Physical & Chemical Properties What is a property? Property: a characteristic of a substance that can be observed Physical Property Physical property: a property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance. Physical Property Examples: • color • ductility • shape •solubility • size • melting point • luster • boiling point • malleability • density Malleability Definition: The ability to be pounded into thin sheets. Example: Aluminum can be pounded flat to make aluminum foil. Ductile Definition: The ability to be drawn into wires. Example: Copper is used to make wires. Thermal Conductivity Definition: The ability or inability to transfer thermal (heat) energy to something else. Example: Iron skillets transfer heat from a stove to the food being cooked. Solubility Definition: The ability of a substance to dissolve into another substance. Example: Sugar dissolves in coffee. Density Definition: Mass per unit volume Example: Lead is used in fishing weights because lead is more dense than water. Luster Definition: State of being shiny by reflecting light, glitter, sheen, gloss, sparkle Example: Titanium crystal has luster. State (Phase) Definition: The form in which matter exists: solid, liquid, gas, plasma. Example: Solid ice Liquid water Gas Helium Plasma lightning Melting/Boiling Point Definition: Temperature when a substance changes state/phase. Example: Ice melts at 0o C Water boils at 100o C. Chemical Property Chemical property: a property that can be only observed by changing the identity of the substance. Chemical Property Examples: • Flammability • Ability to rust • Reactivity to vinegar (acid) Flammability Definition: The ability to burn. Example: Wood is flammable. Rust Definition: Corrosion of a metal through oxidation Example: Iron can rust.