
Qty
Overall
SM544C PSD L1
35.5 W
44
1.562 kW
RC088B W60L120
56.1 W
2
0.1122 kW
4MX850 491
60 W
2
0.12 kW
DN570C PSED - E
11.6 W
8
0.0928 kW
PT570P
36 W
2
0.072 kW
SP480P W24L134
25 W
18
0.45 kW
PT570P
36 W
8
0.288 kW
BCS460 W22L124
37.5 W
45
1.6875 kW
SM150C L1440
55 W
12
0.66 kW
DN570B PSED-E
33 W
2
0.066 kW
SM544C PSD L1
35.5 W
8
0.284 kW
Total
5.3945 kW
Table 5.4 Energy Savings Analysis
Energy Savings
Energy Consumption
For 60 hours
Saved Energy
Consumption
(kWhx – kWhExisting)
Existing
930 kWh
-
Design 1
285.84 kWh
644.16 kWh
Design 2
323.67 kWh
606.33 kWh
Using the kWh consumption saved from design 1 and design 2
we can compute for the return of investments. By multiplying the energy
savings with the current electricity rate of Meralco (approximately
Php10/kWh), the team achieved the weekly savings the operations of
45
the proposed designs. School years are commonly composed of 36
weeks.
Return of Investment =
ROI D1 =
Capital Cost
36 weeks Php 10
year x kWh x Energy savings
Php 3,787,194.29
36 weeks Php 10
year x kWh x 644.16 kWh
  = .  
ROI D2 =
Php 4,198,909.13
36 weeks Php 10
year x kWh x 606.33 kWh
  = .  
5.1.3. Maintenance and Operational Costs
The design decided that the maintenance cost for the proposed
lighting system to be equal to zero because of the long-life and lowmaintenance for LED lamps.
The operational cost is of each layout system was acquired from
the previous discussion. In a daily basis, the operational costs for the
designs 1 and 2 are 57.168 kWh and 64.734 kWh.
5.2
Approved Design for Retrofitting
Based from the data calculated by the design team, the team came to the
conclusion that design 1 is the winning design. This is based on the comparison
between the capital cost, energy savings, and operational cost.
Based on the survey conducted by the team, the students are satisfied by
the current existing layout. The team’s recommendation is if the Pasig City
Science High School targets to continue with their lightings system, the client
should improve their maintenance system.
46
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