Poetry Analysis Analytical Yr 12

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Practice Essay Task - Poetry
ABOUT YOUR EXAM
 You will be required to select ONE poem or song from a range of texts
which you have not analysed or discussed in class. You will choose
this poem/song from a collection of 4 poems (one related to each
theme/topic in the anthology – love, war, death and social issues) and
2 songs (related to two of the themes/topics in the anthology).
 You will have 15 minutes of perusal time, during which you may use
highlighters on the task sheet and selected poem/song. It is recommended that you develop a “colourcode” for highlighting and use your perusal time wisely.
 The length of the essay should be 500 words, not counting quotations or line references.
 You will have 90 minutes of working time, during which you may access a dictionary, thesaurus and/or
first language dictionary (provided these texts are not electronic)
 You will not have sufficient time to write a draft in the examination; it is recommended that you write a
detailed plan (you may wish to use a table to plan, as shown in Modules 2.2 and 2.3) and then write your
essay in your examination booklet. If you have planned effectively, you should not need to make major
revisions to your essay. Try to leave sufficient time at the end of the examination to edit and proofread
your essay.
The examination task will be very similar to the following practice essay task.
It is recommended that you complete as many practice essays as possible (each essay
should analyse ONE poem or song from the anthology studied this term).
When writing a practice essay, try to replicate the conditions of the Term 4 examination:
 Allow 15 minutes for reading the poem/song and using highlighters on this text
 Allow about 10 minutes to thoroughly plan the essay
 Allow about 70 minutes to write the essay
 Allow about 10 minutes to revise, edit and proofread the essay
PRACTICE ESSAY TASK
Write an analytical exposition to deconstruct ONE poem or song, in response to ONE of the options below:
Option 1
How does the poet promote particular ideas, attitudes and values through utilising aesthetic features and
constructing representations?
Option 2
How does the poet utilise aesthetic features and promote particular ideas, attitudes and values to
represent a theme or topic in a particular way?
Note: When writing a practice essay you can analyse any poem or song in the Term 4 Anthology.
Analysing a Poem or Song Lyrics
Both context and text are important when analysing a poem or song lyrics; they work
together to engage an audience and promote a particular perspective.
The context of a text can often provide additional insight into the ideas, attitudes and values of a poet or
lyricist/performer. This information can also reveal why a poet or lyricist/performer may have represented
a theme or topic in a particular way.
The context is anything beyond the poem or song that may contribute to its meaning. This could include:
 Biographical information about the poet or lyricist/performer
 Cultural information about the religion, values and language choices of the poet or lyricist/performer
 Historical and political information about the time when the poem or song was composed
 Other information such as the intended purpose and audience of the poem or song (as evidenced by
information from letters, interviews or other non-fiction sources)
The decisions the poet or lyricist/performer makes about form and use of poetic devices shape the text of
the poem or song. They reveal the perspective of the poet or lyricist/performer by representing the theme
or topic in a particular way and promoting specific ideas, attitudes and values.
Activities
Each time you respond to a poem or song lyrics, complete the following activities:
1.
Spend five minutes using Google to research the context of the poem/song. Note down anything you
believe may have influenced the way the theme or topic has been represented by the poet or
lyricist/performer.
2.
Who or what is represented in the poem/song?
Examples:
 War
 Love
 People in love
 Indigenous Australians
3.
Write bullet points to outline key representations in the poem/song.
Examples:
 Death is represented as something which should not be feared
 Grief is represented as a devastating emotion
 There is a negative representation of non-Indigenous Australians because it is suggested they don’t
respect the culture or rights of Indigenous Australians
4.
Write bullet points to identify ideas which are promoted in the poem (what the poet or
lyricist/performer believes about the theme or topic).
Examples:
 People in love experience extreme highs and extreme lows of emotion
 People should not fear death
 War is wrong because it leads to the death of many soldiers
5.
Write bullet points to sum up the overall attitude of the poet or lyricist/performer in relation to
aspects of the theme or topic.
Examples:
 The poet has a critical attitude towards people in love because he thinks they are foolish
 The lyricist has a positive attitude towards soldiers because she believes they are bravely defending
their nation
 The poet has a sympathetic attitude towards people who are mourning because he believes they are
emotionally devastated by the loss of a loved one
6.
Write bullet points to identify the values promoted in the poem or song (what the poet or
lyricist/performer thinks is very important and/or should be prioritised). If there is something the poet
or lyricist/performer clearly does NOT value, identify this too.
Examples:
 The poet values nature and Indigenous Australian culture
 The poet values honesty but does not value love, which he perceives as an illusion
7.
Explain how the poet has influenced the audience through
employment of the following aesthetic features:
(a) Choice of poetic form
(b) Use of sound devices (refer to the effects of specific poetic
devices)
(c) Use of imagery (refer to the effects of specific poetic devices)
(d) Other poetic devices (refer to the effects of specific poetic
devices)
Quotations and Vocabulary
NOTES
 All quotations on this document are from W. H. Auden’s poem Stop All the Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone
(Auden, 1996)
 Quote = a verb, “to state the words of others”.
Example: it is important to quote lines from Auden’s poem.
 Quotation = a noun, “the words of others”
Example: This is evident in the quotation, “Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead” (line 5).
 Abbreviations must never be used in formal academic writing (such as essays). Therefore “quote” must
never be used as an abbreviation of “quotation”.
USING QUOTATIONS
When using quotations in an essay, it is important to keep in mind that:
 Quotations are “someone else’s words” therefore they are not counted in word length
 A quotation cannot “make” your point for you. You need to write at least one sentence to explain the
significance of the quotation (how it is relevant to the point in a paragraph and/or the essay’s controlling
idea).
 It is not always necessary to use a quotation to support a statement. Sometimes it is more effective to use
your own words to sum up aspects of a poem or song which construct a representation or express ideas,
attitudes and values (refer to examples in Modules 2.4, 2.5 and 3.1).
 A quotation should be compiled of those words and phrases which best support a statement. It is not
always necessary to quote entire lines.
 When using a quotation to identify an aesthetic feature, it is necessary to show that you truly understand
the aesthetic feature. This can be achieved by embedding the quotation in a sentence and/or using
underlining.
o
Example 1: Alliteration of the “n” sound is evident in the words “nothing now” (line 16).
o
Example 2: Personification of an aeroplane is evident in the way it is described as “moaning” (line 5)
and “scribbling” (line 6)
Basic guidelines for using quotations are:
 Do not use quotations that are longer than two lines in length
 Use ... to delete words which are not needed to make your point
o Example: “He was… my noon, my midnight, my talk, my song” (lines
9-11)
 Use [ ] to add letters or words to ensure quotations “fit” in the context of
your essay and are easy for the reader to understand. Essay readers know
that letters and words between [ ] are those of the writer of the essay.
o Example 1: The idea that the poet’s grief prevents him from
appreciating nature’s beauty is conveyed in his desire to “put out every one [of the stars]” (line 13).
o Example 2: Grief is represented as so overwhelming that it makes the sufferer wish to destroy
anything of beauty. By “pour[ing] away the ocean” (line 15) and “sweep[ing] up the wood” (line 15),
sufferers of grief reject anything that could make them find peace or beauty. This representation
conveys the destructive nature of grief.
 Use quotations marks to format quotations (“ “)
 Acknowledge all quotations with line numbers
 Embed quotations within sentences and paragraphs
 ANALYSE important elements of quotations – how and why do they prove the point you are trying to
prove in a paragraph (connected to the controlling idea of the essay)?
USEFUL WORDS AND PHRASES:
Vocabulary related to analysis of a text (colour coding is used to group words and phrases that have similar
meanings):
 represents, representation, is represented when, is represented by
 constructs, is constructed by, the construction of










shapes, is shaped by
invites, is invited when, is invited in the way, thus invites, hence invites
influences, influencing, the audience is influenced to believe, the audience is influenced to accept,
the audience is influenced to perceive
positions, positioning, is positioned to accept
aesthetic features - imagery (simile, metaphor, personification, symbolism, hyperbole), sound
devices (rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia), other poetic devices (repetition,
irony, oxymoron, paradox, pun)
promotes the idea that, conveys the idea that, reflects the idea that, reveals the poet’s idea that
suggests that the poet believes, implies that the poet believes, reflects the poet’s perspective that,
promotes the poet’s perspective of
reflects a negative attitude about, implies the poet has a sympathetic attitude towards, reflects the
poet’s positive attitude regarding, suggests that the poet has a critical attitude towards, conveys the
poet’s judgemental attitude regarding
reflects the poet’s values, indicates that the poet values, conveys the way the poet values, promote
the value of
promotes the importance of, shows that the poet places importance on, conveys the way [insert
something specific] is considered to be important
General analytical vocabulary includes:
 is evidenced when, is evidenced by, exemplifies, as exemplified when, as exemplified in the way
 illustrates, displays, depicts, is depicted as, is depicted by, presents, conveys
 emphasises, highlights, establishes, further develops, signals, promotes
 suggests, implies, reveals
 reflects, mirrors, is consistent with
 opposes, challenges, contrasts with
Cohesive ties to link “lists”:
 in addition
 also
 another
 further, furthermore
 moreover
Cohesive ties to link points regarding comparisons (similarities and differences):
 Similarities – similarly, alike
 Differences – however, in contrast, unlike, on the other hand, while, despite this
Additional cohesive ties:
 Initially
 Later in the poem
 Consequently
 As a result
 Subsequently
ACTIVITY
Write an analytical exposition about the way W.H. Auden represents grief in his poem Stop All the
Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone. Ensure you use all the guidelines provided in Modules 2.2, 2.4, 3.1 and 3.2.
Bibliography
Auden, W. H. (1996). Stop All the Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone. In P. McFarlane, & L. Temple (Eds.), Blue
Light, Clear Atoms (p. 174). South Yarra: Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd.
Analytical Exposition Genre
DEFINITION AND PURPOSE
An analytical exposition is an extended text that develops and proves the writer’s thesis (controlling idea),
supported by formal analysis of a particular text. Analytical expositions are more commonly called “essays”.
The purpose of an analytical exposition is to convince readers of the validity of the analysis presented and
thereby prove the writer’s thesis (controlling idea).
OVERALL STRUCTURE
The structure of an analytical exposition is as follows:
 Introduction – one paragraph
 Body – three or four paragraphs
 Conclusion – one paragraph
Introduction:
The purpose of an introduction is to give readers an overview of the essay, making them aware of what the
writer will analyse/prove. No analysis of a text should be included in the introduction; all analysis belongs in
body paragraphs.
Features of a well-written introduction are:
 Title and “author” (in this case a poet)




Relevant contextual information (1-2 sentences that can be connected to the controlling idea)
Echo of task question/statement (use of key words in the task question)
Thesis (controlling idea which relates to the task question/statement)
Preview of body paragraphs
Example:
Task Question:
How does Carol Ann Duffy promote ideas, attitudes and values about love in her poem Valentine?
Introduction:
Carol Ann Duffy wrote Valentine after a radio producer asked her to write a poem
to celebrate Valentine’s Day, the annual celebration of romantic love. However,
instead of celebrating the romantic ideal of love, Duffy uses her free verse poem to
promote ideas, attitudes and values about what she perceives to be the reality of
love. This is evident through Duffy’s representation of the positive and negative
“realities” of love. Duffy’s use of aesthetic features, especially imagery and sound
devices, also convey her perspective about the nature of love.
ACTIVITY
Use coloured text highlighters to identify the different features of the introduction.
Conclusion:
The purpose of a conclusion is to remind readers of the main information presented in the
essay to prove the thesis (controlling idea). No new information should be included in the
conclusion, although the last sentence could leave readers with a “final thought” related
to controlling idea or the overall quality/power of the text analysed.
Features of a well-written conclusion are:
 Cohesive tie signalling the end of the essay eg “overall”, “in conclusion” or “it is evident that”
 Title and “author” (in this case a poet)
 Echo of task question/statement (expressed differently from words used in the introduction)
 Thesis (controlling idea which relates to the task question/statement, again avoid repeating a sentence
already used in the essay)
 Summary of body paragraphs (three or four sentences)
 Optional – final thought (eg a comment about the overall quality or relevance of the text OR reflecting
on the representations/ideas/attitudes/values promoted in the text)
Example:
Task Question:
How does Carol Ann Duffy promote ideas, attitudes and values about love in her poem Valentine?
Conclusion:
There can be no doubt that Carol Ann Duffy has constructed Valentine to promote both positive and negative
ideas, attitudes and values about love. She represents love as something that can be long lasting and bring
happiness but also highlights the way love can cause pain and distress. Imagery is constructed through the
use of metaphors and similes which convey Duffy’s ideas about the positive and negative aspects of love.
Assonance and alliteration are other aesthetic features used in the poem; these sound devices are designed
to draw attention to Duffy’s contrasting attitudes about the reality of love. Overall, Duffy’s poem influences
the audience to question the idealised image of romantic love usually promoted on Valentine’s Day and
become more realistic about the dual nature of love.
ACTIVITY
Use coloured text highlighters to identify the different features of the conclusion.
Body Paragraphs:
The purpose of body paragraphs is to develop (and establish the validity of) the controlling idea identified in
the essay’s introduction. Each body paragraph should:
 Focus on a different point (argument) which is clearly identified in a topic sentence
 Prove the point through providing evidence, including relevant quotations which are
explained and analysed
 Include cohesive ties which connect sentences in the paragraph
 Include a concluding sentence which sums up how the paragraph relates to the
controlling idea and connects to the next body paragraph
All paragraphs should have the components identified on the previous page. However, paragraphs can
have slightly different structures. The following examples may be appropriate for your essay.
STRUCTURE
CONTENT
EXAMPLE
PEEL
P – point (topic sentence)
E – evidence
E – explain
L – link (concluding
sentence)
Duffy represents some positive aspects of love. This
is evident in her reference to the way love
“promises light” (lines 4-5) and can be “faithful”
(line 15). By metaphorically comparing love to
moonlight, Duffy constructs a romantic image of
love, conveying the idea that love can bring
happiness and romance. She also points out that
love can be long lasting and therefore “faithful”. In
these ways, Duffy promotes a positive attitude
towards love but her poem also represents
negative aspects of love.
TS
SQE x2
CS
Topic sentence
S – state the point
Q – quotation or other
evidence
E – explain
Repeat SQE to make a
different (but related)
point
Concluding sentence
Duffy represents love in a way that reflects her idea
about its dual nature. On some lines the poem
constructs love positively. For example, Duffy
creates the image of lovers undressing by
moonlight in a way that “promises light” (lines 4-5).
This conveys her idea that love can be connected to
a type of romantic tenderness which brings
happiness. However, in many lines Duffy represents
love negatively. This is particularly evident in stanza
two, which emphasises the pain and “tears” (line 7)
which can result from love. This representation
promotes Duffy’s idea that love can cause despair
and grief. Duffy’s contrasting representations of
love, enhanced by imagery, are designed to
influence the audience to accept that there are both
positive and negative aspects of love.
TS
SQEQE
CS
Topic sentence
S – state the point
Q – quotation or other
evidence
E – explain
Q – different quotation or
evidence
E – explain
Concluding sentence
Imagery is an aesthetic feature Duffy uses to
influence her audience to accept her perspective of
love. In particular, Duffy makes extensive use of
metaphors to convey her ideas about love. One
example is on lines 13-14: “I give you an onion. Its
fierce kiss will stay on your lips”. This metaphor
compares a possessive kiss between lovers with the
way the smell and taste of an onion remains on a
person’s skin. As people generally do not like the
smell and lingering taste of an onion, the metaphor
conveys Duffy’s idea that love can be long lasting
but that its effects are not always positive. Another
significant metaphor is contained within the simile
“it will blind you with tears like a lover” (lines 7-8).
The metaphor “blind you with tears” compares
having vision forcibly removed with the way an
onion can make someone unable to see because of
tears caused by the onion’s biological composition.
Within the bigger context of the simile “like a
lover”, the metaphor therefore conveys Duffy’s
negative attitude towards love. She is clearly trying
to influence the audience to accept the idea that
love can make someone “blind” to reality - such as
the faults of a lover or a lover’s ability to cause pain.
Imagery, along with sound devices, are definitely
designed to encourage the audience to perceive
Duffy ‘s idea of the “reality” of love.
Planning Your Essay
Topic and concluding sentences are vitally important in correctly structuring a paragraph
and creating a cohesive essay. Topic sentences should identify the point of the paragraph.
Concluding sentences should sum up how the paragraph relates to the controlling idea
and connect to the next body paragraph.
Once you have carefully planned topic and concluding sentences, it is much easier to draft
an essay. Consider the example below:
Task Question:
How does Carol Ann Duffy promote ideas, attitudes and values about love in her poem Valentine?
Essay
Carol Ann Duffy wrote Valentine after a radio producer asked her to write a poem to celebrate Valentine’s
Day, the annual celebration of romantic love. However, instead of celebrating the romantic ideal of love,
Duffy uses her free verse poem to promote ideas, attitudes and values about what she perceives to be the
reality of love. This is evident through Duffy’s representation of the positive and negative “realities” of love.
Duffy’s use of aesthetic features, especially imagery and sound devices, also convey her perspective about
the nature of love.
Planning for Body Paragraphs
Paragraph 1 – Representations (Positive)
Topic Sentence
Duffy represents some positive aspects of love.
Concluding Sentence
Although these aspects of the poem represent love positively, a negative
representation is much more evident.
Paragraph 2 – Representations (Negative)
Topic Sentence
Throughout her poem, Duffy influences the audience to perceive what she considers to
be the harsh reality of love.
Concluding Sentence
This negative representation of love is enhanced by imagery, which Duffy employs
throughout the poem to promote her ideas, attitudes and values.
Paragraph 3 – Imagery
Topic Sentence
Metaphor and simile are the main poetic devices Duffy utilises to influence her
audience through imagery.
Concluding Sentence
Imagery, in conjunction with sound devices, is designed to influence the audience to
accept the idea that the reality of love involves pain as well as joy.
Paragraph 4 – Sound Devices
Topic Sentence
Sound devices such as assonance and alliteration draw attention to lines which promote
Duffy’s ideas and attitudes about the “reality” of love.
Concluding Sentence
Duffy’s expert use of assonance and alliteration definitely encourage the audience to
accept her ideas about love.
There can be no doubt that Carol Ann Duffy has constructed Valentine to promote both positive and negative
ideas, attitudes and values about love. She represents love as something that can be long lasting and bring
happiness but also highlights the way love can cause pain and distress. Imagery is constructed through the
use of metaphors and similes which convey Duffy’s ideas about the positive and negative aspects of love.
Assonance and alliteration are other aesthetic features used in the poem; these sound devices are designed
to draw attention to Duffy’s contrasting attitudes about the reality of love. Overall, Duffy’s poem influences
the audience to question the idealised image of romantic love usually promoted on Valentine’s Day and
become more realistic about the dual nature of love.
GUIDELINES
When writing an analytical exposition, there are some general guidelines:
DO
☑
Create a controlling idea that is directly related to a task question/statement
☑
Ensure all body paragraphs are designed to prove the controlling idea
☑
Sequence body paragraphs in the same order they were “previewed” in the introduction
☑
Provide quotations to support statements and analyse how those quotations prove the controlling idea
☑
Embed quotations in sentences and paragraphs (using connecting sentences and cohesive ties)
☑
Write a topic sentence for each body paragraph – clearly identifying the focus of the paragraph, without
providing any analysis
☑
Write a concluding sentence for each body paragraph – summing up how the paragraph connects to the
controlling idea and linking to the next body paragraph
☑
Use cohesive ties to link sentences within paragraphs
☑
Use present tense
☑
Underline the title of the poem or song (to correctly punctuate the title)
☑
Refer to the poet by his or her whole name OR surname (for example Jack Davis or Davis)
☑
Refer to the lyricists as well as the performer when analysing a song, as the lyricists are the ones
responsible for constructing representations, using aesthetic features and promoting ideas, attitudes
and values
☑
Maintain a formal, analytical and objective tone (do not use emotive or biased word choices)
DO
NOT
☒
Include unnecessary contextual information not related to the controlling idea
☒
Write so much about contextual information that you do not have time to include sufficient analysis of
the poem or song (most of your 500 words should be spent analysing the selected text)
☒
Include analysis in the introduction (it belongs in body paragraphs)
☒
Include new details or evidence in the conclusion (it belongs in body paragraphs)
☒
Summarise subject matter or make general comments that do not relate to the task question/statement
☒
Include quotations or line numbers when “counting word length”
☒
Use informal language
☒
Use abbreviations
☒
Use personal pronouns (eg “you”, “we”, “our”, “my”)
☒
Refer to the poet by his or her first name (eg Jack)
☒
Use headings
Scaffolded Analysis - Representations
Complete the tables below to analyse any poem or song from the anthology provided. This
document is designed to scaffold an essay with a controlling idea about representations.
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE ESSAY’S INTRODUCTION
Title of Poem or Song
Poet or Lyricist/Performer
What poetic form has been used to represent the theme or
topic?
Who or what is most represented in the poem or song and
will be the main focus of the essay? (What is the theme or
topic?)
(For example: love, death, war, women’s rights, people in
love, mourners, nature, non-Indigenous Australians,
Indigenous Australians, racism)
Context of Poem or Song
Identify any aspects of the context of the poem or song which
may have influenced the way the poet/lyricist/performer
represented the theme or topic, such as:
 Life experiences of the poet/lyricist/performer
 The religion or culture of the poet/lyricist/performer
 The time and place in which the poem or song was written
 Known information about the intended audience and
purpose of the poem or song
Controlling Idea
(1 sentence which sums up how the theme or topic is
represented in the poem or song, as evident in the following
table)
Continued next page…
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
Focus Area of Body Paragraph
Ideas, Attitudes and Values
 Ideas: What does the poet/lyricist/performer believe
about the theme or topic represented in the poem or
song?
 Attitudes: Sum up the overall attitude of the
poet/lyricist/performer in relation to aspects of the
theme or topic represented in the poem or song?
 Values: What does the representation of the theme or
topic reveal about the values of the
poet/lyricist/performer? (What is perceived to be
important? What is perceived to be unimportant?)
Poetic Devices: Sound Devices
How have two or more of the following sound devices been
used to influence the audience about the theme or topic?
 Rhyme
 Rhythm
 Alliteration
 Assonance
 Onomatopoeia
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience to accept the representation in the selected
poem or song.
Continued next page…
Analysis
(A
Focus Area of Body Paragraph
Poetic Devices: Imagery
How have two or more of the following poetic devices been
used create imagery designed to influence the audience
about the theme or topic?
 Simile
 Metaphor
 Personification
 Symbolism
 Hyperbole
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience to accept the representation in the selected
poem or song.
Other Poetic Devices:
How have two or more of the following poetic devices been
used to influence the audience about the theme or topic?
 Repetition
 Irony
 Oxymoron
 Paradox
 Pun
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience to accept the representation in the selected
poem or song.
Continued next page…
Analysis
(A
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE ESSAY’S CONCLUSION
Title of Poem or Song
Poet or Lyricist/Performer
Write 1 sentence to comment on the overall representation
of the theme or topic (eg positive, negative, critical,
sympathetic, powerful)
Restate the controlling idea, using slightly different wording
from that used in the introduction
Write 1 sentence to sum up body paragraph 1, reflecting on
how the poet/lyricist/performer has represented the theme
or topic to promote particular ideas, attitudes and values
Write 1-2 sentences to sum up how a range of poetic devices
have been used to influence the reader to accept the
representation of the theme or topic (to sum up body
paragraphs)
2.3 Scaffolded Analysis – Ideas, Attitudes and Values
Complete the tables below to analyse any poem or song from the anthology provided. This
document is designed to scaffold an essay with a controlling idea about ideas, attitudes and
values.
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE ESSAY’S INTRODUCTION
Title of Poem or Song
Poet or Lyricist/Performer
What poetic form has been used to promote the ideas,
attitudes and values of the poet/lyricist/performer?
What is the theme or topic about which the
poet/lyricist/performer is conveying ideas, attitudes and
values?
(For example: love, death, war, women’s rights, people in
love, mourners, nature, non-Indigenous Australians,
Indigenous Australians, racism)
Context of Poem or Song
Identify any aspects of the context of the poem or song which
may have influenced the poet’s perspective in relation to the
theme or topic, such as:
 Life experiences of the poet/lyricist/performer which may
have affected ideas, attitudes and values
 The religion or culture of the poet/lyricist/performer
 The time and place in which the poem or song was written
 Known information about the intended audience and
purpose of the poem or song
Controlling Idea
(1 sentence which sums up the ideas, attitudes and values
promoted about the theme or topic, as evident in the
following table)
Continued next page…
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
Focus Area of Body Paragraph
Representations
 How does the poet/lyricist/performer represent people
or places to influence the audience to accept particular
ideas, attitudes and/or values?
 How does the poet represent events and/or concepts
(such as war, love, death, justice, racism) to influence
the audience to accept particular ideas, attitudes and/or
values?
Note: It may be necessary to write more than one
paragraph, if there is more than one significant
representation.
Poetic Devices: Sound Devices
How have two or more of the following sound devices been
used to influence the audience to accept particular ideas,
attitudes and values?
 Rhyme
 Rhythm
 Alliteration
 Assonance
 Onomatopoeia
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience by promoting particular ideas, attitudes and
values in the selected poem or song.
Continued next page…
Analysis
(A
Focus Area of Body Paragraph
Poetic Devices: Imagery
How have two or more of the following poetic devices been
used create imagery designed to influence the audience to
accept particular ideas, attitudes and values?
 Simile
 Metaphor
 Personification
 Symbolism
 Hyperbole
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience by promoting particular ideas, attitudes and
values in the selected poem or song.
Other Poetic Devices:
How have two or more of the following poetic devices been
used to influence the audience to accept particular ideas,
attitudes and values?
 Repetition
 Irony
 Oxymoron
 Paradox
 Pun
Note: It is only necessary to compose 2 body paragraphs
about poetic devices. You should write about the two
groups of poetic devices which most influence the
audience by promoting particular ideas, attitudes and
values in the selected poem or song.
Continued next page…
Analysis
(A
SUBJECT MATTER FOR THE ESSAY’S CONCLUSION
Title of Poem or Song
Poet or Lyricist/Performer
Write 1 sentence to comment on the overall perspective
promoted in the poem or song, in relation to the theme or
topic (eg positive, negative, critical, sympathetic, powerful)
Restate the controlling idea, using slightly different wording
from that used in the introduction
Write 1-3 sentences to sum up the body paragraphs,
reflecting on how the poet/lyricist/performer has promoted
particular ideas, attitudes and values through:
representations and poetic devices
Student’s Name
Feedback Sheet – Analytical Exposition (Essay)
The purpose of this document is to provide feedback regarding the extent to which your practice analytical exposition fulfils known requirements of
the upcoming examination. Teachers may also offer verbal feedback not recorded here. The essay produced in examination conditions must
analyse an unseen poem or song, in response to an unseen question; the practice essay should not be viewed as a “draft”.
Senior English criteria and standards are assessed across three dimensions:
Dimension 1 – Understanding and Responding to Contexts
Dimension 2 – Understanding and Controlling Textual Features
Dimension 3 – Creating and Evaluating Meaning (in this task only ‘Evaluating Meaning’ will be assessed)
Task Element
The essay demonstrates knowledge and
understanding of:
 The selected poem or song
 The way the poet or lyricist/performer has
influenced an audience
The introduction of the essay includes:
 The title of the poem or song (correctly
punctuated) and poet or lyricist/performer
 The form of the poem/song
 Relevant information about the context of the
poem/song (no longer than two sentences)
 One sentence stating the controlling idea
(identifying the representation OR summing
up the ideas, attitudes and values promoted)
 1-2 sentences previewing the body
paragraphs (identifying the focus of each
body paragraph, in order)
Dimension
Feedback



1, 3
1

Good
Satisfactory
Needs improvement – limited (or only superficial) knowledge of
the poem/song has been demonstrated
Needs improvement – the essay summarises or reflects on
aspects of subject matter (instead of analysing representations
OR ideas/attitudes/values)
Serious problem area




Good
Satisfactory
Needs Improvement (refer to details below)
Serious Problem (refer to details below)

Specific Feedback:
 Could be developed with more depth and/or sophistication
 Contains irrelevant subject matter
 Too much detail is provided (some subject matter should be
deleted or moved to the body of the essay)
 The controlling idea is unclear and/or not related to the task
question
 Does not contain all required elements (refer to details identified
in column 1)
 Revision of sentence structure, word choices and/or punctuation
is required
The body of the essay is comprised of 3 or 4 body
paragraphs which develop the controlling idea in
response to one task question:
 The ideas, attitudes and values promoted in
the poem/song (ONLY if the selected question
relates to representations)
 Representations in the poem/song (ONLY if
the selected question relates to ideas,
attitudes and values)
 The author’s use of at least two of the
following categories of aesthetic features:
- Imagery (simile, metaphor, personification,
symbolism, hyperbole)
- Sound devices (rhyme, rhythm, alliteration,
assonance, onomatopoeia)
- Other devices (repetition, irony, oxymoron,
paradox, pun)
Body paragraphs are effectively structured:
 Ideas are effectively grouped and sequenced
 There is only one main idea for each
paragraph
 There is a topic sentence signalling the main
idea (the critical literacy concept that will be
analysed, connected to the controlling idea)
 Elaboration and supporting evidence are
provided
 There is a concluding sentence connecting
the content of the paragraph to the controlling
idea and (if appropriate) linking to the next
body paragraph




1, 3
Specific Feedback:
 Needs to demonstrate increased depth of insight into the
poem/song (refer to details identified in column 1)
 Insufficient understanding of aesthetic features has been
demonstrated
 Contains irrelevant subject matter
 Contains subject matter that is not clearly connected to the
controlling idea
 Does not contain sufficient evidence
 The selected quotations do not effectively support statements
 The selected quotations are not sufficiently analysed
 The quotations are too long and need to be reduced (so the
significant words are quoted and embedded in the analysis)
 At times there is a focus on summarising subject matter, instead
of analysing the way the poem/song is designed to influence
readers by constructing a specific representation or promoting
particular ideas, attitudes and values
 Revision of sentence structure, word choices and/or punctuation
is required




1, 2


1
Good
Satisfactory
Needs Improvement (refer to details below)
Serious Problem (refer to details below)
Specific Feedback:
 Contains irrelevant subject matter
 There is repetition or “overlapping” of content
 Sequencing of paragraphs requires revision
 Paragraphs contain more than one main idea
 Cohesive ties (linking) need refinement
 Topic sentences are missing or require revision
 Concluding sentences are missing or require revision
 There is insufficient or ineffective elaboration and supporting
evidence



The conclusion of the essay:
 Refers to the title and poet/lyricist/performer
 Re-states the controlling idea
 Sums up the main points of the essay – how
the “body” paragraphs have “proved” the
controlling idea (no more than 3 sentences)
 Optional – includes a “final thought” (related
to the controlling idea; designed to influence
readers of the essay by evoking thought about
the selected poem/song or the
poet/lyricist/performer)
Good
Satisfactory
Needs Improvement (refer to details below)
Serious Problem (refer to details below)





Good
Satisfactory
Needs improvement – could be developed with more depth
and/or sophistication
Needs improvement – contains irrelevant subject matter or
“new” subject matter not developed in the body of the essay
Needs improvement – too much detail is provided (some subject
matter should be moved to the body of the essay)
Needs improvement – the controlling idea is unclear and/or not
related to the task question
Needs improvement – is too similar to the introduction and
doesn’t “signal” the end of the essay
Needs improvement – does not contain all required elements
(refer to details identified in column 1)
Needs improvement – revision of sentence structure, word
choices and/or punctuation is required
Serious problem area
Control of textual features is evident in
vocabulary choices:
 Formal academic word choices are employed
throughout the essay
 A range of sophisticated vocabulary has been
used to influence the reader to accept the
controlling idea
 Terminology related to poetic devices is
utilised correctly throughout the essay
 No abbreviations have been used
 There are no first person pronouns (eg “I”,
“my”, “our”, “we”)



2


Specific Feedback:
 There is insufficient reference to specific poetic devices
 There are lapses in the use of formal academic language
 Words don’t always “fit” in the context of sentences
 Includes abbreviations
 Includes first person pronouns





Sentences demonstrate control of textual
features:
 There is effective use of a range of sentence
structures
 Written expression is articulate and fluent
 Grammatical accuracy is sustained
throughout the essay
2

2







There is sufficient length to meet task
requirements
1, 3
Good
Satisfactory
Satisfactory but greater range and sophistication of sentence
structures would enhance the essay
Needs Improvement (refer to details below)
Serious Problem (refer to details below)
Specific Feedback:
 There are some run-on sentences that should be revised into
separate sentences
 Some sentences are “fragmented” (incomplete)
 There are lapses in written expression (the way points are
expressed)
 Errors in written expression make it difficult for readers to clearly
understand points
 There are lapses in the use of pronouns (eg “he” and “it”) which
lead to ambiguity
 There are lapses in grammar
 There is too much repetition of some sentence structures
 Includes abbreviations
 Includes first person pronouns


There is accurate use of:
 Punctuation
 Spelling
Good
Satisfactory
Satisfactory but you could enhance the quality of the essay by
increasing the sophistication of word choices
Needs Improvement (refer to details below)
Serious Problem (refer to details below)




Yes
Needs improvement - punctuation is accurate but some lapses
in spelling are evident
Needs improvement - spelling is accurate but some lapses in
punctuation are evident
Needs improvement - there are lapses in both spelling and
punctuation
No – punctuation is a serious problem
No – spelling is a serious problem
No – both punctuation and spelling are serious problems
Yes
Yes but you should consider revising to reduce length
Yes but further development of some points would enhance the
essay
Yes but there is insufficient relevant subject matter
No - it’s too short
No – it’s too short because most of the essay is comprised of
quotations
No - it’s too long
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