Common Swine Diseases (Lester, DVM)

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Causes of Diarrhea
(piglets)




ineffective environmental temperature
unavailability of colostrum and milk
inadequate immunization of the sow
continuous use of pen
Age Ranges for Diarrheal Diseases
most prevalent
age disease
can occur
hemorrhagic enteritis
colibacillosis
TGE
coccidiosis
rotaviral diarrhea
edema disease
swine dysentery
ileitis
salmonellosis
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
age in weeks
Economic Impact of Scouring
One day of SCOURING/DIARRHEA can
add 3 - 5 days to market age (univ.
studies)
for a 5-sow level farm with 20 pigs per sow per year:
3 days of scouring
100 pigs x 2.5 kg feeds/day x 3 days x P 12/kg feeds
That’s P 9,000.00 for the year!
(based on feed costs alone)
Control and Treatment
ensure
adequate
colostrum &
milk intake
postpone
scheduled
piglet
activities
institute proper antibiotic &
supportive therapy
Control and Treatment
correction of
environmental defects
Control and Treatment
proper & regular
disinfection of pens &
premises
evaluate the integrity
of the sow
proper immunization of the sow
Escherichia coli
Colibacillosis
yellowish diarrhea
dirty skin
cyanosis of
extremities
severe dehydration
COLIBACILLOSIS
• Usually pigs <9 days of age
*E coli to attach to villi in gut and cause SECRETORY
DIARRHEA
• Very little mucosal damage done
COLIBACILLOSIS
• Diagnosis
–
–
–
–
–
*Alkaline pH of feces
**Diarrhea and dehydration
SOME vomiting, but not a lot
Can be extremely depressed
Can go into septicemia (rare)
• Treatment
– If start early with appropriate antibiotic (SENSITIVITY)
can pull them through.
– Tetracyclines, Amoxycillin,
COLIBACILLOSIS
• Prevention
– ***Management changes. Make sure baby pigs get
iron injections early!
– Make sure sow is giving milk!!
– Commercial bacterins available
• See less colibaccilosis problems in older sows
than in the younger gilts
• Prevention: closed herd, management. Keep pig
warm, dry, draft-free. No sudden changes in
management or environment.
TGE virus
TGE
thin mucosa of the small
intestines
grayish-green feces
TGE
• Vomiting, diarrhea, pretty severe
• coronavirus
–
–
–
–
–
Transmission: ingestion, inhalation, carrier pigs
DEADLY TO BABY PIGS
Worse in colder weather
Treatment is of little value
Attracts mucosal cell linings of intestinal tract, causing
villous atrophy
– If you can keep pig alive for 6 days, for mucosal cells to
regenerate, can save some of these pigs. (IV fluids)
TGE
• Vaccines available
Serpulina hyodysenteriae
Swine Dysentery
typical shape (red) of a pig
with SD
reddish-brownish- blackish diarrhea
Swine Dysentery
• Major disease with lots and lots of loss to swine
industry.
• Serpulina/Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (changed
in 1999)
• Severe bloody, mucoid diarrhea in older pigs
(150-200 lbs) 3-4 months
• Extremely common
• STRICTLY CONFINED TO LARGE INTESTINE
– If you see lesions in small intestine, think about
Salmonella!
– Lesions are superficial
Swine Dysentery
• Treatment
– Carbadox, Denagard
– lots of treatments work
• Tends to develop resistance to treatment
• Prevention = management.
• Addition of very expensive antibiotics in feed.
ENTEROTOXEMIA
Clostridium perfringens
black discoloration of the body parts
orange-colored diarrhea
hemorrhagic intestines
ENTEROTOXEMIA
• Can be devastating
• Pathology
– Extreme necrosis of mucosal lining of small
intestine. tightly adhered, can't pull it off.
– Not seen over 4 weeks, usually seen 7-14 days of
age
ENTEROTOXEMIA
• Clinical signs
– Very little diarrhea is usually involved. Can see
diarrhea, but intestine is so full of necrotic crud that
it's plugged up
– Can see: bloody diarrhea, sudden death
• Treatment is usually unrewarding; affected pigs
usually die. Key is to prevent spread.
– Antisera available to inject into baby pigs at birth
– Vaccination of sow is best
• (6 and 3 weeks prefarrowing)
Lawsonia intracellularis
Ileitis
severe loss of
condition
“hose-pipe” gut
small & large intestines filled with
formed blood clot; colon with black,
tarry feces
necrotic ileitis
ILEITIS
• NECROPROLIFERATIVE ENTERITIS ("Garden Hose gut")
• Lawsonia intracellularis
• Bloody, mucoid diarrhea in older pigs, not usually in
younger pigs
• Bacterin available, don't know if works
• Prevention: management.
– Tylan, Bacitracin/BMD approved for control of this disease
• Can be devastating on certain herds (by decreasing
production, doesn't usually kill many pigs)
Salmonella cholerasuis
Salmonellosis
cyanosis of the skin
black discoloration of the small
intestines
SALMONELLOSIS
•
•
•
•
Mainly S. cholerasuis.
Most common pig isolate.
Spread by shedding pig
S. typhimurium - spread by feed,feet
• Primary clinical sign:
• in piglets, usually nothing, because mom is protecting
it up to weaning.
• But it is one of the primary causes of bloody diarrhea.
– Chronic, necrotic enteritis
– can go septic and become respiratory
SALMONELLOSIS
Treatment:
In pigs, not much other than antibiotics
Prevention:
• CLEANLINESS
• SANITATION
• Also minimize stress
• Bacterins available, but not all that helpful in
most herds.
COMMON PROBLEMS AND
DISEASES OF BREEDERS
anestrus
ovulation
fertilization
implantation
fetal death
stillbirths
Diseases
Pseudorabies
Cystitis or pyelonephritis
PRRS
Brucellosis
Parvovirus
Leptospirosis
Parvoviral/SMEDI
Mummies of various sizes
Too many repeat breeders
Small litter sizes
Parvoviral/SMEDI
• EXTREMELY COMMON
• 85% of herds are seropositive
• Not a big problem if managed with
vaccination or herd exposure
• If 1st exposure occurs during the right stage of
pregnancy, will cause mummified fetus.
– if see mummies, have to think parvo.
Parvoviral/SMEDI
• If past 70 days of gestation, won't see mummies
(fetus is immunocompetent and can fight parvo)
• If earlier than 12 days of gestation causes EED
and is absorbed. Re cycles
• If 12-35 days, EED, re cycles (may have prolonged
cycle)
• 35-70 days: will get mummies. Around 35 days is
when fetus starts to calcify.
• After 70 days: fetus can take care of itself
Parvoviral/SMEDI
• Many vaccinations available.
– All gilts need to be vaccinated for Parvo
• Prevention: closed herd. Vaccination
Parvoviral/SMEDI
• May end up with a whole uterus full of
mummified pigs and no stimulus to
"pig"/farrow.
• Reccomend selling the gilt.
• May be able to get her to farrow with steroids
or prostaglandins
Leptospirosis
• Various levels of
inappetence
• fever, diarrhea (3
days)
STREPTOMYCIN is the
Later term
antibiotic of choice
abortion
No infertility
(day 90-110)
Leptospirosis
• Very common diagnostic cause of abortion in swine
• 5 serotypes
– canicola, gryppo, ictero, pomona, bratislava (bratislava is
pig-exclusive)
• CS:
– No clinical signs in adult sows except for abortion
– ***Lepto is one of the few bacterial causes of abortion
that CAN cause mummies. Relatively common. commonly
think parvo, but can be lepto.
– can have birth of weak, unthrifty pigs
– Can have live pigs if pregnant animals get it late, because
aborts by slow destruction of placenta
Leptospirosis
• Transmission: break in skin, ingestion of infected urine
• Treatment: treatable,but usually too late because you've
already had abortion
– Have to rely on vaccination
– Streptomycin is approved but too expensive because difficult to
get animal streptomycin
– Lots of bacterins available, all of them work fairly well, but
bacterin doesn't work for a whole year. Vaccinate at every
breeding
• Prevention
– difficult to prevent.
– Can come in through surface water Eliminate surface water
contamination
BRUCELLOSIS
Organisms multiply in the testicle
Shedding through semen
orchitis
Infection
is PERMANENT
BRUCELLOSIS
• Clinical Signs:
– Orchitis
– Abortion
– stillborn or weak pigs
– Infertility
– *Posterior paresis in sows
• ---forms microabscesses in lumbar vertebrae. can also
see lameness if abscesses form in joints
Abortion at ANY TIME
BRUCELLOSIS of gestation
High return
to service
Abscess formation
Swollen joints
Cheese-like materials
NO PRACTICAL
TREATMENT
BRUCELLOSIS
• Treatment:
– depopulation.
– No vaccination no bacterin
• Prevention: closed herd
– ***TEST ALL INCOMING ANIMALS, ONLY BRING IN
SERONEGATIVE ANIMALS
• -test once, then quarantine and test again after 30 days
Pseudorabies
•
•
•
•
•
•
A herpes virus infection
mortality is 100% in sucklings
rats are reservoir
aerosol transmission up to 2 kms
carrier for 170 days
present in feces for 4-7 days
Pseudorabies
• Clinical signs
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Abortion
Sterility in boars
Infertility in sows
Weak baby pigs
death of baby pigs
Sows: Reproductive
Babies: GI disease
Growers: Respiratory
• All forms will have CNS
and GI
• 100% mortality in pigs
less than 4 weeks
• Lots of vaccines
available.
• Prevention; Closed
herd. Buy only tested
animals
Pseudorabies
Aborted/MACERATED piglets, mummies
Death of animals
other than pigs
Pseudorabies
Head pressing
OPISTHOTONUS
DEATH WITHIN
24 HOURS
Paddling movements
NERVOUS SIGNS ON PIGLETS
Pseudorabies
EXCESSIVE SALIVATION
SEMEN IS
AFFECTED FOR
1-2 WEEKS
Porcine Reproductive and
Respiratory Syndrome
• Caused by an arterivirus
• particular affinity for macrophages
where the virus multiply
• weakens the pig’s immune system
• spreads through secretions
• airborne for up to 3 kms
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory
Syndrome
Skin discoloration
Stillbirth, weak piglets
EARLY FARROWING
RESPIRATORY SIGNS
WASTING OF PIGS
Cystitis/Pyelonephritis
Acute
• sow very ill
• off-feed
• reddish mucus
membrane of the
eye
• blood and pus in
the urine
• sudden death
Chronic
• not fatal
• pus and blood in
the urine
• slight vaginal
discharge
MetritisMastitisAgalactia
(MMA)
Syndrome
Metritis-Mastitis-Agalactia
(MMA) Syndrome
•
•
•
•
Management disease
AFTER farrowing
Mastitis/metritis, then stops giving milk.
Causes
–
–
–
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Genetics
Hormonal insufficiencies
Management practices (constipation, overweight)
Unknown causes
• TX: TX the cause.
–
–
–
–
Oxytocin, diuretics, etc.
No good treatment.
Prevention is key.
Several mixed bacterins available for MMA, work on some herds, don't work
on all herds.
• Prevention: proper management
1 - uterus
2 - bladder
3 - rectum
PROLAPSE
Other Diseases
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD, Aphthous fever)
• FMD is a contagious, viral disease of swine,
cattle, sheep, goats and pigs and other cloven
footed animals.
• The disease in pigs is mild and is important as
being a potential danger for transmission to
cattle.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD,
Aphthous fever)
Transmission :
• Direct and indirect contact with infected animals.
• The virus can also be spread by aerosol, saliva,
nasal discharge, blood, urine, faeces, semen,
infected animal by-products, swill containing
scraps of meat or bones and by biological
products, particularly vaccines.
• Pigs can transmit the disease to cattle and other
animals.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD,
Aphthous fever)
Antemortem findings :
• Incubation 3 – 15 days. Pigs that are fed food wastes
contaminated with FMDV may show signs of infection
in 1 – 3 days.
• Snout and tongue lesions very common in pigs
• Dullness and lack of appetite
• Salivation and drooling
• Detachment of the skin on a pig's foot
• Shaking of feet and lameness due to leg lesions
• Some strains of FMD in swine do not show vesicles but
show erosions.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD,
Aphthous fever)
• Judgement :
• Feverish animals with associated secondary
bacterial infections call for total condemnation
of the carcass.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD,
Aphthous fever)
Postmortem findings:
• Tonsillar necrosis
• Splenic infarcts
• Button ulcers in the large intestine and intestinal
necrosis
• Haemorrhage of the lymph nodes
• Pneumonia in chronic infection
• Petechial haemorrhage in the gall bladder,
urinary bladder and kidneys ; the latter is not
present in acute hog cholera.
Pneumonia
• Pneumonia is an inflammation of the
lungs caused by bacteria, viruses,
fungi, parasites or physical or
chemical agents.
• It is frequently accompanied with
inflammation of the bronchi
=“bronchopneumonia”
• In pigs, enzootic pneumonia caused
by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and
pleuropneumonia caused by
Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae are
most often seen.
Enzootic pneumonia. Lung
lesions affecting
anterior and bottom portions
of the lungs.
Pneumonia
Transmission :
 infection spreads from the sow to the suckling pigs,
and in adult pigs, by common contact and via air.
 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is not isolated from the
respiratory tract of healthy animals. It persists in
chronic lung lesions of recovered animals and is a
source of infection particularly for the new animals in
the herd.
• Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is found in the
nostrils and lungs of healthy animals. An outbreak of
the disease may be triggered by environmental
stresses.
Pneumonia
Antemortem findings :
• Enzootic pneumonia:
• Mortality may occur, but is very low.
• Fever is usually absent.
• Acute respiratory distress and a characteristic
dry cough when excited
• Chronic form:
• Dry hacking cough
• Retardation in growth
• Pleuropneumonia:
• Fever ( 41°C)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Respiratory distress
Bluish appearance of mucous membranes of the
eye and mouth
Bloody frothy discharge from nostrils
Death
Chronic form
Poor feed utilization and emaciation in “carrier”
animals
Chronic pneumonia with
abscessation. This
pneumonia was caused
by Mycoplasma spp. and
later infected with
secondary bacteria. A
beta-haemolytic
Streptococcus was
isolated. The animal may
also have received
antibiotic therapy.
Tuberculosis
• Tuberculosis is a chronic disease of pigs,
manifested by development of tubercles in
most organs
• The infection occurs primarily by ingestion.
• The primary complex is incomplete if it
develops in the pharyngeal lymph nodes of
the head.
• In such case, the agent entry site is in tonsils.
Tuberculosis
• When the bacteria enter through the wall of
the intestine, frequently at Peyer's patches,
the primary complex includes the mesenteric
lymph node.
Swine erysipelas
• diamond shaped skin
lesions
• endocarditis and arthritis.
• It is caused by
Erysipelothrix
rhusiopathiae.
Swine erysipelas. Diamond
shaped skin lesions
Swine erysipelas
Transmission :
Healthy carrier pigs shed the bacteria in
manure, where they may survive for 5
months.
The manure is a reservoir of infection from
which bacteria are transferred to non infected
piggeries via boots, cloths, birds, flies or other
animals.
Swine erysipelas
Antemortem findings:
• High morbidity
• Fever in acute stages
• Conjunctivitis and vomiting in some cases
• Bright and alert, squealing in pain on movement
• Pig is lethargic and stops eating
• Raised red and edematous rhomboid wheals (acute
and chronic forms)
• Sloughing of skin in the area of the rhomboid lesion
• Swollen joints and lameness (chronic stage)
• Sudden death in excited animals
Ascariasis
• Ascaris suum is a pathogenic parasite of mostly young
pigs. Ascariasis accounts for significant losses to the
swine industry due to reduction in growth rate,
stunting of young pigs and liver condemnations.
• The liver lesions are seen as “milk spots” and
degeneration of the liver parenchyma may occur with
subsequent cirrhosis.
• In the lungs, the larvae may cause haemorrhage and
frequently verminous pneumonia.
• Young animals may show marked respiratory signs
called “thumps”.
Ascariasis. Numerous round worms in the
intestine of a market pig.
Numerous “milk spots” lesions throughout the
liver parenchyma.
Management Practices
Prevention is always better than Cure
Day 1 - processing of piglets
(tooth clipping, ear notching /
tattooing,disinfection of umbilical
cord)
Day 3 - iron administration
Day 5 - introduction of creep feed
Day 7 - castration
Day 30 – weaning
Day 35 – vaccination against hog
cholera
Day 60 - deworming
 buy 6-month old gilts
 boar effect
 mate/inseminate at the 2nd-3rd
heat when gilts are 8 months
old, weighing 130-140 kg
 flushing for 2 weeks before
mating/insemination
Day Activities
0
mating/insemination
21
first heat check
42 second heat check
100 mange prevention/treatment
104 deworming
107 mange prevention/treatment
111 Vit ADE injection
decrease feed amount
114 expected farrowing date
Day Activities
0
farrowing
inject 2mL oxytocin
expulsion of last piglet
1-3 inject antibiotic
uterine lavage
1-30 proper feeding practices
30
weaning
Day
Activities
0
weaning
no feeds, plenty of water
1-10 flushing until start of heat
physical exercise
group housing with gilts and dry
sows
boar exposure
heat check 2x/day
mate/inseminate when sow is
on standing heat
Activities every 6 months:
•Vaccination against hog cholera
•deworming
•Prevention/treatment for mange
Additional activities:
•Inject Vit E + selenium monthly
•foot spray/dip weekly using 4%
formalin + copper sulfate
crystals
Thank you and Happy Swine Raising
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