“In 2018, about six hundred thousand Americans, and more than 7 million humans around the world, will die of cancer. In the United States, one in three women and one in two men will develop cancer during their lifetime. A quarter of all American deaths, and about 15 percent of all deaths worldwide, will be attributed to cancer. In some nations, cancer will surpass heart disease to become the most common cause of death.” goo.gl/g524QQ Restriction Point • Determines if a cell should divide, enter G 0 , or delay division G0 Normal Cell Function until cellular reproduction is required. Post Replication • Screens DNA for mutations Spindle Assembly (SAC) • Monitors the improperly connected spindle microtubules Apoptosis Programmed cell death Vocabulary: Oncogene: is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels. Proto-oncogene: a normal gene that can become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression. Mutation: a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Tumor Suppressor Gene: a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. RAS & MYC Promote cell growth for G1/S Promote cell survival Promote cell Activity P53 Cell arrest (inhibits cyclin and CDKs) Makes proteins for cell DNA repair Makes Proteins for cell Apoptosis!