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CHANGE MANAGEMENT
LEADERSHIP GUIDE
2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION _______________________________________________________________ 4
WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT? ______________________________________________________ 4
CHANGE STARTS WITH A VISION _______________________________________________________ 5
Characteristics of an Effective Vision: ________________________________________________ 5
What about a Strategy? ____________________________________________________________ 6
COMMON OBSTACLES TO CHANGE _______________________________________________ 6
OVERVIEW OF THE LEADER’S ROLE FOR MANAGING CHANGE __________________________ 7
WHY DO CHANGE EFFORTS FAIL? ________________________________________________ 7
Eight Errors Common to Organizational Change Efforts and Their Consequences __________ 7
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CHANGE _______________________________________ 8
WHERE TO START? ____________________________________________________________ 9
CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL _________________________________________________ 10
EIGHT STEPS TO EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANGEMENT _________________________________ 11
Step one: Increase Urgency _______________________________________________________ 11
Step two: Build the Guiding Team __________________________________________________ 11
Step three: Get the Vision Right ____________________________________________________ 12
Step four: Communicate for Buy-In _________________________________________________ 12
Step five: Empower Action _________________________________________________________ 13
Step six: Create Short –Term Wins _________________________________________________ 13
Step seven: Don’t Let Up __________________________________________________________ 14
Step eight: Make Change Stick _____________________________________________________ 14
COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ___________________________________________________ 15
1.
Building a Strategy ___________________________________________________________ 15
2.
Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts ____________________________ 16
3.
Determining Message Content _________________________________________________ 16
4.
Identifying Most Effective Communication Channels ______________________________ 16
Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Channels __________________________ 17
5.
Ensuring Follow-Up __________________________________________________________ 17
MANAGING THE EMOTIONS IN CHANGE ___________________________________________ 18
2
Bridges’ Three Phases of Transitions _______________________________________________ 18
Phase 1: Ending, Losing, Letting Go ________________________________________________ 19
Phase 2: The Neutral Zone ________________________________________________________ 19
Phase 3: The New Beginning ______________________________________________________ 20
Additional Tips to Addressing Resistance ____________________________________________ 20
WHAT’S YOUR PERSONALITY PREFERENCE?_______________________________________ 21
FINAL TIPS AND HINTS: ________________________________________________________ 21
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ______________________________________________________ 22
Books: ___________________________________________________________________________ 22
Articles: __________________________________________________________________________ 22
Websites: ________________________________________________________________________ 22
CONTACT INFORMATION _______________________________________________________ 22
TEAM CHARTER GUIDELINES/CHECK LIST _________________________________________ 23
CHANGE ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TEMPLATE __________________________________ 24
COMMUNCATIONS STRAGEGY TEMPLATE _________________________________________ 25
COMMUNICATIONS TIPS:_______________________________________________________ 26
MANAGER’S CHECKLIST FOR COMMUNICATING CHANGE _____________________________ 27
3
“By definition, progress means change. This is not always comfortable. It may challenge our
assumptions, and the way we are used to doing and seeing things. It asks us to have faith in
the larger picture, the eventual results, and each other. We need energy to deal with it, and
perspective, and sometimes just a sense of humour”.
Sheldon Levy, President’s Newsletter to the Ryerson Community, Spring 2007
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this guide is to provide you with a framework of the concepts and theories of
change management and tips/tools on how you can lead a successful and rewarding
organizational change initiative. The guide focuses on two streams; the “process” or change
model, and the “transition” or emotional impact when embarking on a change effort.
As leaders of change you have a critical role to play in ensuring that the change effort is
successful. At Ryerson, the Human Resources Department can provide guidance and support
to you and your team in understanding the change process. Our Organizational & Employee
Effectiveness (OEE) unit can provide the diagnostics tools, programs, consultation and advice
that you’ll need.
For more information about our programs, tools and resources, please contact us at 416-9795000 ext 6248.
WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT?
Definition:
Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and
organizations from a current state to a desired future state, to fulfill or implement a vision and
strategy. It is an organizational process aimed at empowering employees to accept and
embrace changes in their current environment. There are several different streams of thought
that have shaped the practice of change management.
Change Management:
As a Systematic Process
Change management is the formal process for organizational change, including a
systematic approach and application of knowledge. Change management means
defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures, and technologies to
deal with change stemming from internal and external conditions.
-Society for Human Resources Management, 2007 Change Management Survey Report
4
As a Means of Transitioning People
Change management is a critical part of any project that leads, manages, and enables
people to accept new processes, technologies, systems, structures, and values. It is the
set of activities that helps people transition from their present way of working to the
desired way of working.
-Lambeth Change Management Team, Change Management Toolkit.
As a Competitive Tactic
Change management is the continuous process of aligning an organization with its
marketplace—and doing so more responsively and effectively than competitors.
-Lisa M. Kudray and Brian H. Kleiner, “Global Trends in Managing Change,” Industrial
Management, May 1997
CHANGE STARTS WITH A VISION
A change effort or initiative must start with a vision. Whether change is prompted by external
(political, economic, social or technological) or internal factors (policy, systems or structure),
creating a vision will clarify the direction for the change. In addition, the vision will assist in
motivating those that are impacted to take action in the right direction. (See Kotter’s Step three:
Get the Vision Right for more information).
Definition:
A vision statement tells you where you are going. It paints a compelling work of a desired future
state. It can make anyone who reads it, hears it or lives it want to support, work for, give to, or
in some other way be part of your organization.
-Christina Drouin, White paper on Visioning for the Centre for Strategic Planning
Characteristics of an Effective Visioni:
 Imaginable – conveys a picture of what the future will look like
 Desirable – appeals to the long-term interests of employees, customers, stakeholders etc.
 Feasible – comprises realistic, obtainable goals
 Focused – clear enough to provide guidance in decision making
 Flexible – General enough to allow initiative and alternative responses
 Communicable – can be fully explained in 5 minutes
5
What about a Strategy?
A strategy will ensure that the vision is achieved. It is a unified,
comprehensive and integrated plan that provides a “roadmap”
for achieving the vision. Without a strategic plan and vision,
the change effort will not be successful.
Current
Vision
Strategic Plan
COMMON OBSTACLES TO CHANGEii
A 2006 study by Harvard Business Review found that 66% of
change initiatives fail to achieve their desired business
outcomes. Why is change so difficult? The five most common
obstacles to change are depicted in the graph below. Note that
the three circled obstacles, are those that you, as a leader, can
influence and improve.
Obstacles Experienced during Major Organizational
Changes
0%
40%
Employee resistance
76%
Communication
breakdown
72%
Insufficient time
devoted to training
Staff turnover during
transition
Costs exceeded
budget
80%
44%
36%
Did you know…
The Human
Resources
Department’s OEE
unit can assist in this
process and offers a
customized strategic
planning session “Creating a Practical
Vision”. In this one
day retreat/workshop,
participants will
engage in a planning
session that will help
in the creation of a
collaborative
roadmap.
This roadmap aligns
the outcomes with the
vision of the
department/faculty.
Participants will focus
on where they are
going, what it looks
like (the vision),
where they are today
and will then
determine how to get
there (the strategic
plan).
For more information
contact the OEE
department at 416979-5000 ext 6248
32%
6
OVERVIEW OF THE LEADER’S ROLE FOR MANAGING CHANGEiii
Given the obstacles noted, leaders have a critical role to play in managing change, the following
chart provides an overview of how your role can impact the change obstacle.
Leader’s Role
Change Obstacles
Employee Resistance
Communication
breakdown
Staff turnover

Leverage your relationship with your team to address
employee concerns on a personal level.

Ask for their feedback and respond to their concerns honestly
and openly.

Review the section on Managing Change in this guide.

Communicate key information to employees on an on-going
and consistent basis.

Review the section on Communication in this guide.

Engage your team by involving them in the initiative.

Coach, Mentor and enrich their roles.
WHY DO CHANGE EFFORTS FAIL?
There can be a significantly negative impact on the department or Faculty when a change
initiative fails, or its implementation is unplanned. According to John P. Kotter (author of
Leading Change), organizations often commit the following common errors that will hinder their
change efforts and they are noted below.
Eight Errors Common to Organizational Change Efforts and Their Consequencesiv
Error #1:
Error #2:
Error #3:
Error #4:
Error #5:
Error #6
Error #7:
Error #8:
Allowing too much complacency
Failing to garner leadership support
Underestimating the power of vision
Undercommunicating the vision
Permitting obstacles to block the new vision
Failing to create short-term wins
Declaring victory too soon
Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the culture
Consequences
 New strategies aren’t implemented well
 Reengineering takes too long
 Quality programs don’t deliver hoped-for results
7
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CHANGE
Understanding the roles and responsibilities that you and others play in the change effort is
essential. They will provide clarity on the expectations, project scope and responsibility for each
contributor. Typically, there are four key roles: the Sponsor (Senior Leaders), Champion
(Leader), Change Agent (Human Resources) and Stakeholder (Employees).
The Sponsor is usually the Director/Dean in the department/faculty and:





Has the overall responsibility for the department or faculty.
Is the person who has authority over the project and over the individuals who will
implement the change.
Provides funding, resolves issues and scope changes.
Approves major deliverables and provides high-level direction.
Has a clear vision, identified goals and measurable outcomes for the change initiative.
The Champion is usually the Sr. Manager/Chair in the department/faculty that:





Has the overall day-to-day authority.
Provides the Sponsor with information about the issues and challenges.
Engages and involves the right people on the ground.
Brings the change vision to life.
Encourages (and sometimes enforces) new and desired behaviours.
The Change Agent is the person or group that assists the department/faculty to implement the
proposed change i.e., Human Resources. Their role is to advise and guide the Champion and
Sponsor throughout the change initiative and:




Focus on assisting, advising and coaching the Sponsor and Champion in the change
effort.
May act in a number of roles – data gatherer, educator, advisor, facilitator or coach.
Has no direct-line authority to or over the Sponsor or Stakeholders.
Act as subject-matter-experts in the change management process.
Stakeholders are those employees who will be impacted by the change. It is critical that they
are involved in the process and understand how the change initiative will impact their current
state.
 To assist in providing structure when determining roles and responsibilities, it is
recommended that a Team Charter be developed to ensure clarity on purpose,
expectation, scope and responsibility. Click here to view a checklist to use when
setting up a team charter. OEE can also provide direct assistance to your team
for this process.
8
WHERE TO START?
Before embarking on a change initiative, spend some time answering the questions below to
assess how you feel about the change. Consider the following questions to help you gauge
your preparedness for the initiativev:
 Do I know the changes, their impact, rationale and benefits?
 Could I explain them to anyone I work with?
 Do I believe the change is worthwhile?
 How is the change impacting my existing workload?
 How can I communicate the need for change, the first steps, how people will be
supported, and when we have achieved quick wins?
 Are there other parallel projects that will have an impact on the changes I’m managing?
 Will the changes impact the same group?
 Can we combine forces and integrate plans and communication?
 What changes will happen and when?
 Can I stagger the impact or combine time sensibly to lessen the impact?
 Do change leaders know their responsibilities and the commitment expectations?
 Has change successfully occurred in these groups in the past?
 Can we learn from what did or did not work well?
 What level of trust exists between groups and how can this be improved?
 When is communication necessary?
 How can I make the messages clear, interesting, and engaging?
Based on the questions above, do you generally have a positive or negative opinion of the
change? As leaders, your opinion of the change will have an impact on your efforts to support
and guide your team. Therefore it is critical that you understand and support the need for
change.
 Did you know that managers who communicate change effectively can improve their direct
reports’ performance by as much as 29.2% (Corporate Leadership Council, 2009).
Click here to understand the change commitment process.
9
CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODELvi
Now that you have decided to embark on a change effort, what do you do next?
Many change models have been developed over time to provide structure in approach. In John
P. Kotter’s book, “Leading Change” he outlines eight critical steps when transforming an
organization. Its principles are at the core of any successful change effort. Ryerson’s OEE
department and your HRMC will partner with you and your team through each stage of the
change effort.
Step #1: Increase
Urgency
Step #2: Build a
guiding team
Step #3: Get the
vision right
Step #4:
Communicate for
buy-in
Step #5: Empower
action
Step #6: Create
short-term wins
Step #7: Don’t let
up
Step #8: Make
change stick
 As you go through your change effort, it is important to measure the progress against the
strategic plan and vision. It is recommended that you spend time during your regular team
meeting assessing your team’s progress as you plan next steps. Click here to view a
template that will assist in conducting the discussion with your staff.
10
EIGHT STEPS TO EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANGEMENT
Step one: Increase Urgency
Raising a feeling of urgency is the first and most critical step in a successful change effort. With
low urgency and complacency, the change effort cannot get off the ground.
What works
 Creating a compelling
story.
 Never underestimating
how much complacency,
fear, and anger exists.
 Creating the vision.
What does not work
Common Pitfalls
 Focusing exclusively on building a

“rational” business case, getting top
management approval, and racing
ahead while mostly ignoring all the
feelings that are blocking change.
 Ignoring a lack of urgency and

jumping immediately to creating a
vision and strategy.
 Thinking that you can do little if
you’re not the leader.
Underestimating
the difficulty of
driving people
from their
comfort zones.
Becoming
paralyzed by
risks.
Tip: “Begin with the end in mind” - Steven Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.
Desired New Behaviour: People start telling each other, "Let's go, we need to change
things!"
Step two: Build the Guiding Team
It is important to get the right people in place who are fully committed to the change initiative,
well-respected within the organization, and have power and influence to drive the change effort
at their levels.
What works
What does not work
Common Pitfalls
 Showing enthusiasm and
commitment to help draw
the right people into the
group.
 Modeling the trust and
teamwork needed in the
group
 Guiding change with weak task
forces, single individuals, complex
governance structures, or
fragmented top teams.
 Not confronting the situation when
power centres undermine the
selection of the right team.
 Trying to leave out or work around
the head of the unit to be changed.


No prior
experience in
teamwork at the
top.
Delegating team
leadership to HR
rather than a
senior line
manager.
Tip: Draft a large, diverse team made up of individuals at all levels and with different skills.
Desired New Behaviour: A group powerful enough to guide a big change is formed and they
start to work together well.
11
Step three: Get the Vision Right
While creating a shared need and urgency for change may push people into action, it is the
vision that will steer them into the new direction.
What works
What does not work
 Trying to see – literally –  Assuming that linear or logical
possible futures.
plans and budgets alone
 Visions that are so clear
adequately guide behaviour when
that they can be
you are trying to leap into the
articulated in five minutes
future.
or written up on one
 Overly analytical, financially based
page.
vision exercises.
 Visions that are moving –
such as a commitment to
serving people.
Common Pitfalls

Presenting a
vision that’s too
complicated or
vague to be
communicated in
five minutes.
Tip: Position the change around a compelling picture of the desired future state i.e.,
Ryerson’s Master Plan.
Desired New Behaviour: The guiding team develops the right vision and strategy for the
change effort.
Step four: Communicate for Buy-In
Once a vision and strategy have been developed, they must be communicated to the
organization in order to gain understanding and buy-in. Sending clear, credible, and heartfelt
messages about the direction of change establishes genuine gut-level buy-in, which sets the
stage for the following step: getting people to act.
What works



Developing a
communications
strategy.
Keeping communication
simple and heartfelt.
Speaking to anxieties,
confusion, anger, and
distrust.
What does not work
Common Pitfalls
 Under communicating, which can
easily happen.
 Accidentally fostering cynicism by
not “walking the talk”.

Behaving in
ways contrary to
the vision.
Tip: Create tools that help people tailor information to their specific needs – rather than
forcing more generic memos and reports into over-stuffed email and in-boxes
Desired New Behaviour: People begin to buy into the change, and this shows in their
behaviour
12
Step five: Empower Action
Empowering action should be seen as removing barriers to those whom we want to assist in
pushing the change effort. Removing obstacles should inspire, promote optimism and build
confidence around the change effort.
What works
What does not work
 Finding individuals with
 Trying to remove all the barriers at
change experience who
once.
can bolster people’s self-  Giving in to your own pessimisms
confidence with “we-wonand fears.
you-can-too” anecdotes.
 Recognition and reward
systems that inspire,
promote optimism, and
build self-confidence.
 Feedback that can help
people make better
decisions.
Common Pitfalls

Failing to
address
powerful
individuals who
resist the
change effort.
Tip: Recognize and reward excellence.
Desired New Behaviour: More people feel able to act, and do act, on the vision.
Step six: Create Short –Term Wins
Short-term wins nourish faith in the change effort, emotionally reward the hard workers, keep
the critics at bay, and build momentum. By creating short-term wins, and being honest with
feedback, progress is achieved and people are inspired.
What works
What does not work
Common Pitfalls
 Early wins that come
fast.
 Wins that are as visible
as possible to as many
people as possible.
 Wins that are meaningful
to others.
 Launching many projects all at
once.
 Providing the first win too slowly.

Leaving shortterm successes
up to chance.
 Failing to score
successes early
enough into the
change effort.
Tip: Focus on one or two goals instead of all and make sure no new initiatives are added
until one of those goals is achieved and celebrated.
Desired New Behaviour: Momentum builds as people try to fulfill the vision, while fewer
and fewer resist change.
13
Step seven: Don’t Let Up
In successful efforts, people build on this momentum to make the vision a reality by keeping
urgency up, eliminating unnecessary, exhausting work and not declaring victory prematurely.
What works
What does not work
 Aggressively ridding yourself of  Convincing yourself that
work that wears you down-tasks
you’re done when you aren’t.
that were relevant in the past but
not now, tasks that can be
delegated.
 Looking constantly for ways to
keep urgency up.
 Using new situations
opportunistically to launch the
next wave of change.
Common Pitfalls

Declaring victory
too soon – with
the first
performance
improvement.
Tip: Replace a time-consuming and painstakingly detailed monthly activity report with a onepage summary that highlights only major milestones and key information.
Desired New Behaviour: People remain energized and motivated to push change forward
until the vision is fulfilled
Step eight: Make Change Stick
By creating a new, supportive, and sufficiently strong organizational culture, the change should
remain. A supportive culture provides roots for the new ways of operating.
What works
What does not work
Common Pitfalls
 Telling vivid stories about
the new organization,
what it does, and why it
succeeds
 Making absolutely sure
you have the continuity
of behaviour and results
that help a new culture
grow
 Trying to change culture as the
first step in the transformation
process

Not creating new
social norms and
shared values
consistent with
changes
Tip: When introducing new hires to the organization, use videos that contain heartfelt
messages from clients whose lives the department has impacted.
Desired New Behaviour: New and winning behaviour continues despite the pull of tradition,
turnover of change leaders, etc.
14
COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
The importance of developing a well thought out communications strategy is often overlooked
when embarking on a change initiative. Effective communication during a change effort will
serve to provide employees with timely and accurate information, which can positively influence
whether the organization can maintain employee productivity and morale and overcome
resistance to change. The following five areas outline questions and key information for you to
consider when building and delivering a communications strategy designed to inform and guide
employees through a change event:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
Building a Strategy
Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts
Determining Message Content
Identifying Most Effective Communications Channels
Ensuring Follow Up
Building a Strategy
Have you and your change team created a communications strategy that considers the
questions outlined below?
a. What do we need to accomplish?
 What is the current state?
 What is the desired state?
b. What do we need to communicate?
 Who relays which messages?
 With whom do we need to communicate?
c.



In what order do we communicate with our audiences?
When are messages communicated?
With what frequency?
What tools/channels do we use?
d.




How can communications accomplish the desired state?
Drive behavior change?
Educate and engage?
Generate awareness?
Mobilize commitment?
e.



Do we understand the following about our audience?
Who are they?
What do they know/understand already?
What drives/motivates them?
f.
How will we measure whether the communications strategy achieves its
objectives?
15
2.
Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts
Have you considered all key stakeholders impacted by the change effort?
Do all areas (executives, HR, and managers) collaborate to communicate a consistent
message?
Has HR provided managers with tools and training to adequately prepare them to support all
communications?
 To assist in ensuring that the change effort is communicated to the employees in a timely
and effective manner, a communications strategy is critical. The following links will help
you:
o Template for Building a Communications Strategy
o Checklist for Communicating Change
o Additional Communication Tips
3.
Determining Message Content
Do communications detail the rationale behind the change? Do the messages achieve the
following:
 Give reasons for the change and explain the benefit?
 Ask for staff’s help in making the change work effectively?
 Show support for the change (i.e., help others accept the change)?
Does the communications strategy effectively relay how the change will affect employees and
the business in the short and long term? Does the strategy meet the following:
 Provide as many details as possible?
 Supply realistic detail of both the positives and negatives of the change?
 Let employees know that the organization understands the range of emotions associated
with the change?
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL® PAGE 2
4.
Identifying Most Effective Communication Channels
Have you and your change team determined how to clearly communicate what is expected of
employees and resources available to them? Have you considered the most effective channels
of communication that consider the following questions outlined below:
 Does the organization have an infrastructure in place in order to provide timely, honest
communication with employees?
 Does the strategy include a timeline detailing when critical messages should go out?
 Has the organization determined the appropriate communication channel mix to reach
diverse, dispersed employee groups?
 Does the communications strategy ensure that important messages are repeated
through a variety of communication vehicles to ensure that employees receive the
message?
16
Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Channelsvii
Type
Channel
Mass
Email
communication
Intranet
Memos
Newsletters
Face-to-face
Meetings
communication
Information
sessions
Round table
discussions
5.
Advantages
Disadvantages
 Cost effective
 Efficiently
communicates routine
change
 Allows organization to
reach a large audience
quickly and consistently
 Impersonal
 Employees may not read
mass communication
 Does not easily facilitate
an environment in which
recipients can ask
questions or supply
feedback
 Time consuming
 Ineffective for reaching
employees in dispersed
workforces
 Executives’ presence may
discourage employees
from openly voicing
concerns
 Inappropriately timed and
too detailed information
can cause confusion
 Enables leaders to
reinforce importance of
the change initiative
 Allows employees to
ask immediate
questions and provide
feedback
 Enables employees to
receive information from
leaders, whom they are
more likely to trust
Ensuring Follow-Up
Once you have implemented your communication strategy, it is critical that you monitor its
impact on an on-going basis. Questions you might consider asking to gauge the effectiveness
of the strategy might include:
Is the department or faculty prepared to engage employees by doing the following:
 Asking questions?
 Listening to employee concerns?
 Acknowledging each contribution and highlighting advantages and disadvantages of
various suggestions?
Does the department or faculty consider the following:
 Plan to assess employees’ reactions to change (via surveys, focus groups, etc.)?
 Continually monitor key metrics related to communications objectives and make
necessary adjustments as employees react to different messages?
 Proactively and reactively adjust the communications strategy based on employee
responses?
 Express appreciation for employees’ assistance and cooperation in implementing the
change?
17
MANAGING THE EMOTIONS IN CHANGE
There is wisdom in resistance….
-Barry Johnson
Resistance to change is the largest obstacle that leaders are faced with when initiating a
change effort. It can be very damaging to the process and can potentially stall the efforts to
move forward if not addressed appropriately. There are many reasons why an employee may
resist change and so as “leaders of change”, you will need to be sensitive to how individuals
respond while keeping in mind that the process of commitment and acceptance takes time.
William Bridges developed a model that reviews the emotional impact of change over time and
the leader’s role. He describes the difference between change and transition. Change is
situational and will happen without the people, whereas transition deals with the psychological
impact on the people.
Bridges’ Three Phases of Transitions
Time
As a leader of change your role will be to support and encourage your staff throughout each
phase. It is important to recognize that transition is not linear and therefore, those that are
impacted sometimes find themselves moving back and forth between the phases. Given this
possibility, you will need to expect and anticipate that people will go through the transition
process at different speeds and in different ways. Your skills in communication, listening and
coaching will be pivotal in identifying how to support your staff, both as individuals and as a
group, so they can move through the phases as quickly and effectively as possible.
18
Phase 1: Ending, Losing, Letting Go
In this phase, staff and faculty must come to a point where they can let go of the old situation
and until they let go, they will not be able to move on.
Possible Reactions:
Tips for Leaders
 Sense of shock
 Fear
 Resentment
 Apathy
 Loss
Behaviours to watch for:
1. Identify what each individual will be losing
2. Accept your employees’ reactions
3. Be open about losses and show empathy to those
affected
4. Look for ways to compensate your employees for
their losses
5. Provide your employees with lots of information
6. Show care and concern
7. Ask for reactions
8. Listen and pay attention to what you are hearing
9. Allow people time to grieve
10. Respond to the questions







Asking questions
Challenging
Complaining
Failing to see any positive
outcomes
Trouble sleeping
Withdrawal
Blame
What they are saying:
“Why can’t things stay the
same?”
“This will never work”
Phase 2: The Neutral Zone
In this phase, staff and faculty are in the gap between the old and new where the “old” no longer
works and the “new” has yet to be established.
Possible Reactions:
Tips for Leaders



1. Talk to your staff and faculty about the feelings
they can expect at this stage
2. Create temporary policies, procedures or
structures as necessary
3. Strengthen connections within your team
4. Encourage your employees to think of new ways
of doing things
5. Involve people in trying out ideas
6. Start training people on the new skills they will
need
7. Continue to explain the purpose and plan
Anxiety
Confusion
Decreased motivation (which can
result in lack of productivity)
 Some hope
Behaviours to watch for:



Adjustment
Bargaining
Willingness to get involved
What they are saying:
“Things are a mess, we are
so unorganized”
“Here we go again!”
19
Phase 3: The New Beginning
In this phase staff and faculty begin to show emotional commitment to the new state.
Possible Reactions:
Tips for Leaders
 New energy
 New identity
 Sense of purpose.
Behaviours to watch for:
1. Explain the purpose for the new beginning
2. Continue to communicate the vision: what will the
outcome of the change look like
3. Develop a transition plan: when they will receive
information, training and support
4. Give your employees parts to play in the transition



Rebuilding
Cooperation
Clear focus and planning
What they are saying:
“What can we do to make this
work?”
“When you get used to it…it’s
not bad”
Additional Tips to Addressing Resistance
As a leader, you will likely need to deal with the negative effects of change. The following table
provides reasons why staff and faculty may resist change and strategies that leaders of change
can use to reduce that resistanceviii.
Reasons Employees Resist
Strategies

Employees feel they will suffer from the
change
Organization does not communicate
expectations clearly

Employees perceive more work with fewer
opportunities
Change requires altering a long-standing
habit
Relationships harbour unresolved
resentments
Employees lack feeling of job security
Change alters existing social interactions
Organization lacks adequate reward
process
Organization lacks sufficient resources















Use communication strategy that solicits
employee input
Do not send mixed signals regarding the
change; this will increase employee
distrust
Communicate clear vision of the change
Provide timely education
Identify employee concerns and
unresolved implementation issues
Provide employees with a timeline and a
defined approach and outcome
Communicate how employees will
benefit from the change
Develop procedures to address
employees who will be negatively
affected by the change
 Click here to view a checklist to ensure you effectively address employee’s emotional
reactions to change.
20
WHAT’S YOUR PERSONALITY PREFERENCE?
Knowing how to communicate change is critical to the success
of any communication strategy. Personality Dimensions® is
based on leading-edge research into human motivation and
behaviour and helps to explain what motivates behaviour in
people with different personalities or temperaments. Who is
engaged by change, who wants stability and values past
practice, who focuses on relationships or prefers a compelling
argument for the change initiative?
Having an understanding of your staff’s personality dimension
will provide you with additional insight on how best to respond
to them individually at each stage of the transition.
FINAL TIPS AND HINTS:
 When you don’t have answers, don’t give answers.
 Remember that change is a fast-breaking story.
Sometimes you’ll hear the news from management;
sometimes you’ll hear it from employees.
What’s your colour?
Ryerson’s Human
Resources
Department has
certified trainers that
can deliver the
Personality
Dimensions®
workshop.
For more information
contact the OEE
department at 416979-5075 or at
www.ryerson.ca/hr/co
ntact/oee
 Even your silence will be interpreted - and probably not
favourably. Gaps will be filled by the grapevine.
 As a leader, force yourself to the front lines. This will
boost morale.
By now you should have an understanding of the complexity of
a change management initiative and your role and
responsibilities in leading and supporting the change. Whether
you are embarking on a new change initiative or considering
change within your department/faculty, this guide can assist
you at each stage of the process.
It is strongly
recommended that
you conduct this
workshop prior to
embarking on a
change effort.
21
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Books:
Leading Change, John P. Kotter
(1996)
Managing Transitions, 2nd Edition,
William Bridges (1991)
The Heart of Change, John P. Kotter and
Dan S. Cohen (2002)
Who killed change? : Solving the
mystery of leading people through
change, Ken Blanchard and John Britt
(2009)
Organizations Transitions –
Managing Complex Change, Richard
Beckhard (1987)
Articles:
John, P. Kotter, Why Transformation Efforts Fail, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1995
Jacobs, Robert, Five Questions to ask in Measuring Change Effort Success http://www.windsofchangegroup.com/measuring-change-effort-success
Websites:
To assist in determining your progress against Kotter’s eight (8) steps, visit the “Heart of
Change” website to take the on-line tool at http://theheartofchange.com/.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Human Resources Department
Organizational and Employee Effectiveness
416-979-5075
22
TEAM CHARTER GUIDELINES/CHECK LIST
A team charter is a clear description of the team's purpose (why), how they will work, and the
expected outcomes (what).
Why
Area
Discussion points/Check List
 Expectations
 Why are we doing this?
 Purpose
What
 Goals
 Scope
 Timeline
 In what areas are results
absolutely essential?
 How will those areas be
measured, what will they look like?
 Success Indicators
What
 Nature and organization
of work
 Who outside our team/unit or
department who must we involve,
inform or consult with?
 What decisions need approval
from someone outside our team (if
appropriate)?
 What is not in our scope of work
(though other might think it is)?
 What authority does the team
have to act independently?
 Roles and
Responsibilities
 Guiding Principles
 Norms
 Operating Principles
 What role(s) and area(s) of
responsibility does each team
member and leader have?
 During meetings, who will chair
the meeting, who will take notes?
 What behaviours will we hold one
another accountable so we can be
an effective team?
 Do we have “team norms” or
“rules of engagement” to refer to?
 How will the team make decisions;
resolve conflicts?
 How often and how long will we
meet as a team?
23
CHANGE ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TEMPLATEix
Ask your team what they
feel is working well
throughout the change
process. Write down the
3-5 most common positive
elements your team
expresses.
Ask your team what they
are most unhappy with
about the change, and ask
them to come up with
suggestions for
improvement. Write down
the 3-5 most common
suggestions your team
identifies. Next, plan how
you will respond to the
improvement, including if it
must be escalated or if
you can involve a member
of your team. Note that not
all suggestions will be
suitable for additional
action.
Take a quick “pulse check”
of the team by asking
them how they feel about
the importance of the
change and the success of
the implementation so far.
It will provide you with a
general sense of how
happy and engaged your
team is, and will help you
prioritize the ongoing
management of the
change.
Change Assessment and Planning Template
Date:
Top 3-5 Positive Outcomes of the Change
1) The team has a clear sense of the long-term benefits of the merger to the company’s ability to expand our product offering, and is pleased with senior management’s
visible, hands-on approach to communiating this change.
2)
3)
Top 3-5 Suggestions for Improvement
FollowUp?
Suggestion
1) The team is unclear about the specific timelines for the change, including the official merger
date and suggests company-wide Webinar with additional communications about the timeline.
Yes
Next Steps
Review provided timelines with
team; Suggest to central change
team a Webinar to provide
updated timelines
Owner
Team lead;
John Q. to
contact central
change team
2)
3)
Overall, my team rates the importance of this change as a
on a scale of 1 to 5 (no importance to critically important).
Overall, my team rates the implementation of this change as a
implementation).
on a scale of 1 to 5 (very ineffective implementation to very effective
24
COMMUNCATIONS STRAGEGY TEMPLATE
Who do we
communicate with?
What do they know or
understand already?
What drives/motivates
them?
What do we need to accomplish?
What is the current state?
What is the desired state?
Communication Strategy Template
Date:
Target Audience:
Desired Future State:
Stakeholders:
How will you get the
message across?
Measures of success:
Key Messages:
Communication Channels:
How will you know if you
have succeeded in meeting
your objective?
What are your performance
indicators?
When will you need to
communicate the key
messages?
Who will communicate the
message?
Key Messages
Communication Channel(s)
Frequency
What do we need to
communicate?
What is it that is changing?
What is the “elevator pitch”?
What is the one take-away?
25
COMMUNICATIONS TIPSx:
1. Only communicate what has been authorized. This will ensure consistency across the
organization.
2. Communicate the business rationale for the change and the events leading up to it.
Clarify the vision and specific change plans.
3. Explain the benefits of the change to the broader department or faculty and the
individuals on your team.
4. Update your team regularly on the progress of the change.
5. Acknowledge the negatives of the change.
6. Provide as much detail as possible to minimize rumors.
7. Acknowledge when you do not have the answers. Do not guess.
8. Emphasize that change will happen.
MANAGER’S CHECKLIST FOR COMMUNICATING CHANGExi
Source: Corporate Leadership Council research.
Purpose: To determine the appropriate content and delivery of critical communication around a change initiative.
User Guidelines: Use the checklist to determine the content of employee communications and to identify
suggestions regarding how to deliver key messages and gain feedback from employees.
Context: This checklist helps managers prepare for initial change communication, as well as maintain strong,
ongoing communications with employees during the transition.
The Message
 Is my message consistent with that of HR, executives, and other managers? What additional information do I
need to effectively communicate with my direct reports?
 Does my message detail the business rationale behind the change and explain the benefit?
 Does my message ask for staff’s help in making the change work effectively?
 Does my message show support for the change (i.e. help others accept the change)?
 Does my message clarify the vision, plans, and progress of the change initiative?
 Does my message relay how the change will affect employees and the business in the short and long term?
 Does my message provide as many details as possible?
 Does my message address the “What’s in it for me?” question?
 Does my message supply realistic detail of both the positives and negatives of the change?
 Does my message let employees know that the organization understands the range of emotions associated
with the change?
The Communication Strategy
 Are my formal and informal communications timely, honest, and accurate?
 Am I repeating key messages numerous times?
 Have I addressed employee questions and issues, and have I captured and escalated important employee
concerns?
 Has the organization determined how to clearly communicate what is expected of employees and resources
available to them to help them transition?
 Do I communicate proactively and adjust my communication approach depending on employee reactions?
 Do I create opportunities for two-way, face-to-face dialogue and follow-up on items of concern following these
conversations?
 Am I reaching my audience via numerous channels?
MANAGER CHECKLIST FOR ADDRESSING EMOTIONAL REACTIONS TO CHANGExii
Use this checklist to ensure you effectively address employees’ emotional reactions throughout the three stages of commitment.
Source: Corporate Leadership Council research
Response
Employee Reaction
Individual believes that the problem will
correct itself
Denial
Individual displays apathy/numbness
Suggested Manager Response
 Review the business case for the change
 Emphasize that the change will happen
 Allow time for change to sink in
Individual tries to rationalize the change
Individual tries to sabotage the change
effort
Anger
Individual tends to “shoot the messenger”
Individual withdraws from the team
Bargaining
Depression
Individual tries to “cut a deal” to spare
himself or herself
Individual tries to redirect problem solving
away from change
Individual expresses a loss of control over
the work environment
Individual’s absenteeism increases
Acceptance
Individual expresses ownership for
solutions
Individual focuses on achieving benefits
promised by the change
 Acknowledge legitimacy of anger
 Distinguish between feelings and inappropriate
behavior
 Maintain focus on the real drivers necessitating
change
 Focus on how the individual and his/her team will
benefit from the change
 Keep problem solving focused on the root cause
 Provide a series of specific next steps and follow up
frequently
 Reinforce positive actions that the individual can take
to adjust to the change
 Use the individual as a coach or mentor for others
 Provide recognition for his/her efforts
BUILDING EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO CHANGExiii
REFERENCES:
Kotter, John P. “Developing a Vision and Strategy”. Leading Change (1996). 72. Library of Congress
Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
i
iiExtracted
from the Corporate Executive Board, Human Resources Learning and Development
Roundtable.
Cited Sources:
● Society for Human Resource Management. www.shrm.org. (n.d.) Web. 1 April 2007.
iii
Extracted and adapted from the Corporate Executive Board, Human Resources Learning and
Development Roundtable.
Cited Sources:
● “Change Management Model of Roles and Responsibilities”. (2007): Corporate Executive Board.
Web. Feb 1. 2011.
Kotter, John P. “Transforming Organizations: Why Firms Fail”. Leading Change (1996). 16. Library of
Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
iv
Extracted from “Change Management Fundamentals – An Introduction to Managing Change”. (2008):
Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
v
vi
Extracted and adapted from:




Kotter, John P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press,1996. Library of
Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
Kotter, John P. and Cohen, Dan S. The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School
Press, 2002. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
Kotter, John P. “Why Transformation Efforts Fail” Harvard Business Review, (March-April 1995):
59. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Web. 1 Feb. 2011.
The Heart of Change. www.theheartofchange.com. (n.d.). Web. 1 February 2011.
Extracted from “Process and Tactics for Communicating Change: A Three-Pronged Approach to
Managing Change during Difficult Business Climates” (2007): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb
1.2011.
vii
Extracted from “Managing Corporate Cultural Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb
1. 2011.
viii
Extracted from “Manager’s Toolkit for Managing Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb
1. 2011.
ix
Extracted from “Manager’s Toolkit for Managing Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb
1. 2011.
x
Extracted from “Manager’s Checklist for Communicating Change” (2008) Corporate Leadership Council
research. Web. Feb 1. 2011.
xi
xiiExtracted
from “Building Employee Commitment to Change” (2009) Corporate Leadership Council, HR
Practice. Web May 1. 2011.
xiiiExtracted
from “Building Employee Commitment to Change” (2009) Corporate Leadership Council, HR
Practice. Web May 1. 2011.