Chapter 24

Mr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought
Chapter Overview
 The faith in science that dominated thought in the second half of the nineteenth century.
 Conflict between church and state over education.
 Islam and late nineteenth-century European thought.
 The effect of modernism in literature and art, psychoanalysis, and the revolution of physics
on intellectual life.
 Racism and anti-Semitism
 Feminism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century
Section One: The New Reading Public
Section Overview:
o Between 1850 and 1900, Europe emerged as a primarily literate society with a
massive reading public.
Advances in Primary Education
o Implementation of elementary schools by nation
 Hungary 1868
 Britain 1870
 Switzerland 1874
 Italy 1877
 France 1878-1881
o By 1900, nearly 85% of the inhabitants of Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands,
Scandinavia, and Germany were literate; Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, and the
Balkans still had literacy rates between 30 and 60%.
Reading Material for the Mass Audience
o Newspapers, books, magazines, mail-order catalogs, and libraries grew rapidly
o “Literacy was the intellectual parallel of the railroad and steamship. People could
leave their original intellectual surroundings because literacy is not an end in itself,
but leads to other skills and knowledge.”
Section Two: Science at Mid-Century
 Section Overview
o Newtonian view of science—that nature operates as a vast machine according to
mechanical principles—still prevailed at mid-century.
o Rational, mechanical, dependable
o The term ‘scientist’ invented in the 1830s.
 Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science
o Positivism
 A philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science
which was describes by Auguste Comte in The Positive Philosophy (18301842).
 Three stages of human intellectual development
 Stage one: theological stage
 Stage two: metaphysical stage
 Stage three: positive stage (exact descriptions of observable
o Comte considered the father of sociology
 He believed positive laws of social behavior could be formulated.
o Link between science and technology now abundantly clear to people of Europe
 Prior to nineteenth-century, natural philosophy was studied by an
intellectual elite and technological innovation usually developed by workers.
 Second Industrial Revolution marks the union of science and technology.
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
o Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
 On Origin of Species (1859)
 Explained how species evolved over time through natural selection.
 Influence by Thomas Malthus’ premise that more living organisms
come into existence than can survive in their environment.
 Natural selection is mechanistic; that is, it requires no guiding mind
behind the development of organic nature.
 ‘Darwinism’ contradicted the biblical narrative of Creation and also
undermined the argument for the existence of God and fixity in
 The Descent of Man (1871)
 Application of the principle of evolution by natural selection to
human beings.
 Darwin contends that humankind’s moral nature and religious
sentiments, as well as its physical frame, had developed
naturalistically largely in response to the requirements of survival.
Science an Ethics
o Philosophers applied the struggle for survival to human social relationships.
 ‘survival of the fittest’
o Evolutionary Ethics and Social Darwinism
 Herbert Spencer—British philosopher and supporter of evolutionary ethics
 Human societies progress through competition; if the weak receive
too much protection, the rest of human kind is the loser
o Idea used to justify not aiding the poor and the working class,
colonialism, and aggressive competition between nations.
o Doctrine of ‘might makes right.’
 Thomas Henry Huxley—chief opponent of evolutionary ethics
 Believed the physical process of evolution was at odds with human
ethical development; the struggle in nature showed how humans
should not behave.
Section Three: Christianity and the Church Under Siege
 Section Overview
o Very difficult 19th century for Christian churches in Europe
 many intellectuals left the faith
 secular and liberal nation-states attacked the influence of the church
 Intellectual Skepticism
o Intellectuals challenged the historical credibility, the scientific accuracy, and the
morality of the Christian church.
 History
 David Friedrich Strauss (1808-1874), The Life of Jesus
o Questioned whether the Bible provides any genuine historical
evidence about Jesus.
o Contends that the story of Jesus is a myth.
 Julius Wellhausen (Germany), Ernst Renan (France), and William
Robert Smith (Great Britain) all explained that the Bible had been
written by human beings, like the Homeric epics, and were not
divinely inspired.
 Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
o Geology proves that the earth is much older than biblical
records claim
o By looking at natural causes for floods, mountains, and valleys,
he removed the miraculous hand of God from the physical
development of the earth.
 Anthropologists, psychologist, and sociologists proposed that
religious sentiments are just one more set of natural phenomena.
 Morality
 Old Testament God
o Cruelty and unpredictability did not fit well with tolerant and
rational liberal values.
 New Testament God
o Willing to sacrifice the only perfect being ever to walk the
earth; seemed irrational.
 Nietzche (1844-1900)
o Portrayed Christianity as a religion that glorified weakness
rather than the strength life required.
o “War and courage have accomplished more great things than
love of neighbor”
Conflict Between Church and State
o Great Britain
 Education Act of 1870 provided for state-supported schools run by elected
school boards, whereas previously the government had given grants to
religious schools.
 Anglican Church vs. state
 Anglican Church vs. other Christian denominations
 Education Act of 1902 provided funding for both religious and nonreligious
schools and imposed the same standards on each.
o France
 Falloux Law of 1850
 local priest provided religious education in the public schools
 The Third Republic vs. the Catholic Church
 Between 1878 and 1886, a series of educational laws sponsored by
Jules Ferry (1832-1893) replaced religious instruction in the public
schools with civic training.
o Germany and the Kulturkampf
 In 1870, Bismarck removed the clergy from overseeing local education in
Prussia and set education under state direction.
 “May Laws” of 1873 (applied to Prussia but not the entire German Empire)
 required priests to be educated in German schools and universities
and to pass state examinations.
 state could veto the appointments of priests.
 Many clergy refused to obey these laws and by 1876 Bismarck had
either arrested or expelled all Catholic bishops from Prussia
 Kulturkampffailed as many Germans remained loyal to the Catholic Church
Areas of Religious Revival
o Despite state attempts to strip the Christian churches in Europe of privileges and
power, new churches and religious schools expanded and devotion increased in
some areas.
 Many in France believed they lost the Franco-Prussian War due to sin and
increased piety in France in the 1870s and 1880s is evident.
 Ie. Cult of the miracle of Lourdes
The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World
o Syllabus of Errors issued by Pope Pius IX in 1864
 pitted the Catholic faith against science, philosophy, and politics.
o First Vatican Council 1869
 Papal infallibility
 The pope was the ultimate source of truth when speaking on matters
of faith and morals.
 No earlier pope had asserted such centralized authority within the
 Pope Pius IX and many other Roman Catholics believed the Church could
only sustain itself in the modern world of nation-states with large electorates
by centering the authority of the church in the papacy itself.
o Pope Leo XIII (r. 1878-1903)
 RerumNovarum(1891), an alternative to socialism and capitalism
 Defended private property, religious education, and religious control
of marriage laws, and he condemned socialism and Marxism, but also
declared that employers should treat employees justly.
 Corporate societies
o Supported laws that protected workers and urged modern
society to be organized in corporate groups that would include
people from various classes who would cooperate according to
Christian principles.
 Democratic Catholic political parties were formed throughout Europe
as a result of Leo’s pronouncement.
o Pope Pius X (r. 1903-1914)
 Required all priests to take an anti-Modernist oath,
Islam and Late-Nineteenth Century European Thought
o The few European intellectuals who wrote about Islam subjected it to the same
critical historical analysis that was being directed toward the Bible.
 Islam, like other great world religions, was seen as a product of a particular
 Ernst Renan and Max Weber dismissed Islam as a religion and culture
incapable of developing science and closed to new ideas.
o Jamal al-din Al-Afghani
 Egyptian intellectual who challenged Renan’s view.
 claimed that over time Islam would eventually produce cultures as modern
as those in Europe.
o Anti-Islamic attitudes
 Blamed Islam for economic backwardness, for mistreating women, and for
condoning slavery.
o Christian missionaries had little success in the Islamic world as punishment for
conversion was death
 Missionaries did establish western schools and hospitals in the Islamic world
o Ottoman government supported Western scientific education and technology.
 Salafi, or the salafiyya movement
 Believed in a reformed view of the Islamic faith which emphasized a
rational reading of the Qur’an and saw Ottoman decline as the result
of Muslim religious error.
 This outlook, which had originally sought to reconcile Islam with the
modern world, eventually led many Muslims in the twentieth century
to oppose Western influence.
Mahdist movement in Sudan, the Sanussiya in Libya, and the Wahhabi
movement in the Arabian peninsula simply rejected the West and modern
Section Four: Toward A Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind
 Section Overview
o The last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth
century were the ‘crucible’ of modern Western thought.
o Philosophers, scientist, psychologist, and artists began to portray physical reality,
human nature, and society in ways different from the past and these new ideas
challenged the mid-nineteenth century science, rationalism, liberalism, and
bourgeois morality.
 Science: The Revolution in Physics
o Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics (1883)
 Argued that scientist consider their concepts descriptive not of the physical
world, but of the sensations the scientific observer experiences.
o Henri Poincare
 Theories of scientists should be regarded as hypothetical constructs of the
human mind rather than as true descriptions of nature.
 By World War I, few scientists believed they could portray the ‘truth’ about
physical reality, but rather saw themselves as recording the observations of
instruments and as offering useful hypothetical or symbolic models of nature.
o X Rays and Radiation
 Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x rays (a form of energy that penetrated
various opaque materials) in 1895.
 Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted a similar form of energy in
 J.J. Thomson formulated the theory of the electron in 1897.
 Ernst Rutherford explained the cause of radiation through the disintegration
of the atoms of radioactive materials.
o Theories of Quantum Energy, Relativity, and Uncertainty
 Max Planck, 1900
 Pioneered the explanation of the quantum theory of energy, according
to which energy is a series of discrete quantities, or packets, rather
than a continuous stream.
 Albert Einstein, 1905
 Published his first paper on relativity in which he contended that time
and space exist not separately, but rather as a combined continuum.
 The measurement of time and space, therefore, depends on the
observer as well as on the entities being measured.
 Werner Heisenberg, 1927
 Uncertainty principle—the behavior of subatomic particles is a matter
of statistical probability rather than exactly determinable cause and
 Applied science and technology in the areas of chemistry, physics, and
medicine affected daily living more than ever before and scientists were able
to find increased funding from governments.
Literature: Realism and Naturalism
o Realist and naturalist movement in literature
 portrayed the hypocrisy, brutality, and dullness that underlay bourgeois life.
 infused scientific objectivity and observation in their works.
 realism rejected the romantic idealization of nature, the poor, love, and polite
 portrayed human beings as subject to passions, materialistic determinism,
and the pressures of the environment like any other animal.
o Charles Dickens and Honore de Balzac
 Early realist writers who portrayed the cruelty of industrial life and of a
society based on money.
o Flaubert and Zola
 Madame Bovary, GustaveFalubert
 tells the story of the dullness of provincial life as a woman searches
for love in and outside of marriage; the work portrayed life without
heroism, purpose, or even civility,
 considered the first realist novel
 Emile Zola
 He wrote ‘experimental’ novels in which he would observe and report
the characters and their actions as the scientist might relate laboratory
 Between 1871 and 1893, he published twenty novels exploring
subjects like alcoholism, prostitution, adultery, and labor strife.
 He took a leading role in the defense of Dreyfus
o Ibsen and Shaw
 Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
 Norwegian playwright who carried realism into the dramatic
presentation of domestic life.
 In A Doll’s House the protagonist has a husband who refuses to
tolerate independence of character or thought on her part; she finally
leaves him.
 In Ghosts, he writes of a respectable woman with a son suffering from
syphilis inherited from her husband.
 George Bernard Shaw
 Irish writer who supported Ibsen and adopted many aspects of his
 In Mrs. Warren’s Profession (1893), he tells the story of a prostitute.
 In Man and Superman, he scorned the romantic ideals of love and war.
Modernism in Literature
o Modernism
 New movement in late 19th century art and literature that was critical of
middle-class society and morality
 Not concerned with social issues, but instead focused on aesthetic and
 Modernism in literature arose before World War I and flourished after the
war, nourished by the turmoil and social dislocation it created.
o Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
 British modernist writer
 Novels like Mrs. Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927) portrayed
individuals seeking to make their way in the world with most of the
nineteenth century social and moral certainties removed.
o Marcel Proust
 French modernist
Wrote a seven-volume novel In Search of Time Past (1913-1927) in which he
adopted a stream-of-consciousness format that allowed him to explore his
 He would concentrate on a single experience and then allow his mind to
wander through all the thoughts and memories it evoked.
o Thomas Mann (1875-1955)
 German modernist
 His books Buddenbrooks and The Magic Mountain explored the social
experience of middle class Germans and how the dealt with the intellectual
heritage of the nineteenth century
The Coming of Modern Art
o Impressionism
 Themes and Departure from traditinal European art
 Instead of religious, mythological, and historical scenes, painters
began to depict modern life
 Social, leisure, and urban life of the middle and lower middle
 Fascination with light, color to create a visual experience for
 Leading impressionist painters
 Edward Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir,
and Edgar Degas painted Parisian cafes, dance halls, concerts, picnics,
horse races, boating, and beach parties
o A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet
 Depicted a young barmaid standing behind a table
holding liquor and wine bottles.
 Interpretation—barmaid’s expression may suggest the
anonymity of many social encounters in modern urban
o Post-impressionism
 Leading post-impressionist painters
 Georges Seurat, Paul Cezanne, Vincent Van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin
o Seurat (1859-1891)
 developed the technique known as poitillism
 introduced social commentary into the impressionist
portrayal of leisured activities (ie. A Sunday Afternoon
on the Island of the Grande Jatte)
o Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
 attempted to bring form and solidity back into his
paintings of still life and landscapes.
o Paul Gaugin (1848-1903)
 portrayed works of people from the South Pacific
o Cubsim
 Style and technique, and artists
 Considered the single most important new departure from traditional
art in early twentieth-century as they rejected the goal of art as to
depict the world realistically.
 Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Georges Braque (1882-1962)
o Pioneered a new style of art in which they sought to rejected
that painting constitutes a window unto the real world;
instead, the saw painting as an autonomous realm of art itself
with no purpose beyond itself.
o The space in their paintings was literally space between two
dimensions filled with geometric shapes and geometric voids;
the shapes stand dismantled, set in new and unusally
unepxected positions, communicating a sense of dislocation
(ie. Braque’s Violin and Palette)
Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason
o Philosophy in the late nineteenth century
 Philosophers began to question the adequacy of rational thinking to address
the human situation.
o Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
 he challenged Christianity, democracy, nationalism, rationailty, science, and
 he sought less to change values than to probe their sources in the human
 The Birth of Tragedy (1872)
 Argued that nonrational aspects of human nature are as important
and noble as rational characteristics.
 To limit human activity to rational behavior is to impoverish human
 Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883)
 Criticized democracy and Christianity as both would lead to
mediocrity of ‘sheepish’ masses
 In this book he announced the death of God and proclaimed the
coming of Overman who would embody heroism and greatness.
 He wanted a return to the heroism he associated with Greek life and
the Homeric age.
 Beyond Good and Evil (1886) and The Genealogy of Morals (1887)
 he sought to discover not what was good and evil, but the social and
psychological sources of the judgement of good and evil.
 “There are no moral phenomena at all, but only a moral interpretation
of phenomena.” Therefore, morality is a human convention.
 Nietsche drew upon Romantic tradition in his appeal to feelings and
The Birth of Psychoanalysis
o Overview of psychoanalysis
 Early psychologist sought to discern the undercurrents, tensions, and
complexities that lay beneath the calm surfaces of hard atoms, respectable
families, rationality, and social relationships.
o Development of Freud’s Early Theories
 Early in his career he worked with psychic disorders and hypnosis
 In the mid 1890s, Freud abandoned hypnosis and allowed his patients to talk
freely and spontaneously about themselves and found that they associated
their experiences with events of childhood.
 He formulated a theory that unconscious sexual drives already exist in
infants and do not simply emerge at puberty.
o Freud’s Concern with Dreams
 Freud believed the seemingly irrational content of dreams must have a
reasonable, scientific explanation.
 “The dream is the disguised fulfillment of a suppressed wish.”
 The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
o Freud’s Later Thoughts
Internal struggle of the mind between the ‘id’ (amoral, irrational, driving
instincts for sexual gratification, aggression, and general physical and sensual
pleasure), the ‘superego’ (the external moral imperatives and expectations
imposed on the personality by society and culture), and the ‘ego’ (which
mediates between the impulses of the id and superego.
 Freud’s ideas are a synthesis between Enlightenment rationalism and
o Divisions in the Psychoanalytic Movement
 Carl Jung (1875-1961)
 A student of Freud who disagreed with his emphasis on the primacy
of sexual drives in forming personality and in contributing to mental
 Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933)
o Jung tended toward mysticism and saw positive values in
religion; Jung was more dependent on Romanticism.
o Collective experiences make up the human soul.
Retreat from Rationalism in Politics
o Nineteenth century liberals and conservatives agreed that rational analysis could
discern the problems of society and prepare solutions.
o Max Weber (1864-1920)
 German sociologist
 Regarded the emergence rationalism (scientific knowledge and
bureaucratization) throughout society as the major development in human
 Bureaucratization: the division of labor as each individual fit into a
particular role in much larger organizations; people derive their own
self-image and self-worth from their positions in these organizations.
 Weber contended that noneconomic factors might account for major
developments in human history.
 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905)
o Traced much of the rational character of capitalist enterprise
to the ascetic religious doctrine of Puritanism.
o According to Weber, Puritans worked for worldly success less
for its own sake than to assure themselves that they stood
among the elect of God.
o Theorist of Collective Behavior
 In his emphasis on the individual and on the dominant role of rationality,
Weber differed from many contemporary social scientists, such as Gustave
LeBon (1841-1931), Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), and Georges Sorel (18471922) in France, Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in Italy, and Graham Wallas
(1858-1932) in England.
 LeBon explored the mentality of the crowds and mobs.
o Crowds behave irrationally, Reflections on Violence (1908)
 Sorel argued that people do not pursue rationally perceived goals but
are led to action by collectively shared ideals.
 Durkheim and Wallas became deeply interested in the necessity of
shared values and activities in a society.
o Racism
 Deep rooted history of racism in European history.
 Renaissance explorers had displayed prejudice against nonwhite
 Biologist and anthropologists had classified human beings according
to the color of their skin.
 Slavery in the Americas.
Biological sciences justified racial thinking starting in the late nineteenth
 Hierarchy of superior races
o Gobineau
 French diplomat who wrote the first theory of race as the major determinant
of human history in Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1854).
 Portrayed the troubles of Western civilization as the result of the long
degeneration of the original white Aryan race.
 He believed that the superior white race had been diluted by
intermarrying with inferior yellow and black races.
o Chamberlain
 An Englishman who settled in Germany wrote a theory of racial thought in
his Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899).
 Chamberlain was anti-Semitic and his book spread these sentiments
throughout Europe.
 Paul de Lagarde (1827-1891) and Julius Langbehn (1851-1907) emphasized
the supposed racial and cultural dangers posed by the Jews to German
national life.
o Late-Century Nationalism
 In the early to mid-nineteenth century, nationalism had been a movements
among liberals and a small group of nationalists; from 1870 onward,
however, it became a movement with mass support, with well-financed
organizations, and political parties.
 New nationalism opposed internationalism of both liberalism and
 The ideal of nationality was used to overcome the pluralism of class, religion,
and geography.
 The nation replaced religion for many secularized people; nationalism as a
‘secular religion’.
Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism
o Religious anti-Semitism existed in Europe since the Middle Ages, but after the
French Revolution, western European Jews gradually gained entry into civil life;
nonetheless, during the last third of the century, as finance capitalism changed the
economic structure of Europe, many non-Jewish European threatened by changes
became hostile toward the Jewish community.
o Anti-Semitic Politics
 Mayor Karl Lueger (1844-1910)
 Mayor of Vienna who used anti-Semitism as a major attraction for his
Christian socialist party.
 Adolf Stoecker (1835-1909)
 Famous ultra-conservative Lutheran chaplain in Germany.
 Dreyfus Affair in France focused a new hatred toward Jews.
o Amidst rapid anti-Semitism, the Austro-Hungarian Theodor Herzl started the Zionist
movement with the goal to establish a separate Jewish state.
o Herzl’s Response
 Herzl lost faith that liberal politics would guarantee the protection of Jews in
 The Jewish State, 1896 called for a separate state in which all Jews might be
assured of the rights and liberties that they should be enjoying in the liberal
states of Europe.
Section Five: Women and Modern Thought
 Anti-Feminism in Late-Century Thought
o The emphasis on biology, evolution, and reproduction led intellectuals to
concentrate on women’s mothering role and their interest in the non-rational led
them to reassert the traditional view that feeling and nurturing instinct are basic to
women’s nature.
 Darwinism reinforced traditional stereotypes of women.
o Late-nineteenth century writers of fiction also often displayed fear and hostility
toward women, portraying women as creatures susceptible to overwhelming and
often destructive feelings and instincts.
o Evidence of late nineteenth century misogyny.
 Ethnological Society of London excluded women from its discussion on the
grounds that the subject matter of the customs of primitive peoples was
unfit for women and that women were amateurs whose presence would
lower the level of discussion.
 T.H. Huxley excluded women from the Geological Society that he oversaw.
 Late Victorian anthropologist tended likewise to assign women, as well as
nonwhite races, an inferior place in the human family.
o Women and the field of psychology
 Leading psychologist of the period, like Freud, shared prevailing views of
women; however, women psychoanalyst like Karen Horney and Melanie
Klein would challenge Freud’s views on women.
 Because psychology increasingly influenced child rearing and domestic
relation law in the twentieth century, it, ironically gave men a large impact in
the one area of social activity that women had dominated.
o Women and the field of social science
 Most major theorist believed that women’s role in reproduction and child
rearing demanded a social position inferior to men.
 Auguste Comte, a Rousseauean social scientist, portrayed women as
biologically and intellectually inferior to men.
 Emile Durkheim portrayed women as creatures of feeling and family rather
than of intellect.
 Max Weber favored improvements in the condition of women, but did not
really support significant changes in their social roles or in their relationship
to men.
 New Directions in Feminism
o Many women’s groups concentrated on achieving the vote for women, but feminist
writers and activist attempted to redefine ways of thinking about women; in most
cases their efforts were not successful.
o Sexual Morality and the Family
 In various nations, middle-class women began to challenge the doublestandard of sexual morality and the traditional male-dominated family.
 Contagious Diseases Act (1864-1886)
 Any women in England, known or suspected of being a prostitute,
could be required to undergo an immediate internal medical
examination for venereal diseases.
 Those found to have diseases could be confined for months to locked
hospitals without legal recourse.
 These laws angered middle-class women who believed harsh working
conditions and the poverty imposed on so many working-class
women were true causes of prostitution.
 By 1869, the Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal of the
Contagious Diseases Act, a middle-class organization led by Josephine
Butler, began to actively oppose the laws and achieved its repeal by
General Austrian Women’s Association (1890s)
 Led by Auguste Ficke, this organization combated the legal
regulation of prostitution, which would have put women under the
control of police authorities,
 Women’s groups that demanded the abolition of laws that punished
prostitutes without questioning the behavior of their customers were
challenging the double-standard and the traditional relationship of men and
women in marriage.
 Feminist view of marriage
 Mother’s Protection League in Germany contended that both married
and unmarried mothers required the help of the state, including
leaves for pregnancy and childcare.
 In Sweden, Ellen Kay, in The Century of the Child and The Renaissance
of Motherhood, maintained that motherhood is so crucial to society
that government, rather than husbands, should support mothers and
 Darwinism and contraception
 Many early advocates of contraception argued that limiting the
number of children would allow more healthy and intelligent children
to survive.
 Maria Stopes pioneered contraception clinics in the poor districts of
o Women Defining Their Own Lives
 Josephine Butler and Auguste Ficke sought to achieve legal and social
equality; this was the first step toward transforming Europe from a maledominated society.
 Freedom and development of women’s personalities through better
education and government financial support for women engaged in
traditional social roles, whether or not they had gained the right to
 Socialist parties attracted many women in the late nineteenth century as
platforms called for improvements in the economic situation of women.
 Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929)
 Addressed the difficulties that women of both brilliance and social
standing encountered in being taken serious as writers and
 Encouraged female intellectuals to bring the separate intellectual and
psychological qualities they possessed as women rather than mimic
or imitate male style, function, and form of their male counterparts.
 Encouraged writers of both genders to think as both men and women
and share these sensibilities.
 By World War I, feminism in Europe had become associated with challenges
to traditional gender roles and sexual morality and with either socialism or
political radicalism.
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