Advertising and Promotion 6th ed. Belch. Ch6

advertisement
6
Source, Message, and
Channel Factors
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nike and Tiger Woods
• 1996 Lucrative endorsement deal even
though Nike didn’t make golf
clubs/equipment
• 1998 Nike Golf Formed Nike ball
developed
• 2000 sign Tiger to $105 million deal
• 2002 developed clubs
• Golf has exploded as a sport
• Tiger endorses other things
The Persuasion Matrix
Promotional Planning Elements
Promotional Planning
1
2
3
4
Receiver
Comprehension
Channel
Presentation
Message
Yielding
Source
Attention
Can the
receiver
comprehend
the ad?
Which media
will increase
presentation?
What type of
message will
create
favorable
attitudes?
Who will be
effective in
getting
consumers’
attention?
A Direct Source
Source Attributes — Receiver Processing Modes
Source Credibility
Ethical
Knowledgeable
Skillful
Trustworthy
Source
Believable
Experienced
Unbiased
Honest
Experts Lend Authority to an Appeal
Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople
*Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
Limitations of Credible Sources
• High- and low-credibility sources
– Equally effective when arguing for a
position opposing their own best interest
• Sleeper effect
– Persuasiveness increases over time
Source Attractiveness
Similarity
Familiarity
Likeability
Resemblance
between the
source and
recipient of the
message
Knowledge of the
source through
repeated or
prolonged
exposure
Affection for the
source resulting
from physical
appearance,
behavior, or
personal traits
Top Celebrity Endorsers
Top
•
•
•
•
Male Endorsers
Tiger Woods
Michael Jordan
David Beckham
Lance Armstrong
Top
•
•
•
•
•
Female Endorsers
Maria Sharapova
Jennifer Lopez
Jessica Simpson
Venus/Serena Williams
Annika Sorenstram
Test Your Knowledge
The use of celebrities in commercials is generally
based on the source characteristics of _____ and
represents an attempt to induce persuasion through
the ______ process.
A) expertise; yielding
B) expertise; identification
C) power; identification
D) attractiveness; identification
E) attractiveness; internalization
Advertising Risks of Using Celebrities
The celebrity may overshadow
the product being endorsed
The celebrity may be overexposed,
reducing his or her credibility
The target audience may not be
receptive to celebrity endorsers
The celebrity’s behavior may pose
a risk to the company
Endorser Traits
Meaning Movement & the Endorsement Process
Energy & Power – The Athlete and the Product
Yao Ming is a Popular Endorser in China
Choosing a Celebrity Endorser
Match
w/audience
Trust
Match w/product
Risk
Factors
Image
Familiarity
Cost
Likability
Familiarity and Appeal
• Q-scores
– % of those who say “one of my favorites”
divided by % who have heard of him/her
• Sports stars average 17; performers 18
– Broken down by demographic criteria
• Fame index database
– 10,000 celebrities rated by 250 criteria
• Age, sex, residence, career highlights, charity
affiliations, fears, interests, additions, etc.
Applying Likability: Decorative Models
Source Power
Perceived
control
Perceived
concern
Compliance
Perceived
scrutiny
Source Power
Message Structure
Recall
Order of Presentation
Beginning
Middle
End
Conclusion Drawing
Message Sidedness
Refutation
Verbal vs. Visual Messages
Test Your Knowledge
The campaign centered around the theme “Pork, the
Other White Meat” is designed to show consumers
that pork is as lean as chicken. Ads in this campaign
use:
A) Conclusion drawing
B) A fear appeal
C) A refutational appeal
D) A humorous appeal
E) An affective conclusion
Message Appeal Choices
Appeal to the logical,
rational minds of
consumers
Appeal to the feelings
and emotions of
consumers
Appeal to both
Message Appeal Options
Comparative
Ads
• Especially
useful for new
brands
• Often used for
brands with
small market
share
• Used often in
political
advertising
Fear
Appeals
• May stress
physical danger
or threats to
health
• May identify
social threats
• Can backfire if
level of threat
is too high
Humor
Appeals
• Can attract and
hold attention
• Often the best
remembered
• Put consumers
in a positive
mood
Miller Lite’s Comparative Advertising
Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance
Protection Motivation
Dangers of
Hepatitis A
Havrix
vaccination
Humor Appeals
Pros
Cons
Aids attention and
awareness
Does not aid persuasion in
general
May aid retention of the
message
May harm recall and
comprehension
Creates a positive mood
and enhances persuasion
May harm complex copy
registration
May aid name and simple
copy registration
Does not aid source
credibility
May serve as a distracter,
reducing counterarguing
Is not effective in bringing
about sales
May wear out faster than
non-humorous ads
Humor in Print Media
Test Your Knowledge
An ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray for
eliminating snoring, has the headline, “Wife shoots
husband and rests in peace.” This ad uses _____ to
attract attention and convey a key selling point.
A) a two-sided message approach
B) a humor appeal
C) comparative advertising
D) a refutational appeal
E) a primacy appeal
Channel Factors
Personal
•Flexible
•Powerful
•Real time
Nonpersonal
• No personal
contact
• Geared to a
large audience
• Static
Differences in Information Processing
Self-Paced
Media
Externally
Paced Media
• Newspapers
• Magazines
• Direct Mail
• Internet
• Radio
vs.
• Television
Context and Environment
Clutter
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