A.P. Biology: Chapter 35 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order, a. the annual rings, phloem, and bark. b. the newest xylem, oldest phloem, and periderm. c. the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem. d. the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium. e. the summer wood, bark, and phloem. 2. One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that a. only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem. b. the cells of roots have cell walls and leaf cells do not. c. a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots. d. vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves. e. leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not. 3. What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree? a. primary xylem d. mesophyll cells b. secondary xylem e. vascular cambium c. secondary phloem 4. Water loss from leaves by evaporation is called a. perspiration b. transpiration c. dessication d. stomata e. mesophyll 5. A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system with growth rings evident in cross section and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the new plant? a. herbaceous eudicot d. herbaceous monocot b. woody eudicot e. woody annual c. woody monocot 6. Plants that complete their life cycle in one year or less are called a. biennials d. both a and b b. annuals e. a, b, and c c. perennials 7. A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following? a. pruning d. transplanting b. deep watering of the roots e. feeding the plants nutrients c. fertilizing 8. The type of mature cell that a particular embryonic plant cell will become appears to be determined mainly by a. the selective loss of genes. b. the cell's final position in a developing organ. c. the cell's pattern of migration. d. the cell's age. e. the cell's particular meristematic lineage. The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root. I. root cap II. zone of elongation III. zone of cell division IV. zone of cell maturation V. apical meristem 9. Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward? a. I, II, V, III, IV b. III, V, I, II, IV c. II, IV, I, V, III d. IV, II, III, I, V e. I, V, III, II, IV The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in the figure below. 10. A plant that is at least three years old is represented by a. I only. d. IV only. b. II only. e. both I and III. c. III only. 11. A monocot stem is represented by a. I only. d. IV only. b. II only. e. both I and III. c. III only. 12. A woody eudicot is represented by a. I only. d. IV only. b. II only. e. both I and III. c. III only. 13. Older layers of wood that are closer to the center of the stem are called a. suberin b. sapwood c. phelloderm d. heartwood 14. Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants? a. Only primary growth is localized at meristems. b. Some plants lack secondary growth. c. Only stems have secondary growth. d. Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures. e. Monocots have only primary growth, and eudicots have only secondary growth. 15. The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the a. cortex. b. stele. c. endodermis. d. periderm. e. sugarwood e. pith. Use the answers below to answer the following questions. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. parenchyma collenchyma sclerenchyma tracheids sieve cells 16. living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sugars and other organic nutrients a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 17. long, thin tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water to flow through pits a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 18. cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support still-elongating and growing parts of the plant a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 19. mature cells without protoplasts with thick, lignified secondary walls that may or may not function in transport a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 20. the least specialized “typical” plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage functions a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 21. Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except a. vessel elements. d. companion cells. b. sieve cells. e. cambium cells. c. tracheids. 22. Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil? a. taproots b. root hairs c. the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem d. storage roots e. sections of the root that have secondary xylem 23. Stems that are often mistaken for roots are a. stolons d. bulbs b. rhizomes e. all of the above c. tubers 24. You are studying a plant from the arid southwestern United States. Which of the following adaptations is least likely to have evolved in response to water shortages? a. closing the stomata during the hottest time of the day b. development of very large leaf surfaces to absorb water c. formation of a fibrous root system spread over a large area d. mycorrhizae associated with the root system e. a thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis 25. An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is a. closing of the stomata. d. absence of petioles. b. lateral buds. e. intercalary meristems. c. apical dominance. 26. Gas exchange, necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue? a. epidermis d. vascular tissue b. palisade mesophyll e. bundle sheath c. spongy mesophyll 27. Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants? a. Flowers may have secondary growth. b. Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves. c. Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. d. Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant. e. Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem. 28. The best word to describe the growth of plants in general is a. perennial. d. derivative. b. weedy. e. primary. c. indeterminate. 29. Small raised areas that dot the periderm and allow more space for gas exchange between cork cells are called a. fusiform initials d. phloem b. lenticels e. palisade parenchyma c. ray initials 30. All of the following are types of modified roots except a. prop roots d. air roots b. storage roots e. shoot roots c. buttress roots 31. A vessel element would likely lose its protoplast in which zone of growth in a root? a. zone of cell division d. root cap b. zone of elongation e. apical meristem c. zone of maturation 32. ____ provides cells for primary growth. a. Lateral meristems d. Cork cambium b. Apical meristems e. Xylem c. Vascular cambium 33. Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells? a. vascular cambium d. phloem b. apical meristem e. xylem c. endodermis 34. Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except a. mesodermal. d. vascular. b. epidermal. e. ground tissue. c. meristematic. 35. Which of the following is true of bark? a. It is composed of phloem plus periderm. b. It is associated with annuals but not perennials. c. It is formed by the apical meristems. d. It has no identifiable function in trees. e. It forms annual rings in deciduous trees. 36. As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. The nail is now ____ meters above the ground. a. 0.5 b. 1.5 c. 3.0 d. 15.0 e. 28.5 37. ____ is to xylem as ____ is to phloem. a. Sclerenchyma cell; parenchyma cell b. Apical meristem; vascular cambium c. Vessel element; sieve-tube member d. Cortex; pith e. Vascular cambium; cork cambium 38. The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to a. continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root. b. continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem. c. elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem. d. A and B only. e. A, B, and C. 39. Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called a. hairs. d. stomata. b. xylem cells. e. sclereids. c. phloem cells. 40. Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function? a. sclerenchyma-supporting cells with thick secondary walls b. periderm-protective coat of woody stems and roots c. pericycle-waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots d. mesophyll-parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves e. ground meristem-primary meristem that produces the ground tissue system 41. The external form of an organism is called a. adventitious b. plasticity c. phelloderm d. morphology e. initials 42. Which of the following arise from meristematic activity? a. secondary xylem d. tubers b. leaves e. all of the above c. trichomes 43. Secondary growth never occurs in a. stems. d. stems and leaves. b. roots. e. roots and leaves. c. leaves. 44. Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system? a. root hair-dermal tissue d. companion cell-ground tissue b. palisade parenchyma-ground tissue e. tracheid-vascular tissue c. guard cell-dermal tissue 45. The two main systems that make up angiosperm morphology are a. flowers and roots d. flowers and leaves b. shoots and flowers e. none of the above c. roots and shoots 46. Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots? a. endodermis b. phloem c. cortex d. epidermis e. pericycle 47. Axillary buds a. are initiated by the cork cambium. b. develop from meristematic cells left by the apical meristem. c. are composed of a series of internodes lacking nodes. d. grow immediately into shoot branches. e. do not form a vascular connection with the primary shoot. 48. Which of the following tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics? a. collenchyma-uniformly thick-walled non-supportive tissue b. epidermis-protective outer covering of plant body c. sclerenchyma-heavily lignified secondary walls d. meristematic tissue-undifferentiated tissue capable of cell division e. parenchyma-thin-walled, loosely packed, unspecialized cells 49. An organism’s ability to alter or mold itself in response to local environmental conditions is called a. flexibility d. apically b. plasticity e. rubberisity c. determinate 50. Suppose George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. The leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks, but the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the a. phloem. d. cortex. b. xylem. e. companion and sieve-tube members. c. cork cambium.