2018, about six hundred thousand
Americans, and more than 7 million
humans around the world, will die of
cancer. In the United States, one in three
women and one in two men will develop
cancer during their lifetime. A quarter of all
American deaths, and about 15 percent of
all deaths worldwide, will be attributed to
cancer. In some nations, cancer will surpass
heart disease to become the most common
cause of death.”
Restriction Point
• Determines if a cell should divide, enter G 0 ,
or delay division
Normal Cell Function until cellular
reproduction is required.
Post Replication
• Screens DNA for mutations
Spindle Assembly (SAC)
• Monitors the improperly connected spindle
Programmed cell death
Oncogene: is a gene that has the potential to cause
cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or
expressed at high levels.
Proto-oncogene: a normal gene that can become an
oncogene due to mutations or increased expression.
Mutation: a permanent change in the DNA sequence of
a gene.
Tumor Suppressor Gene: a gene that reduces the
probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will
turn into a tumor cell.
RAS & MYC  Promote cell growth for G1/S
Promote cell survival
Promote cell Activity
P53  Cell arrest (inhibits cyclin and CDKs)
Makes proteins for cell DNA repair
Makes Proteins for cell Apoptosis!