CHANGE MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP GUIDE 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION _______________________________________________________________ 4 WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT? ______________________________________________________ 4 CHANGE STARTS WITH A VISION _______________________________________________________ 5 Characteristics of an Effective Vision: ________________________________________________ 5 What about a Strategy? ____________________________________________________________ 6 COMMON OBSTACLES TO CHANGE _______________________________________________ 6 OVERVIEW OF THE LEADER’S ROLE FOR MANAGING CHANGE __________________________ 7 WHY DO CHANGE EFFORTS FAIL? ________________________________________________ 7 Eight Errors Common to Organizational Change Efforts and Their Consequences __________ 7 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CHANGE _______________________________________ 8 WHERE TO START? ____________________________________________________________ 9 CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL _________________________________________________ 10 EIGHT STEPS TO EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANGEMENT _________________________________ 11 Step one: Increase Urgency _______________________________________________________ 11 Step two: Build the Guiding Team __________________________________________________ 11 Step three: Get the Vision Right ____________________________________________________ 12 Step four: Communicate for Buy-In _________________________________________________ 12 Step five: Empower Action _________________________________________________________ 13 Step six: Create Short –Term Wins _________________________________________________ 13 Step seven: Don’t Let Up __________________________________________________________ 14 Step eight: Make Change Stick _____________________________________________________ 14 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ___________________________________________________ 15 1. Building a Strategy ___________________________________________________________ 15 2. Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts ____________________________ 16 3. Determining Message Content _________________________________________________ 16 4. Identifying Most Effective Communication Channels ______________________________ 16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Channels __________________________ 17 5. Ensuring Follow-Up __________________________________________________________ 17 MANAGING THE EMOTIONS IN CHANGE ___________________________________________ 18 2 Bridges’ Three Phases of Transitions _______________________________________________ 18 Phase 1: Ending, Losing, Letting Go ________________________________________________ 19 Phase 2: The Neutral Zone ________________________________________________________ 19 Phase 3: The New Beginning ______________________________________________________ 20 Additional Tips to Addressing Resistance ____________________________________________ 20 WHAT’S YOUR PERSONALITY PREFERENCE?_______________________________________ 21 FINAL TIPS AND HINTS: ________________________________________________________ 21 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ______________________________________________________ 22 Books: ___________________________________________________________________________ 22 Articles: __________________________________________________________________________ 22 Websites: ________________________________________________________________________ 22 CONTACT INFORMATION _______________________________________________________ 22 TEAM CHARTER GUIDELINES/CHECK LIST _________________________________________ 23 CHANGE ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TEMPLATE __________________________________ 24 COMMUNCATIONS STRAGEGY TEMPLATE _________________________________________ 25 COMMUNICATIONS TIPS:_______________________________________________________ 26 MANAGER’S CHECKLIST FOR COMMUNICATING CHANGE _____________________________ 27 3 “By definition, progress means change. This is not always comfortable. It may challenge our assumptions, and the way we are used to doing and seeing things. It asks us to have faith in the larger picture, the eventual results, and each other. We need energy to deal with it, and perspective, and sometimes just a sense of humour”. Sheldon Levy, President’s Newsletter to the Ryerson Community, Spring 2007 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this guide is to provide you with a framework of the concepts and theories of change management and tips/tools on how you can lead a successful and rewarding organizational change initiative. The guide focuses on two streams; the “process” or change model, and the “transition” or emotional impact when embarking on a change effort. As leaders of change you have a critical role to play in ensuring that the change effort is successful. At Ryerson, the Human Resources Department can provide guidance and support to you and your team in understanding the change process. Our Organizational & Employee Effectiveness (OEE) unit can provide the diagnostics tools, programs, consultation and advice that you’ll need. For more information about our programs, tools and resources, please contact us at 416-9795000 ext 6248. WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT? Definition: Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state, to fulfill or implement a vision and strategy. It is an organizational process aimed at empowering employees to accept and embrace changes in their current environment. There are several different streams of thought that have shaped the practice of change management. Change Management: As a Systematic Process Change management is the formal process for organizational change, including a systematic approach and application of knowledge. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures, and technologies to deal with change stemming from internal and external conditions. -Society for Human Resources Management, 2007 Change Management Survey Report 4 As a Means of Transitioning People Change management is a critical part of any project that leads, manages, and enables people to accept new processes, technologies, systems, structures, and values. It is the set of activities that helps people transition from their present way of working to the desired way of working. -Lambeth Change Management Team, Change Management Toolkit. As a Competitive Tactic Change management is the continuous process of aligning an organization with its marketplace—and doing so more responsively and effectively than competitors. -Lisa M. Kudray and Brian H. Kleiner, “Global Trends in Managing Change,” Industrial Management, May 1997 CHANGE STARTS WITH A VISION A change effort or initiative must start with a vision. Whether change is prompted by external (political, economic, social or technological) or internal factors (policy, systems or structure), creating a vision will clarify the direction for the change. In addition, the vision will assist in motivating those that are impacted to take action in the right direction. (See Kotter’s Step three: Get the Vision Right for more information). Definition: A vision statement tells you where you are going. It paints a compelling work of a desired future state. It can make anyone who reads it, hears it or lives it want to support, work for, give to, or in some other way be part of your organization. -Christina Drouin, White paper on Visioning for the Centre for Strategic Planning Characteristics of an Effective Visioni: Imaginable – conveys a picture of what the future will look like Desirable – appeals to the long-term interests of employees, customers, stakeholders etc. Feasible – comprises realistic, obtainable goals Focused – clear enough to provide guidance in decision making Flexible – General enough to allow initiative and alternative responses Communicable – can be fully explained in 5 minutes 5 What about a Strategy? A strategy will ensure that the vision is achieved. It is a unified, comprehensive and integrated plan that provides a “roadmap” for achieving the vision. Without a strategic plan and vision, the change effort will not be successful. Current Vision Strategic Plan COMMON OBSTACLES TO CHANGEii A 2006 study by Harvard Business Review found that 66% of change initiatives fail to achieve their desired business outcomes. Why is change so difficult? The five most common obstacles to change are depicted in the graph below. Note that the three circled obstacles, are those that you, as a leader, can influence and improve. Obstacles Experienced during Major Organizational Changes 0% 40% Employee resistance 76% Communication breakdown 72% Insufficient time devoted to training Staff turnover during transition Costs exceeded budget 80% 44% 36% Did you know… The Human Resources Department’s OEE unit can assist in this process and offers a customized strategic planning session “Creating a Practical Vision”. In this one day retreat/workshop, participants will engage in a planning session that will help in the creation of a collaborative roadmap. This roadmap aligns the outcomes with the vision of the department/faculty. Participants will focus on where they are going, what it looks like (the vision), where they are today and will then determine how to get there (the strategic plan). For more information contact the OEE department at 416979-5000 ext 6248 32% 6 OVERVIEW OF THE LEADER’S ROLE FOR MANAGING CHANGEiii Given the obstacles noted, leaders have a critical role to play in managing change, the following chart provides an overview of how your role can impact the change obstacle. Leader’s Role Change Obstacles Employee Resistance Communication breakdown Staff turnover Leverage your relationship with your team to address employee concerns on a personal level. Ask for their feedback and respond to their concerns honestly and openly. Review the section on Managing Change in this guide. Communicate key information to employees on an on-going and consistent basis. Review the section on Communication in this guide. Engage your team by involving them in the initiative. Coach, Mentor and enrich their roles. WHY DO CHANGE EFFORTS FAIL? There can be a significantly negative impact on the department or Faculty when a change initiative fails, or its implementation is unplanned. According to John P. Kotter (author of Leading Change), organizations often commit the following common errors that will hinder their change efforts and they are noted below. Eight Errors Common to Organizational Change Efforts and Their Consequencesiv Error #1: Error #2: Error #3: Error #4: Error #5: Error #6 Error #7: Error #8: Allowing too much complacency Failing to garner leadership support Underestimating the power of vision Undercommunicating the vision Permitting obstacles to block the new vision Failing to create short-term wins Declaring victory too soon Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the culture Consequences New strategies aren’t implemented well Reengineering takes too long Quality programs don’t deliver hoped-for results 7 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR CHANGE Understanding the roles and responsibilities that you and others play in the change effort is essential. They will provide clarity on the expectations, project scope and responsibility for each contributor. Typically, there are four key roles: the Sponsor (Senior Leaders), Champion (Leader), Change Agent (Human Resources) and Stakeholder (Employees). The Sponsor is usually the Director/Dean in the department/faculty and: Has the overall responsibility for the department or faculty. Is the person who has authority over the project and over the individuals who will implement the change. Provides funding, resolves issues and scope changes. Approves major deliverables and provides high-level direction. Has a clear vision, identified goals and measurable outcomes for the change initiative. The Champion is usually the Sr. Manager/Chair in the department/faculty that: Has the overall day-to-day authority. Provides the Sponsor with information about the issues and challenges. Engages and involves the right people on the ground. Brings the change vision to life. Encourages (and sometimes enforces) new and desired behaviours. The Change Agent is the person or group that assists the department/faculty to implement the proposed change i.e., Human Resources. Their role is to advise and guide the Champion and Sponsor throughout the change initiative and: Focus on assisting, advising and coaching the Sponsor and Champion in the change effort. May act in a number of roles – data gatherer, educator, advisor, facilitator or coach. Has no direct-line authority to or over the Sponsor or Stakeholders. Act as subject-matter-experts in the change management process. Stakeholders are those employees who will be impacted by the change. It is critical that they are involved in the process and understand how the change initiative will impact their current state. To assist in providing structure when determining roles and responsibilities, it is recommended that a Team Charter be developed to ensure clarity on purpose, expectation, scope and responsibility. Click here to view a checklist to use when setting up a team charter. OEE can also provide direct assistance to your team for this process. 8 WHERE TO START? Before embarking on a change initiative, spend some time answering the questions below to assess how you feel about the change. Consider the following questions to help you gauge your preparedness for the initiativev: Do I know the changes, their impact, rationale and benefits? Could I explain them to anyone I work with? Do I believe the change is worthwhile? How is the change impacting my existing workload? How can I communicate the need for change, the first steps, how people will be supported, and when we have achieved quick wins? Are there other parallel projects that will have an impact on the changes I’m managing? Will the changes impact the same group? Can we combine forces and integrate plans and communication? What changes will happen and when? Can I stagger the impact or combine time sensibly to lessen the impact? Do change leaders know their responsibilities and the commitment expectations? Has change successfully occurred in these groups in the past? Can we learn from what did or did not work well? What level of trust exists between groups and how can this be improved? When is communication necessary? How can I make the messages clear, interesting, and engaging? Based on the questions above, do you generally have a positive or negative opinion of the change? As leaders, your opinion of the change will have an impact on your efforts to support and guide your team. Therefore it is critical that you understand and support the need for change. Did you know that managers who communicate change effectively can improve their direct reports’ performance by as much as 29.2% (Corporate Leadership Council, 2009). Click here to understand the change commitment process. 9 CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODELvi Now that you have decided to embark on a change effort, what do you do next? Many change models have been developed over time to provide structure in approach. In John P. Kotter’s book, “Leading Change” he outlines eight critical steps when transforming an organization. Its principles are at the core of any successful change effort. Ryerson’s OEE department and your HRMC will partner with you and your team through each stage of the change effort. Step #1: Increase Urgency Step #2: Build a guiding team Step #3: Get the vision right Step #4: Communicate for buy-in Step #5: Empower action Step #6: Create short-term wins Step #7: Don’t let up Step #8: Make change stick As you go through your change effort, it is important to measure the progress against the strategic plan and vision. It is recommended that you spend time during your regular team meeting assessing your team’s progress as you plan next steps. Click here to view a template that will assist in conducting the discussion with your staff. 10 EIGHT STEPS TO EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANGEMENT Step one: Increase Urgency Raising a feeling of urgency is the first and most critical step in a successful change effort. With low urgency and complacency, the change effort cannot get off the ground. What works Creating a compelling story. Never underestimating how much complacency, fear, and anger exists. Creating the vision. What does not work Common Pitfalls Focusing exclusively on building a “rational” business case, getting top management approval, and racing ahead while mostly ignoring all the feelings that are blocking change. Ignoring a lack of urgency and jumping immediately to creating a vision and strategy. Thinking that you can do little if you’re not the leader. Underestimating the difficulty of driving people from their comfort zones. Becoming paralyzed by risks. Tip: “Begin with the end in mind” - Steven Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Desired New Behaviour: People start telling each other, "Let's go, we need to change things!" Step two: Build the Guiding Team It is important to get the right people in place who are fully committed to the change initiative, well-respected within the organization, and have power and influence to drive the change effort at their levels. What works What does not work Common Pitfalls Showing enthusiasm and commitment to help draw the right people into the group. Modeling the trust and teamwork needed in the group Guiding change with weak task forces, single individuals, complex governance structures, or fragmented top teams. Not confronting the situation when power centres undermine the selection of the right team. Trying to leave out or work around the head of the unit to be changed. No prior experience in teamwork at the top. Delegating team leadership to HR rather than a senior line manager. Tip: Draft a large, diverse team made up of individuals at all levels and with different skills. Desired New Behaviour: A group powerful enough to guide a big change is formed and they start to work together well. 11 Step three: Get the Vision Right While creating a shared need and urgency for change may push people into action, it is the vision that will steer them into the new direction. What works What does not work Trying to see – literally – Assuming that linear or logical possible futures. plans and budgets alone Visions that are so clear adequately guide behaviour when that they can be you are trying to leap into the articulated in five minutes future. or written up on one Overly analytical, financially based page. vision exercises. Visions that are moving – such as a commitment to serving people. Common Pitfalls Presenting a vision that’s too complicated or vague to be communicated in five minutes. Tip: Position the change around a compelling picture of the desired future state i.e., Ryerson’s Master Plan. Desired New Behaviour: The guiding team develops the right vision and strategy for the change effort. Step four: Communicate for Buy-In Once a vision and strategy have been developed, they must be communicated to the organization in order to gain understanding and buy-in. Sending clear, credible, and heartfelt messages about the direction of change establishes genuine gut-level buy-in, which sets the stage for the following step: getting people to act. What works Developing a communications strategy. Keeping communication simple and heartfelt. Speaking to anxieties, confusion, anger, and distrust. What does not work Common Pitfalls Under communicating, which can easily happen. Accidentally fostering cynicism by not “walking the talk”. Behaving in ways contrary to the vision. Tip: Create tools that help people tailor information to their specific needs – rather than forcing more generic memos and reports into over-stuffed email and in-boxes Desired New Behaviour: People begin to buy into the change, and this shows in their behaviour 12 Step five: Empower Action Empowering action should be seen as removing barriers to those whom we want to assist in pushing the change effort. Removing obstacles should inspire, promote optimism and build confidence around the change effort. What works What does not work Finding individuals with Trying to remove all the barriers at change experience who once. can bolster people’s self- Giving in to your own pessimisms confidence with “we-wonand fears. you-can-too” anecdotes. Recognition and reward systems that inspire, promote optimism, and build self-confidence. Feedback that can help people make better decisions. Common Pitfalls Failing to address powerful individuals who resist the change effort. Tip: Recognize and reward excellence. Desired New Behaviour: More people feel able to act, and do act, on the vision. Step six: Create Short –Term Wins Short-term wins nourish faith in the change effort, emotionally reward the hard workers, keep the critics at bay, and build momentum. By creating short-term wins, and being honest with feedback, progress is achieved and people are inspired. What works What does not work Common Pitfalls Early wins that come fast. Wins that are as visible as possible to as many people as possible. Wins that are meaningful to others. Launching many projects all at once. Providing the first win too slowly. Leaving shortterm successes up to chance. Failing to score successes early enough into the change effort. Tip: Focus on one or two goals instead of all and make sure no new initiatives are added until one of those goals is achieved and celebrated. Desired New Behaviour: Momentum builds as people try to fulfill the vision, while fewer and fewer resist change. 13 Step seven: Don’t Let Up In successful efforts, people build on this momentum to make the vision a reality by keeping urgency up, eliminating unnecessary, exhausting work and not declaring victory prematurely. What works What does not work Aggressively ridding yourself of Convincing yourself that work that wears you down-tasks you’re done when you aren’t. that were relevant in the past but not now, tasks that can be delegated. Looking constantly for ways to keep urgency up. Using new situations opportunistically to launch the next wave of change. Common Pitfalls Declaring victory too soon – with the first performance improvement. Tip: Replace a time-consuming and painstakingly detailed monthly activity report with a onepage summary that highlights only major milestones and key information. Desired New Behaviour: People remain energized and motivated to push change forward until the vision is fulfilled Step eight: Make Change Stick By creating a new, supportive, and sufficiently strong organizational culture, the change should remain. A supportive culture provides roots for the new ways of operating. What works What does not work Common Pitfalls Telling vivid stories about the new organization, what it does, and why it succeeds Making absolutely sure you have the continuity of behaviour and results that help a new culture grow Trying to change culture as the first step in the transformation process Not creating new social norms and shared values consistent with changes Tip: When introducing new hires to the organization, use videos that contain heartfelt messages from clients whose lives the department has impacted. Desired New Behaviour: New and winning behaviour continues despite the pull of tradition, turnover of change leaders, etc. 14 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY The importance of developing a well thought out communications strategy is often overlooked when embarking on a change initiative. Effective communication during a change effort will serve to provide employees with timely and accurate information, which can positively influence whether the organization can maintain employee productivity and morale and overcome resistance to change. The following five areas outline questions and key information for you to consider when building and delivering a communications strategy designed to inform and guide employees through a change event: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. Building a Strategy Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts Determining Message Content Identifying Most Effective Communications Channels Ensuring Follow Up Building a Strategy Have you and your change team created a communications strategy that considers the questions outlined below? a. What do we need to accomplish? What is the current state? What is the desired state? b. What do we need to communicate? Who relays which messages? With whom do we need to communicate? c. In what order do we communicate with our audiences? When are messages communicated? With what frequency? What tools/channels do we use? d. How can communications accomplish the desired state? Drive behavior change? Educate and engage? Generate awareness? Mobilize commitment? e. Do we understand the following about our audience? Who are they? What do they know/understand already? What drives/motivates them? f. How will we measure whether the communications strategy achieves its objectives? 15 2. Involving Key Stakeholders in Communications Efforts Have you considered all key stakeholders impacted by the change effort? Do all areas (executives, HR, and managers) collaborate to communicate a consistent message? Has HR provided managers with tools and training to adequately prepare them to support all communications? To assist in ensuring that the change effort is communicated to the employees in a timely and effective manner, a communications strategy is critical. The following links will help you: o Template for Building a Communications Strategy o Checklist for Communicating Change o Additional Communication Tips 3. Determining Message Content Do communications detail the rationale behind the change? Do the messages achieve the following: Give reasons for the change and explain the benefit? Ask for staff’s help in making the change work effectively? Show support for the change (i.e., help others accept the change)? Does the communications strategy effectively relay how the change will affect employees and the business in the short and long term? Does the strategy meet the following: Provide as many details as possible? Supply realistic detail of both the positives and negatives of the change? Let employees know that the organization understands the range of emotions associated with the change? CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL® PAGE 2 4. Identifying Most Effective Communication Channels Have you and your change team determined how to clearly communicate what is expected of employees and resources available to them? Have you considered the most effective channels of communication that consider the following questions outlined below: Does the organization have an infrastructure in place in order to provide timely, honest communication with employees? Does the strategy include a timeline detailing when critical messages should go out? Has the organization determined the appropriate communication channel mix to reach diverse, dispersed employee groups? Does the communications strategy ensure that important messages are repeated through a variety of communication vehicles to ensure that employees receive the message? 16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Channelsvii Type Channel Mass Email communication Intranet Memos Newsletters Face-to-face Meetings communication Information sessions Round table discussions 5. Advantages Disadvantages Cost effective Efficiently communicates routine change Allows organization to reach a large audience quickly and consistently Impersonal Employees may not read mass communication Does not easily facilitate an environment in which recipients can ask questions or supply feedback Time consuming Ineffective for reaching employees in dispersed workforces Executives’ presence may discourage employees from openly voicing concerns Inappropriately timed and too detailed information can cause confusion Enables leaders to reinforce importance of the change initiative Allows employees to ask immediate questions and provide feedback Enables employees to receive information from leaders, whom they are more likely to trust Ensuring Follow-Up Once you have implemented your communication strategy, it is critical that you monitor its impact on an on-going basis. Questions you might consider asking to gauge the effectiveness of the strategy might include: Is the department or faculty prepared to engage employees by doing the following: Asking questions? Listening to employee concerns? Acknowledging each contribution and highlighting advantages and disadvantages of various suggestions? Does the department or faculty consider the following: Plan to assess employees’ reactions to change (via surveys, focus groups, etc.)? Continually monitor key metrics related to communications objectives and make necessary adjustments as employees react to different messages? Proactively and reactively adjust the communications strategy based on employee responses? Express appreciation for employees’ assistance and cooperation in implementing the change? 17 MANAGING THE EMOTIONS IN CHANGE There is wisdom in resistance…. -Barry Johnson Resistance to change is the largest obstacle that leaders are faced with when initiating a change effort. It can be very damaging to the process and can potentially stall the efforts to move forward if not addressed appropriately. There are many reasons why an employee may resist change and so as “leaders of change”, you will need to be sensitive to how individuals respond while keeping in mind that the process of commitment and acceptance takes time. William Bridges developed a model that reviews the emotional impact of change over time and the leader’s role. He describes the difference between change and transition. Change is situational and will happen without the people, whereas transition deals with the psychological impact on the people. Bridges’ Three Phases of Transitions Time As a leader of change your role will be to support and encourage your staff throughout each phase. It is important to recognize that transition is not linear and therefore, those that are impacted sometimes find themselves moving back and forth between the phases. Given this possibility, you will need to expect and anticipate that people will go through the transition process at different speeds and in different ways. Your skills in communication, listening and coaching will be pivotal in identifying how to support your staff, both as individuals and as a group, so they can move through the phases as quickly and effectively as possible. 18 Phase 1: Ending, Losing, Letting Go In this phase, staff and faculty must come to a point where they can let go of the old situation and until they let go, they will not be able to move on. Possible Reactions: Tips for Leaders Sense of shock Fear Resentment Apathy Loss Behaviours to watch for: 1. Identify what each individual will be losing 2. Accept your employees’ reactions 3. Be open about losses and show empathy to those affected 4. Look for ways to compensate your employees for their losses 5. Provide your employees with lots of information 6. Show care and concern 7. Ask for reactions 8. Listen and pay attention to what you are hearing 9. Allow people time to grieve 10. Respond to the questions Asking questions Challenging Complaining Failing to see any positive outcomes Trouble sleeping Withdrawal Blame What they are saying: “Why can’t things stay the same?” “This will never work” Phase 2: The Neutral Zone In this phase, staff and faculty are in the gap between the old and new where the “old” no longer works and the “new” has yet to be established. Possible Reactions: Tips for Leaders 1. Talk to your staff and faculty about the feelings they can expect at this stage 2. Create temporary policies, procedures or structures as necessary 3. Strengthen connections within your team 4. Encourage your employees to think of new ways of doing things 5. Involve people in trying out ideas 6. Start training people on the new skills they will need 7. Continue to explain the purpose and plan Anxiety Confusion Decreased motivation (which can result in lack of productivity) Some hope Behaviours to watch for: Adjustment Bargaining Willingness to get involved What they are saying: “Things are a mess, we are so unorganized” “Here we go again!” 19 Phase 3: The New Beginning In this phase staff and faculty begin to show emotional commitment to the new state. Possible Reactions: Tips for Leaders New energy New identity Sense of purpose. Behaviours to watch for: 1. Explain the purpose for the new beginning 2. Continue to communicate the vision: what will the outcome of the change look like 3. Develop a transition plan: when they will receive information, training and support 4. Give your employees parts to play in the transition Rebuilding Cooperation Clear focus and planning What they are saying: “What can we do to make this work?” “When you get used to it…it’s not bad” Additional Tips to Addressing Resistance As a leader, you will likely need to deal with the negative effects of change. The following table provides reasons why staff and faculty may resist change and strategies that leaders of change can use to reduce that resistanceviii. Reasons Employees Resist Strategies Employees feel they will suffer from the change Organization does not communicate expectations clearly Employees perceive more work with fewer opportunities Change requires altering a long-standing habit Relationships harbour unresolved resentments Employees lack feeling of job security Change alters existing social interactions Organization lacks adequate reward process Organization lacks sufficient resources Use communication strategy that solicits employee input Do not send mixed signals regarding the change; this will increase employee distrust Communicate clear vision of the change Provide timely education Identify employee concerns and unresolved implementation issues Provide employees with a timeline and a defined approach and outcome Communicate how employees will benefit from the change Develop procedures to address employees who will be negatively affected by the change Click here to view a checklist to ensure you effectively address employee’s emotional reactions to change. 20 WHAT’S YOUR PERSONALITY PREFERENCE? Knowing how to communicate change is critical to the success of any communication strategy. Personality Dimensions® is based on leading-edge research into human motivation and behaviour and helps to explain what motivates behaviour in people with different personalities or temperaments. Who is engaged by change, who wants stability and values past practice, who focuses on relationships or prefers a compelling argument for the change initiative? Having an understanding of your staff’s personality dimension will provide you with additional insight on how best to respond to them individually at each stage of the transition. FINAL TIPS AND HINTS: When you don’t have answers, don’t give answers. Remember that change is a fast-breaking story. Sometimes you’ll hear the news from management; sometimes you’ll hear it from employees. What’s your colour? Ryerson’s Human Resources Department has certified trainers that can deliver the Personality Dimensions® workshop. For more information contact the OEE department at 416979-5075 or at www.ryerson.ca/hr/co ntact/oee Even your silence will be interpreted - and probably not favourably. Gaps will be filled by the grapevine. As a leader, force yourself to the front lines. This will boost morale. By now you should have an understanding of the complexity of a change management initiative and your role and responsibilities in leading and supporting the change. Whether you are embarking on a new change initiative or considering change within your department/faculty, this guide can assist you at each stage of the process. It is strongly recommended that you conduct this workshop prior to embarking on a change effort. 21 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Books: Leading Change, John P. Kotter (1996) Managing Transitions, 2nd Edition, William Bridges (1991) The Heart of Change, John P. Kotter and Dan S. Cohen (2002) Who killed change? : Solving the mystery of leading people through change, Ken Blanchard and John Britt (2009) Organizations Transitions – Managing Complex Change, Richard Beckhard (1987) Articles: John, P. Kotter, Why Transformation Efforts Fail, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1995 Jacobs, Robert, Five Questions to ask in Measuring Change Effort Success http://www.windsofchangegroup.com/measuring-change-effort-success Websites: To assist in determining your progress against Kotter’s eight (8) steps, visit the “Heart of Change” website to take the on-line tool at http://theheartofchange.com/. CONTACT INFORMATION Human Resources Department Organizational and Employee Effectiveness 416-979-5075 22 TEAM CHARTER GUIDELINES/CHECK LIST A team charter is a clear description of the team's purpose (why), how they will work, and the expected outcomes (what). Why Area Discussion points/Check List Expectations Why are we doing this? Purpose What Goals Scope Timeline In what areas are results absolutely essential? How will those areas be measured, what will they look like? Success Indicators What Nature and organization of work Who outside our team/unit or department who must we involve, inform or consult with? What decisions need approval from someone outside our team (if appropriate)? What is not in our scope of work (though other might think it is)? What authority does the team have to act independently? Roles and Responsibilities Guiding Principles Norms Operating Principles What role(s) and area(s) of responsibility does each team member and leader have? During meetings, who will chair the meeting, who will take notes? What behaviours will we hold one another accountable so we can be an effective team? Do we have “team norms” or “rules of engagement” to refer to? How will the team make decisions; resolve conflicts? How often and how long will we meet as a team? 23 CHANGE ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TEMPLATEix Ask your team what they feel is working well throughout the change process. Write down the 3-5 most common positive elements your team expresses. Ask your team what they are most unhappy with about the change, and ask them to come up with suggestions for improvement. Write down the 3-5 most common suggestions your team identifies. Next, plan how you will respond to the improvement, including if it must be escalated or if you can involve a member of your team. Note that not all suggestions will be suitable for additional action. Take a quick “pulse check” of the team by asking them how they feel about the importance of the change and the success of the implementation so far. It will provide you with a general sense of how happy and engaged your team is, and will help you prioritize the ongoing management of the change. Change Assessment and Planning Template Date: Top 3-5 Positive Outcomes of the Change 1) The team has a clear sense of the long-term benefits of the merger to the company’s ability to expand our product offering, and is pleased with senior management’s visible, hands-on approach to communiating this change. 2) 3) Top 3-5 Suggestions for Improvement FollowUp? Suggestion 1) The team is unclear about the specific timelines for the change, including the official merger date and suggests company-wide Webinar with additional communications about the timeline. Yes Next Steps Review provided timelines with team; Suggest to central change team a Webinar to provide updated timelines Owner Team lead; John Q. to contact central change team 2) 3) Overall, my team rates the importance of this change as a on a scale of 1 to 5 (no importance to critically important). Overall, my team rates the implementation of this change as a implementation). on a scale of 1 to 5 (very ineffective implementation to very effective 24 COMMUNCATIONS STRAGEGY TEMPLATE Who do we communicate with? What do they know or understand already? What drives/motivates them? What do we need to accomplish? What is the current state? What is the desired state? Communication Strategy Template Date: Target Audience: Desired Future State: Stakeholders: How will you get the message across? Measures of success: Key Messages: Communication Channels: How will you know if you have succeeded in meeting your objective? What are your performance indicators? When will you need to communicate the key messages? Who will communicate the message? Key Messages Communication Channel(s) Frequency What do we need to communicate? What is it that is changing? What is the “elevator pitch”? What is the one take-away? 25 COMMUNICATIONS TIPSx: 1. Only communicate what has been authorized. This will ensure consistency across the organization. 2. Communicate the business rationale for the change and the events leading up to it. Clarify the vision and specific change plans. 3. Explain the benefits of the change to the broader department or faculty and the individuals on your team. 4. Update your team regularly on the progress of the change. 5. Acknowledge the negatives of the change. 6. Provide as much detail as possible to minimize rumors. 7. Acknowledge when you do not have the answers. Do not guess. 8. Emphasize that change will happen. MANAGER’S CHECKLIST FOR COMMUNICATING CHANGExi Source: Corporate Leadership Council research. Purpose: To determine the appropriate content and delivery of critical communication around a change initiative. User Guidelines: Use the checklist to determine the content of employee communications and to identify suggestions regarding how to deliver key messages and gain feedback from employees. Context: This checklist helps managers prepare for initial change communication, as well as maintain strong, ongoing communications with employees during the transition. The Message Is my message consistent with that of HR, executives, and other managers? What additional information do I need to effectively communicate with my direct reports? Does my message detail the business rationale behind the change and explain the benefit? Does my message ask for staff’s help in making the change work effectively? Does my message show support for the change (i.e. help others accept the change)? Does my message clarify the vision, plans, and progress of the change initiative? Does my message relay how the change will affect employees and the business in the short and long term? Does my message provide as many details as possible? Does my message address the “What’s in it for me?” question? Does my message supply realistic detail of both the positives and negatives of the change? Does my message let employees know that the organization understands the range of emotions associated with the change? The Communication Strategy Are my formal and informal communications timely, honest, and accurate? Am I repeating key messages numerous times? Have I addressed employee questions and issues, and have I captured and escalated important employee concerns? Has the organization determined how to clearly communicate what is expected of employees and resources available to them to help them transition? Do I communicate proactively and adjust my communication approach depending on employee reactions? Do I create opportunities for two-way, face-to-face dialogue and follow-up on items of concern following these conversations? Am I reaching my audience via numerous channels? MANAGER CHECKLIST FOR ADDRESSING EMOTIONAL REACTIONS TO CHANGExii Use this checklist to ensure you effectively address employees’ emotional reactions throughout the three stages of commitment. Source: Corporate Leadership Council research Response Employee Reaction Individual believes that the problem will correct itself Denial Individual displays apathy/numbness Suggested Manager Response Review the business case for the change Emphasize that the change will happen Allow time for change to sink in Individual tries to rationalize the change Individual tries to sabotage the change effort Anger Individual tends to “shoot the messenger” Individual withdraws from the team Bargaining Depression Individual tries to “cut a deal” to spare himself or herself Individual tries to redirect problem solving away from change Individual expresses a loss of control over the work environment Individual’s absenteeism increases Acceptance Individual expresses ownership for solutions Individual focuses on achieving benefits promised by the change Acknowledge legitimacy of anger Distinguish between feelings and inappropriate behavior Maintain focus on the real drivers necessitating change Focus on how the individual and his/her team will benefit from the change Keep problem solving focused on the root cause Provide a series of specific next steps and follow up frequently Reinforce positive actions that the individual can take to adjust to the change Use the individual as a coach or mentor for others Provide recognition for his/her efforts BUILDING EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO CHANGExiii REFERENCES: Kotter, John P. “Developing a Vision and Strategy”. Leading Change (1996). 72. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011. i iiExtracted from the Corporate Executive Board, Human Resources Learning and Development Roundtable. Cited Sources: ● Society for Human Resource Management. www.shrm.org. (n.d.) Web. 1 April 2007. iii Extracted and adapted from the Corporate Executive Board, Human Resources Learning and Development Roundtable. Cited Sources: ● “Change Management Model of Roles and Responsibilities”. (2007): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011. Kotter, John P. “Transforming Organizations: Why Firms Fail”. Leading Change (1996). 16. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011. iv Extracted from “Change Management Fundamentals – An Introduction to Managing Change”. (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011. v vi Extracted and adapted from: Kotter, John P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press,1996. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011. Kotter, John P. and Cohen, Dan S. The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data. Web. Feb 1. 2011. Kotter, John P. “Why Transformation Efforts Fail” Harvard Business Review, (March-April 1995): 59. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Web. 1 Feb. 2011. The Heart of Change. www.theheartofchange.com. (n.d.). Web. 1 February 2011. Extracted from “Process and Tactics for Communicating Change: A Three-Pronged Approach to Managing Change during Difficult Business Climates” (2007): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1.2011. vii Extracted from “Managing Corporate Cultural Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011. viii Extracted from “Manager’s Toolkit for Managing Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011. ix Extracted from “Manager’s Toolkit for Managing Change” (2008): Corporate Executive Board. Web. Feb 1. 2011. x Extracted from “Manager’s Checklist for Communicating Change” (2008) Corporate Leadership Council research. Web. Feb 1. 2011. xi xiiExtracted from “Building Employee Commitment to Change” (2009) Corporate Leadership Council, HR Practice. Web May 1. 2011. xiiiExtracted from “Building Employee Commitment to Change” (2009) Corporate Leadership Council, HR Practice. Web May 1. 2011.