9th Grade Honors Biology Semester 1 Exam study guide CHAPTER 1 Biology in the 21st Century Section 1: The Study of Life Biosphere Biodiversity Biology Cell Metabolism The seven properties of life Section 2: Unifying Themes of Biology Structure and Function Homeostasis Section 3: Scientific Thinking and Processes Hypothesis and know how to write hypothesis in If, then, because format Independent variable Dependent variable Constants Control group Section 4: Biologists’ Tools and Technology Microscope Scanning microscope Transmission microscope CHAPTER 2 Chemistry of Life Section 1: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Atom Element Compound Ion Ionic bond Covalent bond Polar vs. nonpolar molecules Molecule Section 2: Properties of Water Hydrogen bonds Properties of water: High Specific heat Cohesion Adhesion Solution Solvent Solute Acid Base pH Section 3: Carbon-Based Molecules Monomer Polymer Carbohydrates Properties Monomer and polymer Lipids Properties Monomer and polymer Proteins Properties Monomer and polymer Nucleic acids Properties Monomer and polymer Section 4: Chemical Reactions Chemical reaction Reactants Products Activation energy Endothermic reactions Exothermic reaction Energy diagrams (pg.50) Section 5: Enzymes Catalyst Enzymes Substrate Lock-and-key model Catabolic and Anabolic enzymes Effects of pH and temperature on enzymes CHAPTER 3 Cell Structure and Function Section 1: Cell Theory Hooke Leeuwenhoek Schleiden Schwann Virchow Cell Theory principles (3) Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells Organelles Cytoplasm Section 2: Cell Organelles Cytoskeleton Structure and function Nucleus Structure and function Endoplasmic reticulum Structure and function Smooth ER vs Rough ER Structure and function Ribosomes Structure and function Golgi apparatus Structure and function Vesicles Structure and function Mitochondria Structure and function Endosymbiotic theory Vacuole Structure and function Lysosomes Structure and function Peroxisomes Structure and function Centrioles Structure and function Cell wall Structure and function Chloroplast Structure and function Endosymbiotic theory Section 3: Cell Membranes Cell membrane Phospholipid Fluid mosaic model cholesterol proteins carbohydrates phospholipids Receptor and ligand Intracellular receptor Membrane receptor Section 4: Diffusion and Osmosis Passive transport Diffusion Concentration gradient Osmosis Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic Facilitated diffusion Section 5: Active Transport, Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis Phagocytosis Exocytosis CHAPTER 4 Cells and Energy Section 1: Chemical Energy and ATP ATP ADP ATP – ADP Cycle Chemosynthesis Section 2: Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Pigments Chlorophyll Absorption/reflection of colors Reactants, products and location where Light-dependent reactions happen Reactants, products and location where Light-independent reactions happen Photosynthesis equation Section 3: Photosynthesis in Detail Photosystem II Photosystem I Electron Transport Chain ATP synthase NADP+ and NADPH cycle Calvin cycle Section 4: Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration aerobic anaerobic Reactants, products and location where glycolysis reactions happen Reactants, products and location where Krebs cycle reactions happen Reactants, products and location where Electron transport chain reactions happen Section 5: Cellular Respiration in Detail NADH Pyruvate How many net ATP produced in glycolysis per glucose molecule? Coenzyme A How many ATP produced in Krebs cycle per glucose molecule? FADH2 ATP synthase How may ATP produced in electron transport chain per glucose? Compare/contrast Photosynthesis and cellular respiration Section 6: Fermentation Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation CHAPTER 5 Cell Growth and Division Section 1: The Cell Cycle Cell cycle Interphase G1 S G2 Mitosis and cytokinesis Which stage of interphase does the cell spend more time in? Does the cell spend more time in mitosis or interphase? Cell size: Surface area to volume ratio Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Chromosome Organization of DNA Histones Chromatin Chromatid Centromere Telomere Sister chromatids Purpose of Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis (Plants vs. Animal cells) Section 3: Regulation of the Cell Cycle Checkpoints Apoptosis Cancer Benign tumor Malignant tumor Metastasize Section 4: Asexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction Binary fission Budding Fragmentation CHAPTER 6 Meiosis and Mendel Section 1: Chromosomes and Meiosis Somatic cells Gametes Homologous chromosomes Autosomes Sex Chromosomes Sexual reproduction vs. Asexual reproduction Diploid Haploid Meiosis Compare/contrast meiosis and mitosis Section 2: Process of Meiosis Homologous chromosomes vs. Sister chromatids Characteristics/properties of covalent compounds Meiosis I Crossing over Meiosis II Sample Questions: 1. The variable that is measured in an experiment is the _____ variable. a. dependent c. control b. independent d. experimental 2. Biology is the study of a. life. c. b. minerals. d. weather. energy. 3. Which of the following is not one of the seven properties of life? a. metabolism c. responsiveness b. homeostasis d. photosynthesis 4. All living things maintain a balance within their cells and with the environment through the process of a. growth. c. homeostasis. b. development. d. evolution. 5. A substance that is composed of only one type of atom is called a(n) a. compound. c. element. b. cell. d. molecule. 6. Ionic bonds form between particles that have a. opposite charges. c. no charges. b. the same charge. d. neutral charges. 7. Sharing of electrons in the outer energy levels of two atoms a. results in ion formation. b. makes both atoms stable. c. only occurs if both are atoms of the same element. d. is found only among carbon atoms. 8. A molecule that has a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other side is called a(n) a. nonpolar molecule. c. charged molecule. b. polar molecule. d. ion. 9. Attractions between water molecules are called a. covalent bonds. c. polar bonds. b. ionic bonds. d. hydrogen bonds. 10. Water is a polar molecule because a. it contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom. b. it has a charge. c. different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges. d. it does not have a charge. 11. Which is not a unique property of water? a. b. c. d. Frozen water floats. Water retains a large amount of heat. Water molecules stick to each other. Water cools rapidly. 12. Acidic solutions have a pH that is a. less than 7. c. b. between 7 and 14. d. a negative number. more than 7. 13. The building blocks of most biomolecules contain the element a. carbon. c. calcium. b. nitrogen. d. sodium. 14. Which of the following molecules are classified as carbohydrates? a. amino acids c. nucleotides b. fats d. sugars 15. All of the following are examples of lipids except a. oil. c. steroids. b. starch. d. candle wax. 16. One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that prokaryotes do not have a. DNA. c. cytoplasm. b. a cell membrane. d. a nucleus. 17. The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the a. nucleolus. c. ribosome. b. nuclear wall. d. nuclear envelope. 18. Where are bound ribosomes located? a. suspended in the cytosol b. inside the nucleus c. attached to membranes of another organelle d. outside the cell membrane 19. The organelle that moves proteins and other substances through the cell is the a. endoplasmic reticulum. c. Golgi apparatus. b. mitochondrion. d. cytoplasm. 20. A cell that requires a lot of energy might contain large numbers of a. chromosomes. c. mitochondria. b. vacuoles. d. lysosomes. 21. As a result of diffusion, the concentration of many types of substances a. always remains greater inside a membrane. b. eventually becomes balanced on both sides of a membrane. c. always remains greater outside of a membrane. d. becomes imbalanced on both sides of a membrane. 22. Proteins that serve as tunnels for specific substances through the lipid bilayer are a. cell-surface markers. c. receptor proteins. b. channel proteins. d. enzymes. 23. Which of the following does not require energy? a. diffusion c. active transport b. endocytosis d. sodium-potassium pump 24. The diffusion of water into or out of a cell is called a. solubility. c. selective transport. b. osmosis. d. endocytosis. 25. Which of the following statements about an isotonic solution and a cell is correct? a. The solution has the same solute concentration that the cytoplasm does. b. The solution has a higher solute concentration than the cytoplasm does. c. A cell in the solution will lose water. d. A cell in the solution will gain water. 26. Unlike passive transport, active transport a. requires energy. b. moves substances down their concentration gradient. c. does not involve carrier proteins. d. moves water across the cell membrane. 27. Chlorophyll is green because a. it absorbs green wavelengths of light. b. it absorbs blue and yellow wavelengths, which make green. c. it reflects green wavelengths of light. d. of an optical illusion caused by transmitted light. 28. The source of oxygen produced during photosynthesis is a. carbon dioxide. c. the air. b. water. d. glucose. 29. NADPH is important in photosynthesis because it a. becomes oxidized to form NADP. b. is needed to form chlorophyll and carotenoids. c. provides additional oxygen atoms from the breakdown of water. d. provides high-energy electrons needed to store energy in organic molecules. 30. During the final stage of photosynthesis, sugars are produced from a. oxygen. c. water. b. sunlight. d. carbon dioxide. 31. The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is a. water. c. NADPH. b. ATP. d. oxygen. 32. Fermentation enables glycolysis to continue under a. anaerobic conditions. c. photosynthetic conditions. b. aerobic conditions. d. low-light conditions. 33. When glycolysis occurs, a. b. a molecule of glucose is split. a molecule of glucose is formed. c. d. photosynthesis begins. pyruvates are combined. 34. Mitosis is the process by which a. microtubules are assembled. b. cytoplasm is divided. c. the nucleus is divided into two nuclei. d. the cell rests. 35. What occurs after cytokinesis is completed? a. The cell organizes its microtubules. b. The cell begins to replicate its DNA. c. d. The cell enters G1. The cell enters G2. 36. Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cell cycle? a. cytokinesis mitosis G1 S G2 b. S G1 G2 mitosis cytokinesis c. G1 S G2 mitosis cytokinesis d. mitosis G1 S G2 cytokinesis 37. Cells that are not dividing remain in the a. mitosis phase. c. first gap phase. b. synthesis phase. d. second gap phase. 38. The synthesis (S) phase is characterized by a. DNA replication. b. cell division. c. replication of mitochondria and other organelles. d. the division of cytoplasm. 39. The first three phases of the cell cycle are collectively known as a. a gap. c. mitosis. b. telophase. d. interphase. 40. The phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called a. telophase. c. anaphase. b. metaphase. d. prophase. 41. The cell cycle is monitored as each cell passes through a. the S phase. c. the interphase checkpoint. b. checkpoints. d. cytokinesis. 42. Normal cells become cancer cells when a. regulation of cell growth and division occurs. b. cells respond to control mechanisms. c. cells pass through G1. d. cells do not respond to checkpoints. 43. Binary fission a. occurs when two cells collide with each other. b. c. d. a. b. produces excess energy. creates new species. is the process by which bacteria reproduce. XY XX c. d. XO OO 44. Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes containing genes that code for a. different traits. c. DNA. b. the same traits. d. sex. 45. In humans, gametes contain a. 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. b. 1 autosome and 22 sex chromosomes. c. 45 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. d. 1 autosome and 45 sex chromosomes. 46. When crossing-over takes place, chromosomes e. mutate in the first division. f. produce new genes. g. decrease in number. h. exchange corresponding segments of DNA. 47. The difference between anaphase of mitosis and anaphase I of meiosis is that i. the chromosomes line up at the equator in anaphase I. j. centromeres do not exist in anaphase I. k. chromatids do not separate at the centromere in anaphase I. l. crossing-over occurs only in anaphase of mitosis. 48. Which phrase best describes the process of meiosis? m. occurs in body cells n. results in genetically identical cells o. happens only in haploid cells p. produces haploid gametes Matching. Choose the one most appropriate item from its description. a. b. c. d. e. the monomers of a polypeptide chain 4 found in DNA and RNA 3 principal components of cell membranes 2 speeds up chemical reactions 1 part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate 5 1. enzymes 2. phospholipids 3. nucleotides 4. amino acids 5. active site Matching. Choose the one most appropriate response for each. a.The cellular digestion and disposal of biological molecules occurs inside this organelle. b.are primary cellular organelles where proteins are assembled c.package cellular secretions for export d.extract energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide e.synthesize subunits that will be assembled into two-part ribosomes in the cytoplasm f.this organelle is involved in lipid production and protein transport. g.store substances h.Organelle with ribosomes attached to it i.convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch j.this yields NADPH as well as ATP. k.process that occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts and uses CO2 l.splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. chloroplasts light-dependent reactions central vacuoles lysosomes mitochondria glycolosis ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum rough ER nucleolus fermentation Golgi apparatus light-independent reactions Matching. Choose the one most appropriate response for each. a. cytoplasm apportioned between the two daughter cells cytokinesis b. final phase of mitosis; daughter nuclei re-form telophase c. two sister chromatids are joined here S phase d. chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle begins to form e. chromosomes line up at spindle equator metaphase f. sister chromatids separate, move to opposite spindle poles anaphase II g. about 25 nm in diameter; form mitotic spindle Centriole h. half of a chromosome in prophase Centromere i. in pairs in some eukaryotic cells; move to poles during spindle formation Sister Chromatids j. Pairing of homologues occurs during this stage. Prophase I k. During this stage the sister chromatids begin to separate. Anaphase l. period when DNA is duplicated S phase m. period after DNA is duplicated G2 19. 20. 21. 22. centriole centromere prophase I S 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. prophase telophase cytokinesis anaphase II metaphase G2 Short Answer 1. What is cancer? Uncontrolled cells that skips the checkpoints, it is malignant until it metastasizes. 2. In what way are histones associated with a nucleosome? 3. How do enzymes speed up a chemical reaction? They lower the activation energy an make the reaction rate higher. 4. During which stage of mitosis do the sister chromatids separate from each other? Anaphase 5. How does the appearance of the two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum differ? What causes the difference? The rough ER looks like a rock, bumpy and with ribosomes attached, giving it the name of “Rough ER”, but the Smooth Er, does not have Ribosomes attached to it, making it a smooth look. 6. What is the difference between the energy source of chloroplasts and mitochondria? What do the two organelles have in common? Chloroplasts gets energy from sunlight, mitochondria gets energy from fats, carbohydrates and proteins. 7. In the lipid bilayer, what causes one layer of polar heads to face the cell’s cytoplasm and the other layer of heads to face the cell’s surroundings? The cells are hydrophilic, which means they look for the most amount of water, being in the cytoplasm and cell outsides. 8. What is the difference between how a molecule crosses the cell membrane in simple diffusion and in facilitated diffusion? In simple diffusion the molecules cross the lipid bilayer without help, while on facilitated diffusion, a protein helps the molecules cross. 9. Explain why osmosis is a form of facilitated diffusion.\ The membrane leaves water molecules move freely in and out, while other cells can’t, making the membrane the facilitator. 10. Where does glycolysis take place in a cell? cytoplasm 11. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic processes? Aerobic needs oxygen, while anaerobic doesn’t. 12. How do chlorophyll molecules replace the electrons that leave the chlorophyll? Electrons remaining attach to chlorophyll, replacing the lost electrons. 13. During the Krebs cycle, what happens each time the six-carbon compound releases a carbon dioxide molecule? Energy is released creating electron carriers. 14. Which type of cells contain a haploid number of chromosomes? gametes 15. Describe the characteristics of DNA in a prokaryotic cell. Suspended on the cytoplasm Found in central part of the cell.