Uploaded by Ramesh Venukadasula

Ionic bonding Notes

Ionic, Covalent bonding and naming of compounds
Valence Electrons are…?
The electrons responsible for the __________________ ______________________ of atoms, and are those in
the _______________ energy level.
Valence electrons - The ____ and ____electrons in the outer energy level or the _____________ occupied
energy level.
______________ electrons – are those in the energy levels below.
Keeping Track of Electrons
Atoms in the same column have the same outer __________________ configuration.
Have the same _________________ electrons.
The number of valence electrons are easily determined. It is the ______________ ___________ for a
representative element
Group 2A: Be, Mg, Ca, etc.
have _____ valence electrons
Electron Dot diagrams are…
A way of showing & keeping track of valence electrons.
Write the ____________ - it represents the nucleus and inner (core) electrons
Put one ___________for each ______________ electron (8 maximum)
They don’t __________ up until they have to (_____________ rule)
The _________________ Rule: in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve a _____________ gas
configuration; _________ in the _____________ level is stable
Each noble gas (except He, which has 2) has 8 electrons in the outer level
Formation of Cations
Metals ___________ electrons to attain a ____________ gas configuration.
They make positive ions (________________)
If we look at the electron configuration, it makes sense to lose electrons:
Na 1s22s22p63s1 1 valence electron
Na1+ 1s22s22p6
This is a noble gas configuration with 8 electrons in the outer level.
Electron Dots For Cations
Metals will have few valence electrons (usually 3 or less); calcium has only 2 valence electrons
Let’s do Scandium, #21
- The electron configuration is: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1
Thus, it can lose 2e- (making it 2+), or lose 3e- (making 3+)
Let’s do Silver, element #47
Predicted configuration is: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d9
Actual configuration is: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s14d10
____________________ (can’t lose any more, charges of 3+ or greater are uncommon)
Silver did the best job it could, but it did not achieve a __________ Noble Gas configuration
Instead, it is called a “_________________________________________ configuration”
Electron Configurations: Anions
Nonmetals ____________electrons to attain noble gas configuration.
They make negative ions (___________________)
S = 1s22s22p63s23p4 = 6 valence electrons S2- = 1s22s22p63s23p6 = noble gas configuration.
___________ ions are ions from chlorine or other halogens that gain electrons
All atoms _____________to try and achieve a noble gas configuration.
Noble gases have ____ s and ______ p electrons.
8 valence electrons = already stable! This is the _________________ ______________ (8 in the outer level is
particularly stable).
Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges (+ and -)
Ionic compounds are called ____________.
Simplest ratio of elements in an ionic compound is called the _______________ _____________.
The bond is formed through the _______________ of electrons (lose and gain)
Electrons are transferred to ___________________ noble gas configuration.
Made from: a ______________ with an ________________ (or literally from a metal combining with a
nonmetal). All the electrons must be accounted for, and each atom will have a noble gas configuration (which is
Properties of Ionic Compounds
___________________________ solids.
High _____________________ points.
Ionic solids are ________________________. When melted, the ions can move around.
Melted ionic compounds ____________________. Dissolved in water, they also conduct (free to move in aqueous
solutions). Ionic solids are __________________.
Bonding in Metals
Metals hold on to their valence electrons ___________ ___________________.
Think of them as positive ions (cations) floating in a sea of __________________,
Electrons are free to move through the solid. Metals conduct ________________________.
Metals are ________________________ and ______________________. Both malleability and ductility
explained in terms of the _______________________ of the valence electrons
Naming Ionic Compounds
Atoms are electrically _________________.
Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge
Naming cations
Stock system – uses ________________ numerals in parenthesis to indicate the numerical value
Classical method – uses root word with _________________ (-ous, -ic)
Cation - if the charge is always the same (like in the Group A metals) just write the name of the metal.
________________________ metals can have more than one type of charge.
Indicate their charge as a roman numeral in parenthesis after the name of the metal Predicting Ionic Charges
Some of the transition metals have only one ionic charge:
______________ need to use roman numerals for these:
Silver is always 1+ (Ag1+) and Cadmium and Zinc are always 2+ (Cd2+ and Zn2+)
Naming Anions
Anions are always the ____________ _____________________.
Change the monatomic element ending to __________
Names and Formulas for Bases
A base is an ionic compound that produces _____________________ ions (OH1-) when dissolved in water (the
Arrhenius definition)
Bases are named the same way as other ionic compounds:
The name of the cation (which is a metal) is followed by the name of the anion (which will be hydroxide).
Names and Formulas for Bases
NaOH is ________________________ hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 is ________________________ hydroxide
To write the formula:
Write the symbol for the ___________________________________.
followed by the formula for the hydroxide ion (OH1-)
then use the ________________________________method to ______________ the charges.
Practice by writing the formula for the following:
Magnesium hydroxide
Iron (III) hydroxide
Zinc hydroxide
Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
Naming Ionic Compounds
1. Name the _________________ first, then anion
2. Monatomic cation = name of the element
Ca2+ = calcium ion
3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide
Cl- = chloride
CaCl2 = calcium chloride
Naming Ionic Compounds
some metals can form more than one charge (usually the transition metals)
use a Roman numeral in their name:
PbCl2 – use the anion to find the charge on the cation (chloride is always 1-)
Pb2+ is the lead (II) cation
PbCl2 = lead (II) chloride
Things to look for:
1) If cations have ( ), the number in parenthesis is their ___________________.
2) If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic)
3) If anion ends in -ate or –ite, then it is polyatomic
Practice by writing the formula or name as required…
Iron (II) Phosphate
Stannous Fluoride
Potassium Sulfide
Ammonium Chromate
of the cation
Random flashcards
Arab people

15 Cards


20 Cards


30 Cards


17 Cards

Create flashcards