Cell Vocab

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Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a membrane through the lipid bilayer
Vacuole
Storage vesicle for water, food, wastes other substances. 1 large
vacuole in plants, many small vacuoles in animals.
Nucleus
Controls all cell activities and protein production. Contains the
DNA and nucleolus.
Cytoplasm/Cytosol
Mitochondria
Cell liquid in which chemical reactions occur. Holds
and cushions the organelles.
Converts glucose into ATP (energy a cell can use) in the
process of cellular respiration. The powerhouse of the cell.
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Chloroplast
A double-layered lipid membrane that
surrounds the cell. Regulates what enters
and leaves the cell.
Rigid external layer of a plant cell (cellulose), bacteria
(glycoproteins), or fungi (chitin) that is outside the cell
membrane.
Converts light energy into glucose in the process of
photosynthesis. Contains chlorophyll giving plants their
green color.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelle containing passageways where
compounds are manufactured, processed, and
transported inside a cell.
Golgi Apparatus/Body/Complex
and lipids made by the E.R.
Collects, modifies, and packages proteins
Prokaryote
Unicellular. Lacks a nucleus and membrane bound
organelles. Has ribosomes.
Eukaryote
Unicellular or multicellular. Contains a nucleus and
membrane bound organelles. Has ribosomes.
Diffusion
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration.
Equilibrium / Homeostasis
A state of balance in which there is little or no
total change.
Nucleolus
Synthesizes ribosomes. Found in the nucleus.
Vesicle
Small package of nutrients, proteins, wastes, or water created
by the golgi.
Cell
The basic unit of all living things. The smallest unit of life.
Organism
A complete living thing
Ribosome
Synthesizes proteins. Mostly found on the rough E.R. but can
also be in the cytoplasm.
Tissue
A collection of similar cells that perform a specific job.
Cell Division
Cell splitting into two new cells.
Multi-cellular
Made of more than one cell.
Nuclear membrane/envelope
Organelle
Surrounds the nucleolus and DNA.
Controls what enters and leaves the
nucleus.
"Little organs" that make up the cell working together for the
survival and function of the cell.
Unicellular
Made of 1 cell.
Robert Hooke
Gave cells their name (cells). 1600's.
Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in
organisms.
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.
Active Transport Movement of particles from low to high concentration
across the membrane that requires energy (ATP).
Passive Transport Movement of particles from high to low concentration
across the membrane (no energy needed).
Plant Cell
1 large vacuole.
Chloroplasts
Cell wall (cellulose)
Animal Cell Many small vacuoles
Cell membrane only
Centrioles
Lysosomes
Concentration
The amount of dissolved solute in a solvent.
Usually expressed as a percent.
Solution
Solute + solvent
Solute
Particles dissolved in a liquid (solvent)
Solvent
A liquid particles (solute) are dissolved in
Permeability
How well a substance can pass through something.
Exocytosis Getting rid of wastes into the surrounding environment by
expelling a vesicle.
Phagocytosis
eating.
Taking in food from the environment via endocytosis. Cell
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