# report-xxx (1) ```Quaternary Phase Shift
Keying
Alison | Balagosa | Daniot | Macarayo | Simbajon | Cutab
QPSK Subtopics
QPSK TRANSMITTER
OFFSET QPSK
BANDWIDTH
CONSIDERATION OF
QPSK
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Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
 Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) is another
modulation technique, an other form of angle-modulated,
constant amplitude digital modulation and it’s a
particularly interesting one because it actually transmits
two bits per symbol.
 Therefore, with QPSK, the binary input data are
combined into groups of two bits called dibits.
 This two-bits-per-symbol performance is possible because the
carrier variations are not limited to two states. In QPSK,
the carrier varies in terms of phase, not frequency, and
there are four possible phase shifts.
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QPSK TRANSMITTER
The I bit modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference
oscillator, I for “in phase channel “ and Q bit modulates a carrier
that is 90 degree out of phase or in quadrature with the reference
carrier hence the name “Q is for quadrature channel”.
Note: for a logic 1= +1V and a logic 0=-1, two phases are possible
at the output of the I balanced modulator
+sin𝑤𝑐 t and -sin𝑤𝑐 t
And two phases are possible at the output of the Q balanced
modulator
+cos𝑤𝑐 t and - cos𝑤𝑐 t
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QPSK TRANSMITTER
Note : the binary information must be encoded entirely in the phase of the
output signal. This constant amplitude characteristic is the most important
characteristic of PSK that distinguishes it from QAM.
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QPSK TRANSMITTER
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Bandwidth considerations of QPSK
 With QPSK, because the input data are divided into two channels, the bit rate
in either I or the Q channel is equal to one-half of the input date rate
(fb/2). Consequently, the highest fundamental frequency present at the data
input to the I or the Q balanced modulator is equal to one-fourth of the
input data of the input data rate(one half of fb/2 = fb/4)
 As a result, the output of the I and Q balanced modulator requires a
minimum double-sided Nyquist bandwith equal to one-half of the incoming bit
rate (fN = twice fb/4 = fb/2).
 Also, because the QPSK output signal does not change phase until two bits
(a dibit) have been clocked into the bit splitter, the fastest output rate
of change (baud) is also equal to one-half of the input bit rate.
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Bandwidth considerations of QPSK
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Bandwidth considerations of QPSK
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Bandwidth considerations of QPSK
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The power splitter directs the input QPSK signal to the I and Q product detectors and the carrier recovery circuit. The
carrier recovery circuit reproduces the original transmit carrier oscillator signal. The recovered carrier must be frequency and phase
coherent with the transmit reference carrier. The QPSK signal is demodulated in the I and Q product detectors, which generate the
original I and Q data bits. The outputs of the product detectors are fed to the bit combining circuit, where they are converted from
parallel I and Q data channels to single binary output data stream.
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OFFSET QPSK
 Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is a
modified form of QPSK where the
bit waveforms on the I and Q
channels are offset or shifted
in phase from each other by onehalf of a bit time.
 Sometimes called OKQPSK (offsetkeyed QPSK).
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Offset QPSK
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OFFSET QPSK
 Because changes in the I channel
occur at the midpoints of the Q
channel bits and vice versa,
there is never more than a
single bit change in the dibit
code and, therefore there is
never more than a 90o phase shift
in the output phase.
 In conventional PSK, a change in
the input dibit from 00 to 01 or
01 to 10 causes a corresponding
180o shift in the output phase
 With OQPSK, the baud and minimum
bandwidth are twice that of
conventional QPSK for a given
transmission bit rate.
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OFFSET QPSK