INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PPT

advertisement
IC{Integrated
Circuits}
By:-
Kshitij Goel
(ECE,4th Sem)
Integrated Circuits (IC’s) are popularly known as
the Silicon chip or Computer chip or Micro chip
IC’s are the tiny electronics circuit used to perform the several operations like
Amplifier, timer, counter, oscillator, microcontroller or a computer memory.
It is formed as a single unit by diffusing impurities into the single crystal Silicon(Si),
which then serves as a Semiconductor material.
Upon the IC’s, there are several Active and Passive components(in the
miniaturized form).
Active components like, Transistors, Diodes.
Passive components like, Resistors, Capacitors.
Why the idea for the smaller circuits came ??
Actually as the technology starts developing, and the new devices of different
performance and sizes came into being, then the manufacturers felt the need for
the better electronic components.
Although they are using the transistors instead of the vacuum tubes(which are
bulky than the transistors). But still they want something even better.
And they wanted whole circuit consisting the transistors, wires,& everything else.
The 1st ever IC’s idea had came to Jack Kilby, the scientist at the
Texas Instruments,1958.
Jack Kilby, is thinking for the miniature circuits, then suddenly he came
with this idea that why shouldn’t we make all the components(not only
the transistors), but also the capacitors , resistors out of the Silicon(Si).
If this could be done than the entire circuit can made out of the single
Silicon(Si) crystal.
And this can make the circuit smaller(much smaller) and even easier to
produce.
And it’s invention was a major achievement in the field of Electronics
since, it’s reliable, cheaper & capable.
The Beginning & Classification
In the early days ,only few transistors were placed on the IC’s ,but
as the time flew and the technology got advanced, now we can put
about Millions or even Billions of the components on that small
tiny single chip.
Thus, depending upon the number of components these IC’s can
be classified as follows,
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
IC’s Based on the size(or the no. of components).
Small scale integration(SSI):- Up to 100 components
Medium scale integration(MSI):- 100 – 3k component
Large scale integration(LSI):- 3k -10k components
Very large scale integration(VLSI):-10k-100k comp.
Ultra large scale integration(ULSI):-more than 1M.
IC’s Based on the Signal types
1)Analog IC’s
2)Digital IC’s
3)Mixed(Analog + Digital) IC’s
DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions
of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few
square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed,
low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared
with board-level integration. These digital ICs, typically
microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers, work using binary
mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals.
ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
• Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and
operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They
perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation,
and mixing. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having
expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a
difficult analog circuit from scratch.
MIXED SIGNAL
• ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to
create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters. Such
circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account
for signal interference.
THE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS OFFER A NUMBER OF ADVANTAGES OVER
THOSE MADE BY INTERCONNECTING DISCRETE COMPONENTS. THESE
ARE SUMMARIZED AS FOLLOWS
1. Extremely small size—thousands times smaller than discrete circuit. It
is because of fabrication of various circuit elements in a single chip of
semi- conductor material
2. Very small weight owing to miniaturized circuit.
3. Very low cost because of simultaneous production of hundreds of
similar circuits on a small semiconductor wafer. Owing to mass
production an IC costs as much as an individual transistor.
4. More reliable because of elimination of soldered joints and need for
fewer inter-connections.
5. Low power consumption because of their smaller size.
6. Easy replacement as it is more economical to replace them than to
repair them.
7. Increased operating speeds because of absence of parasitic capacitance
effect.
8. Close matching of components and temperature coefficients because of bulk
produc¬tion in batches
9. Improved functional performance as more complex circuits can be
fabricated for achieving better characteristics.
10. Greater ability of operating at extreme temperatures.
11. Suitable for small signal operation because of no chance of stray electrical
pickup as various components of an IC are located very close to each other
on a silicon wafer
12. No component project above the chip surface in an IC as all the
components are formed within the chip.
THE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS HAVE FEW LIMITATIONS ALSO, AS LISTED BELOW :
1. In an IC the various components are part of a small semi-conductor chip
and the individual component or components cannot be removed or
replaced, therefore, if any component in an IC fails, the whole IC has to be
replaced by the new one.
2. Limited power rating as it is not possible to manufacture high power (say
greater than 10 Watt) ICs
3. Need of connecting inductors and transformers exterior to the semiconductor chip as it is not possible to fabricate inductors and transformers
on the semi-conductor chip surface.
4. Operations at low voltage as ICs function at fairly low voltage
5. Quite delicate in handling as these cannot withstand rough handling or
excessive heat.
6. Need of connecting capacitor exterior to the semi-conductor chip as it is
neither convenient nor economical to fabricate capacitances exceeding 30 pff
Therefore, for higher values of capacitance, discrete components exterior to IC
chip are connected.
7. High grade P-N-P assembly is not possible.
8. Low temperature coefficient is difficult to be achieved
9. Difficult to fabricate an IC with low noise.
10. Large value of saturation resistance of transistors.
11. Voltage dependence of resistors and capacitors.
12. The diffusion processes and other related procedures used in the fabrication
process are not good enough to permit a precise control of the parameter
values for the circuit elements. However, control of the ratios is at a sufficiently
acceptable level.
Download
Random flashcards
State Flags

50 Cards Education

Countries of Europe

44 Cards Education

Art History

20 Cards StudyJedi

Sign language alphabet

26 Cards StudyJedi

Create flashcards