The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Lesson 2 The Renaissance in Northern Europe The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Lesson 2 The Renaissance in Northern Europe Learning Objectives • Describe the themes that northern European artists, humanists, and writers explored. • Explain how the printing revolution shaped European society. The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Lesson 2 The Renaissance in Northern Europe Key Terms • • • • • • • • Flanders Albrecht Dürer engraving Erasmus Sir Thomas More utopian William Shakespeare Johannes Gutenberg Artists of the Northern Renaissance In the mid-1300s, the Black Death had reduced the population of Europe by one-third and brought the economy to a standstill. Italy recovered fairly quickly and was soon the center of the Renaissance and its creative upsurge. Only after 1450 did northern Europe enjoy the economic growth that had earlier supported the Renaissance in Italy. Artists of the Northern Renaissance • Flemish Painters - Flanders (Beginning of the Northern Renaissance) - Jan van Eyck (Portrayals of Townspeople & Religion) (New Techniques for oil paint) - Pieter Bruegel “Peasant Bruegel” (Secular Art/Peasants) (Ordinary Life) • Albrecht Dürer: A “German Leonardo” - Among most influential of N. Renaissance - New Methods (Paintings, Engravings, Prints) - Interests far beyond art Video Artists of the Northern Renaissance Analyze Information Pieter Bruegel painted this scene of Flemish working life called The Harvesters in 1565. What are some Renaissance characteristics of this painting? Northern Renaissance Humanists and Writers Like the Italian humanists, northern European humanist scholars stressed education and classical learning. At the same time, they emphasized religious themes. They believed that the revival of ancient learning should be used to bring about religious and moral reform. New Vernacular = Larger Audience Northern Renaissance Humanists and Writers • Erasmus (Dutch) - Priest 1492; Applied Knowledge of Language - Greek New Testament, Latin Translation of Bible, Translation of Bible into the Vernacular - Called for Reforms in Church • Sir Thomas More (English) - Pressed for social & economic reform - Wrote book that described ideal society; Utopia • Shakespeare Explores Universal Themes (English) - Advanced Renaissance Lit - Themes: Complexity of Individual, Importance of Classics - Comedies, Histories, Tragedies - 1,700 words: bedroom, lonely, generous, hurry, sneak. Northern Renaissance Humanists and Writers Desiderius Erasmus was a Dutch priest and humanist scholar who was active during the Northern European Renaissance. He believed an individual's chief duties were to be open-minded and to show good will toward others. The Printing Revolution Johannes Gutenberg with the first printing press in 1450s Mainz, Germany The Printing Revolution The great works of Renaissance literature reached a large audience. The reason for this was a crucial breakthrough in technology—the development of printing in Europe. • The New Technology Johannes Guttenberg (1456) – printed complete edition of Christian Bible Age of Printing began and technology spread to Italy, Netherlands, England Before Press (few thousand) 1500 (15-20 million) 1600 (150-200 million) • The Impact of the Printed Book - Price - More Education / Learned to Read & Write - Access to Knowledge - Contributed to religious turmoil as ideas spread faster The Printing Revolution Analyze Charts The chart shows the effects of the printing press in Europe. Is it likely or unlikely that in 1500, only the largest European capital cities had printing presses? Quiz: Artists of the Northern Renaissance What Renaissance artistic theme appeared in the works of Van Eyck and Bruegel? A. B. C. D. the rise of the merchant class peasant life poverty in the cities religious scenes Quiz: Northern Renaissance Humanists and Writers What was a goal that the writers Erasmus and More had in common? A. B. C. D. telling comical tales translating biblical stories changing and reforming society abandoning old religions Quiz: The Printing Revolution What was one impact of the printing revolution on European society? A. European readers learned classical languages as books became widely available. B. More people had access to knowledge because books became less expensive. C. Books were published in great numbers but were a luxury that only the wealthy could afford. D. The printing press made books more elegantly designed than in the past.